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Encyclopedia > Jim Garrison
Jim Garrison

Born November 20, 1921
Knoxville, Iowa
Died October 21, 1992

Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison (November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) — who changed his first name to Jim in the early 1960s — was the Democratic District Attorney of Orleans Parish, Louisiana from 1962 to 1973. He is best known for his investigations into the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This work is copyrighted. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Knoxville is a city in Marion County, Iowa, United States. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... New Orleans (French: Nouvelle-Orléans) is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Garrison remains a controversial figure. Opinions differ as to whether he uncovered a conspiracy behind the John F. Kennedy assassination but was blocked from successful prosecution by federal government cover up, whether he bungled his chance to uncover a conspiracy, or whether the entire case was an unproductive waste of resources. For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Earling Carothers Garrison was born in Knoxville, Iowa. His family moved to New Orleans in his childhood, where he was reared by his divorced mother. He served in the U.S. National Guard in World War II, then got a law degree from Tulane University in 1949. He worked for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for two years and then returned to active duty with the National Guard. After fifteen months, he was relieved from duty. One Army doctor concluded he had a "severe and disabling psychoneurosis" which "interfered with his social and professional adjustment to a marked degree. He is considered totally incapacitated from the standpoint of military duty and moderately incapacitated in civilian adaptability."[1] As it turned out, Garrison was suffering from an anxiety and exhaustion that was perfectly understandable considering the fact that, during World War II, he had flown 35 dangerous reconnaissance missions over France and Germany. He had also witnessed the horrors of fascism first-hand when his unit entered the Dachau concentration camp one day after its liberation. Although one doctor did recommend that Garrison be discharged from service and collect 10% permanent disability, Garrison would not hear of it. Instead he applied for the National Guard where his record was reviewed by the army surgeon general who “found him to be physically qualified for federal recognition in the national army.”[2] Knoxville is a city in Marion County, Iowa, United States. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


District Attorney

Garrison worked for the New Orleans law firm Deutsch, Kerrigan & Stiles from 1954 to 1958, when he became an assistant district attorney. Garrison became a flamboyant, colorful, well-known figure in New Orleans, but was initially unsuccessful in his run for public office, losing a 1959 election for criminal court judge. In 1961 he ran for district attorney, winning against incumbent Richard Dowling by 6,000 votes in a five-man Democratic primary. Despite lack of major political backing, his performance in a televised debate and last minute television commercials are credited with his victory.


Once in office, Garrison cracked down on prostitution and the abuses of Bourbon Street bars and strip joints. He indicted Dowling and one of his assistants with criminal malfeasance, but the charges were dismissed for lack of evidence. Garrison did not appeal. Garrison received national attention for a series of vice raids in the French Quarter, staged sometimes on a nightly basis. Newspaper headlines in 1962 praised Garrison's efforts, Quarter Crime Emergency Declared by Police, DA. — Garrison Back, Vows Vice Drive to Continue — 14 Arrested, 12 more nabbed in Vice Raids. Garrison's critics often point out that many of the arrests made by his office did not result in convictions, implying that he was in the habit of making arrests without evidence. However, assistant DA William Alford has said that charges would more often than not be reduced or dropped if a relative of someone charged gained Garrison’s ear. He had, said Alford, “a heart of gold.”[3] The expressions misfeasance and nonfeasance, and occasionally malfeasance, are used in English law with reference to the discharge of public obligations existing by common law, custom or statute. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ...


After a conflict with local criminal judges over his budget, he accused them of racketeering and conspiring against him. The eight judges charged him with misdemeanor criminal defamation, and Garrison was convicted in January 1963. (In 1965 the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the conviction and struck down the state statute as unconstitutional.) At the same time, Garrison indicted Judge Bernard Cocke with criminal malfeasance and, in two trials prosecuted by Garrison himself, Cocke was acquitted. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


Garrison charged nine policemen with brutality, but dropped the charges two weeks later. At a press conference he accused the state parole board of accepting bribes, but could obtain no indictments. He accused the state legislature of the same, but held no investigation. He was unanimously censured by the legislature.


In 1965, running for reelection against Judge Malcolm O'Hara, Garrison won with 60 percent of the vote.


Kennedy assassination investigation

Further information: Trial of Clay Shaw

On the afternoon of November 22, 1963, two men sat drinking in the Katzenjammer Bar, located in New Orleans next door to 544 Camp Street. One of the men was Guy Banister, a former FBI agent who was running a private-investigation firm with intelligence connections out of an office at 544 Camp Street. The other man was one of his investigators, Jack Martin. On their return to Banister's office, the two men got into a dispute about a phone bill. Banister became so angry that he drew his .357 magnum revolver and pistol-whipped Martin several times. Martin was badly injured and an ambulance was called, which carried Martin to Charity Hospital.[4] Jim Garrison is the only prosecutor to bring a trial for the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Guy Banister William Guy Banister (March 7, 1901–June 6, 1964) was a private investigator alleged by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison to have been involved in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... Jack Martin can refer to any of the following people: Jack Martin a former ice hockey player in the National Hockey League Jack Martin (guitarist) an American guitarist Jack Martin (cricketer) an English Test cricketer Jack Martin, P.I., a private investigator who claimed to have information on the assassination... ... Charity Hospital is one of two teaching hospitals which are part of the Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans (MCLNO). ...


Over the next few days, Martin told friends that Banister had often been in the company of a man named David Ferrie whom Martin claimed had been involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[5] According to Martin, Ferrie had known Lee Harvey Oswald from their days in the New Orleans Civil Air Patrol, had given him lessons on how to use a rifle with a telescopic sight, had flown Oswald to Texas and had threatened Kennedy's life, even outlining plans to kill him. He also said that Oswald had Ferrie's library card in his possession when arrested, but later added that this was a misunderstanding of something he had seen in the news. Mugshot of David Ferrie, August 8, 1961. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ...


This information reached Garrison who quickly arrested Ferrie and turned him over to the FBI. On November 25, Ferrie and Martin were interviewed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Martin, an alcoholic, told the FBI that he thought Ferrie had hypnotized Oswald into assassinating Kennedy. The FBI considered Martin unreliable.[6] Nevertheless, the FBI interviewed Ferrie twice and interviewed about 20 other people in connection with the allegations. The FBI said that it was unable to develop a substantial case against Ferrie. He was later released by the FBI with an apology. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...

Here is a man many claim to be David Ferrie (second from left) with Lee Harvey Oswald (far right) in the Civil Air Patrol in 1955.

Garrison initially accepted the FBI evaluation. However, three years later, Garrison's viewpoint began to change after a chance meeting with Louisiana Senator Russell Long. Garrison said Long told him: "Those fellows on the Warren Commission were dead wrong. There's no way in the world that one man could have shot up John Kennedy that way."[7] Image File history File links Ciravolo. ... Image File history File links Ciravolo. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Russell Long is the coolest 16 year old this side of the west side yo. ...


It was a comment that spurred Garrison, in December 1966, to re-examine the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Garrison was not able to question Guy Banister, since he had died of a heart attack in 1964.[8] However, Garrison reinterviewed Jack Martin who told the district attorney that Banister and his associates were involved in activities that included burglarized armories, missing weapons, raided ammunition caches and gun-running operations. Garrison wrote, "The Banister apparatus ... was part of a supply line that ran along the Dallas--New Orleans--Miami corridor. These supplies consisted of arms and explosives for use against Castro's Cuba."[9] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Guy Banister William Guy Banister (March 7, 1901–June 6, 1964) was a private investigator alleged by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison to have been involved in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... Jack Martin can refer to any of the following people: Jack Martin a former ice hockey player in the National Hockey League Jack Martin (guitarist) an American guitarist Jack Martin (cricketer) an English Test cricketer Jack Martin, P.I., a private investigator who claimed to have information on the assassination...


According to Guy Banister's personal secretary, Delphine Roberts, David Ferrie was a frequent visitor to the 544 Camp Street address of Guy Banister. She remembered Ferrie as "one of the agents. Many times when he came into the office he used the private office behind Banister's, and I was told he was doing private work. I believed his work was somehow connected with the CIA rather than the FBI..."[10] Mugshot of David Ferrie, August 8, 1961. ... Guy Banister William Guy Banister (March 7, 1901–June 6, 1964) was a private investigator alleged by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison to have been involved in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. ...


As Garrison continued his investigation, he became convinced that a group of right-wing activists, including David Ferrie, Guy Banister, and Clay Shaw (director of the International Trade Mart in New Orleans), were involved in a conspiracy with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to kill President Kennedy. Garrison would later claim that the motive for the assassination was right-wing anger over Kennedy's foreign policy, especially Kennedy's efforts to find a political, rather than a military, solution in Cuba and Southeast Asia, and his efforts toward a rapprochement with the Soviet Union.[11] Clay Shaw Clay Laverne Shaw (March 17, 1913 – August 14, 1974) was a successful businessman in the U.S. city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... CIA redirects here. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Garrison tried to keep his investigation secret but on February 17, 1967, the New Orleans States-Item published a story on Garrison's activities with the headline: DA HERE LAUNCHES FULL JFK DEATH PLOT PROBE.[12]


On February 22, 1967, less than a week after the newspaper broke the story of Garrison's investigation, David Ferrie, then his chief suspect, was found dead in his apartment. The New Orleans coroner officially reported that the cause of death was a Berry Aneurysm and ruled that Ferrie had died of natural causes. Two unsigned typed letters were found: The first, found in a pile of papers, was a screed about the justice system, beginning with "To leave this life is, for me, a sweet prospect." The entire letter can be read here [1]. The second note was written to Al Beauboeuf, Ferrie's dearest friend.[2] Mugshot of David Ferrie, August 8, 1961. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ...


Ferrie's death was not entirely unexpected by Garrison, who believed Ferrie was murdered despite the medical examiner's report that he died of an aneurysm. The day the newspaper story first ran, Ferrie allegedly telephoned Garrison aide Lou Ivon to say: "You know what this news story does to me, don't you. I'm a dead man. From here on, believe me, I'm a dead man...."[13]


Three days before Ferrie's death, Garrison's investigators began trying to locate Eladio del Valle, a wealthy former Cuban congressman under Batista who had fled Cuba to become a well-known organizer of anti-Castro Cubans in Miami. Just twelve hours after Ferrie's death, del Valle's mutilated body was discovered in a Miami parking lot. Police reported that del Valle had been tortured, shot in the heart at point-blank range, and his skull split open with an ax. His murder has never been solved.[14] This article is about the city in Florida. ...


With Ferrie and del Valle dead, Garrison began to focus his attention on Clay Shaw, director of the International Trade Mart. Fearing that Shaw too might wind up dead, Garrison had him arrested on March 1, 1967, charging him with being part of a conspiracy in the John F. Kennedy assassination[15] Clay Shaw Clay Laverne Shaw (March 17, 1913 – August 14, 1974) was a successful businessman in the U.S. city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ...


Earlier, Garrison had been searching for a "Clay Bertrand", a man referred to in the Warren Commission report. New Orleans attorney Dean Andrews testified to the Warren Commission that while he was hosptialized for pneumonia, he received a call from "Clay Bertrand" the day after the assassination, asking him to fly to Dallas and legally represent Lee Harvey Oswald.[16] The FBI would later claim that Andrews had admitted that this phone call from "Clay Bertrand" was a figment of his imagination.[17] Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ...


However, Andrews made it clear in his testimony to the Warren Commission that he only made such statements after intimidation by the FBI. “That's what the Feebees put on.” he said. “I told them, ‘Write what you want, that I am nuts. I don't care’ …You can tell when the steam is on. They are on you like the plague. They never leave. They are like cancer. Eternal.”[18]


After a long search of the New Orleans French Quarter, Garrison's staff were informed by the bartender at the tavern “Cosimo’s” that Clay Bertrand was the alias of Clay Shaw. According to Garrison, the bartender felt it was no big secret and, sure enough, “my men began encountering one person after another in the French Quarter who confirmed that it was common knowledge that “Clay Bertrand” was the name Clay Shaw went by.”[19]


Despite the federal government's protest that Garrison was on a "witch hunt", when his evidence was presented to a New Orleans grand jury, Clay Shaw was indicted on a charge that he "...did willfully and unlawfully conspire with David W. Ferrie, herein named but not charged, and Lee Harvey Oswald, herein named but not charged, and others, not herein named, to murder John F. Kennedy." A three-judge panel also upheld the indictment and ordered Shaw to a jury trial.[20] Clay Shaw Clay Laverne Shaw (March 17, 1913 – August 14, 1974) was a successful businessman in the U.S. city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ...


Jim Garrison's key witness against Clay Shaw was Perry Raymond Russo, a twenty-five year old insurance salesman from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. During the trial, Russo told a story of an "assassination party" in which Shaw, anti-Castro activist David Ferrie, and Oswald discussed killing President Kennedy. Russo’s version of events has been questioned by some historians and researchers, such as Patricia Lambert, when it became known that much of his testimony was induced by hypnotism, and by the drug, Sodium Pentothal, sometimes called "truth serum."[3] For the Canadian restaurant, see Baton Rouge (restaurant). ... Sodium thiopental (also called sodium pentothal (™ of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental (or thiopentone) sodium) is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. ...


In the years that followed, some claim that Perry Russo later denied meeting Oswald, Shaw or Bertrand. NBC News reporter Walter Sheridan said on national television that Russo told him that his testimony against Shaw was "a mixture of truth, fantasy, and lies".[21] and that Russo continued to tell his story because he feared Garrison would charge him with perjury.[22] The FCC found Sheridan's report biased and Garrison was given free air time to rebutt the NBC broadcast under the then-existing Fairness Doctrine. Russo stated that Sheridan offered to relocate him and get him a job in exchange for changing his testimony for the TV broadcast; further stating that "What Walter Sheridan was asking me to do was an absolute lie..[4]" Documents released by the CIA would show that Sheridan had strong ties to the NSA and the CIA, [5]suggesting him to be a very biased reporter.


By the time the Oliver Stone film JFK was released in 1991, Russo was again giving his original account of being at a party with David Ferrie, Lee Harvey Oswald, and Clay Shaw. Author Gerald Posner claims Russo privately admitted "I believe Shaw was innocent. I do not disagree with the jury. I agreed with it. The bottom line is that history must recall that Shaw was innocent. If I were on the jury, I would have come to the same conclusion." [23] However, in many public interviews, such as one shown in the video The JFK Assassination: The Jim Garrison Tapes Russo reiterated his trail testimony. William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ... JFK is an American film directed by Oliver Stone, first released on December 20, 1991. ... Gerald Posner and his wife Trisha. ...


At the Shaw trial, Russo testified that Ferrie, Oswald, and "Clem Bertrand" (who Russo identified in the courtroom as Clay Shaw) talked about killing the President. The conversation included plans for the "triangulation of crossfire" and for alibis for the participants.


However, a memo detailing a pre-hypnosis interview with Russo in Baton Rouge, and the two hypnosis session transcripts had been given to journalist James Phelan by Garrison. There were striking differences between the two accounts.[6] Both Russo and assistant D.A. Andrew Sciambra testified under cross examination that much more was said at the interview, but omitted from the memorandum. James Phelan testified that Russo had admitted to him in March 1967 that the February 25 memorandum of the interview, which contained no recollection of an assassination party, was accurate. (Note: Journalist James Phelan's objectivity has been questioned. Documents, released under the JFK Act of 1992, reveal that Phelan was informing to the FBI and giving them records of his interviews with Garrison in early 1967.)[24] There are several prominent people named James Phelan, including three American politicians: James Phelan, Sr. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Police officer Aloysius J. Habighorst (who fingerprinted Shaw following his arrest) gave evidence that Shaw admitted that he had used the name Clay Bertrand as an alias. According to Habighorst, this alias appeared on the fingerprint card, along with Shaw's signature. Shaw contended that he had never admitted using any alias to Habighorst and claimed to have signed the fingerprint card while it was still blank.[25]


Officer Habighorst's testimony and the fingerprint card were deemed inadmissible as evidence as the judge concluded that any such questioning - during the booking — constituted a violation of both Miranda v. Arizona and Escobedo v. Illinois, which ruled that a suspect is entitled to have his lawyer present during questioning. The judge went on to say that he believed Habighorst's testimony was a fabrication and doubted that the incident even took place. The judge stated in court, "I do not believe Officer Habighorst." [7] Holding The Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination requires law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of his rights to remain silent and to obtain an attorney. ... Holding Where a police investigation begins to focus on a particular suspect who has been refused counsel and not Mirandized, his statements to police are excluded. ...


In addition to Perry Raymond Russo, Garrison's case also included other unreliable witnesses such as Vernon Bundy and Charles Spiesel, who believed he had been repeatedly hypnotized by government forces and contended the U.S. government had substituted his family members with doubles. On the witness stand, he volunteered that he kept the fingerprints of his family members on file to compare with the fingerprints he would take of his family to ensure they had not been substituted.[26] However, other witnesses that Garrison sought out -- including Sergio Archaca-Smith, director of the virulently anti-Castro Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front -- had fled New Orleans to states whose governors refused to honor Garrison's extradition requests.[27] The jury took less than an hour to find Clay Shaw not guilty.


Aftermath


Garrison was able to subpoena the Zapruder film from Life magazine and show it to the public for the first time. Until the trial, the film had hardly been seen, and bootleg copies made by assassination investigators working with Garrison led to the film's wider distribution. Subpoena Duces Tecum (Latin for: bring with under penalty of punishment). ... Frame 150 from the Zapruder Film The Zapruder film is a silent, 8 mm color home movie, shot by a private citizen named Abraham Zapruder, of the presidential motorcade of John F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. ...


In 1978, the House Select Committee on Assassinations found that Lee Harvey Oswald's stint in the New Orleans Civil Air Patrol fit the timeline of David Ferrie's Civil Air Patrol service. Committee investigators also found six witnesses whose statements led them to believe that Oswald had been present at Civil Air Patrol meetings headed by David Ferrie.[28] A photograph, taken in 1955, eight years before the assassination, shows Oswald participating in a Civil Air Patrol cadet cookout with Ferrie.[29]


HSCA Chief Council G. Robert Blakey, wrote in his book The Plot to Kill the President, that the Committee "...was inclined to believe that Oswald was in Clinton [LA] in late August, early September 1963, and that he was in the company of David Ferrie, if not Clay Shaw" and that witness in Clinton, LA "...established an association of undetermined nature between Ferrie, Shaw and Oswald less than three months before the assassination."


At the time of the Garrison investigation, when Clay Shaw was asked if he had any connection to the CIA, he replied "None whatsoever." Clay Shaw Audio Investigators later found documents that show that Shaw was involved with the Central Intelligence Agency [8].


In a 1992 interview, Edward Haggerty, who was the Judge at the Clay Shaw trail, stated "I believe he [Shaw] was lying to the jury. Of course, the jury probably believed him. But I think Shaw put a good con job on the jury." -- Beyond "JFK": The Question of Conspiracy [9]


Later career

In 1973, Garrison lost his bid for another term as District Attorney to Harry Connick, Sr.. He was elected as a State of Louisiana Appeals Circuit Court Judge in 1978 and served in this capacity until his death. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


After the Shaw trial, Garrison wrote three books on the Kennedy assassination, A Heritage of Stone (1970), The Star Spangled Contract, and the best-seller, On The Trail of The Assassins (1988).


The 1991 Oliver Stone film JFK was largely based on Garrison's book On The Trail of The Assassins as well as Jim Marrs' Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy. Kevin Costner played a fictionalized version of Garrison in the movie. Garrison himself had a small on-screen role in the film as United States Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren. William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ... JFK is an American film directed by Oliver Stone, first released on December 20, 1991. ... Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an American film actor, director and producer. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ...


Garrison appeared as himself in the 1987 film The Big Easy starring Dennis Quaid. DVD cover of The Big Easy The Big Easy is a 1987 film that takes place in New Orleans. ... Dennis William Quaid (born April 9, 1954) is an American actor. ...


Garrison was also the subject of the song "Keep A Workin' Big Jim" by Johnny Rebel. Johnny Rebel is the pseudonym of Cajun/country musician Clifford Joseph Pee Wee Trahan (born 1938). ...


Despite being the only district attorney to bring a suspect to trial for conspiring to murder President Kennedy, Garrison was later viewed as an embarrassment to some conspiracy researchers. In an interview with Esquire magazine following the release of Oliver Stone's JFK, Whitewash author Harold Weisburg, said of the former New Orleans district attorney's investigational abilities, "Garrison couldn't find a pubic hair in a whorehouse during rush hour."[30] However, other researchers have defended Garrison including, Jim DiEugenio, William Davy, and Joan Mellen. This article is about the title. ... Whitewash, or calcimine, kalsomine, or calsomine is a type of inexpensive paint made from slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) and chalk (whiting). ...


Also unknown to the public, then and now, was his mistreatment of and cruelty to others in his attempts to prove a conspiracy. Witnesses, including Perry Raymond Russo later claimed to have been bribed and threatened with perjury and contempt of court charges by Garrison in order to make his case against Shaw.[31]


The Garrison investigation had largely faded into obscurity, until Oliver Stone's film was released in 1991, which depicted Garrison as a hero.


Quotes

  • "Huey Long once said, 'Fascism will come to America in the name of anti-fascism.' I'm afraid, based on my own experience, that fascism will come to America in the name of national security." - Jim Garrison [Playboy interview, October 1967.]
  • "This is not the first time I've charged a person before I've made the case." - Jim Garrison [James Phelan, Scandals, Scamps, and Scoundrels (New York: Random House, 1982), p. 155.]
  • "Before we introduced the testimony of our witnesses, we made them undergo independent verifying tests, including polygraph examination, truth serum and hypnosis. We thought this would be hailed as an unprecedented step in jurisprudence; instead, the press turned around and hinted that we had drugged our witnesses or given them posthypnotic suggestions to testify falsely." - Jim Garrison [Playboy interview, October 1967.]
  • "To show you how cosmically irrelevant the Warren Report is for the most part ... one of the exhibits is classified in the front as, 'A Study of the Teeth of Jack Ruby's Mother.' Even if Jack Ruby had intended to bite Oswald to death, that still would not have been relevant." - Jim Garrison, [Gil Jesus, The Garrison Investigation, video interview.]
  • "One of the stated objectives [of the Warren Commission] was to calm the fears of the people about a conspiracy. But in our country, the government has no right to calm our fears, any more than it has, for example, the right to excite our fears about Red China, or about fluoridation, or about birth control, or about anything. There's no room in America for thought control of any kind, no matter how benevolent the objective. Personally, I don't want to be calm about the assassination of John F. Kennedy. I don't want to be calm about a president of my country being shot down in the streets." - Jim Garrison, [part of Garrison's response to a NBC News White Paper, 15 July 1967]
  • "In retrospect, the reason for the assassination is hardly a mystery. It is now abundantly clear ... why the C.I.A.'s covert operations element wanted John Kennedy out of the Oval Office and Lyndon Johnson in it. The new President elevated by rifle fire to control of our foreign policy had been one of the most enthusiastic American cold warriors.... Johnson had originally risen to power on the crest of the fulminating anti-communist crusade which marked American politics after World War II. Shortly after the end of that war, he declaimed that atomic power had become 'ours to use, either to Christianize the world or pulverize it' -- a Christian benediction if ever there was one. Johnson's demonstrated enthusiasm for American military intervention abroad ... earned him the sobriquet 'the senator from the Pentagon....'" - Jim Garrison, [On the Trail of the Assassins (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1988)]
Preceded by
Richard Dowling
District Attorney, Orleans Parish, Louisiana
1962-1973
Succeeded by
Harry Connick, Sr.

This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Further reading

  • William Hardy Davis, Aiming for the Jugular in New Orleans (Ashley Books, June 1976)
  • James DeEugenio, The Assassinations ISBN 0-922915-82-2
  • James DeEugenio Destiny Betrayed: JFK, Cuba, and the Garrison Case (Sheridan Square Press, NY, NY, 1992) ISBN 1-879823-00-4
  • William Davy, Let Justice Be Done: New Light On The Jim Garrison Investigation. ISBN 0-9669716-0-4
  • Edward Jay Epstein, Counterplot(Viking Press, New York: 1969)
  • Paris Flamonde, The Kennedy Conspiracy
  • Paris Flamonde, The Assassinastion of America (2007)
  • Jim Garrison, A Heritage of Stone (New York: Berkley, 1975)
  • Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins. ISBN 0-446-36277-8
  • James Kirkwood, American Grotesque: An Account of the Clay Shaw-Jim Garrison-Kennedy Assassination Trial in New Orleans
  • Patricia Lambert, False Witness: The Real Story of Jim Garrison's Investigation and Oliver Stone's Film JFK. ISBN 0-87131-920-9
  • Joan Mellen, A Farewell To Justice: Jim Garrison, JFK's Assassination, And The Case That Should Have Changed History ISBN 1-57488-973-7
  • Gerald Posner, Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK (New York: Random House Publishers, 1993)
  • Oliver Stone (February 2000). JFK: The Book of the Film. Applause Books. ISBN 1557831270. 
  • Harold Weisberg, Oswald in New Orleans
  • Christine Wiltz, The Last Madam p. 145 - 150 ISBN 0-571-19954-2

William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ...

References

  1. ^ Associated Press, "Garrison Record Shows Disability", December 29, 1967. Warren Rogers, "The Persecution of Clay Shaw", Look, August 26, 1969, page 54.
  2. ^ Davy, William. Let Justice Be Done: New Light on the Jim Garrison Investigation, p. 82.
  3. ^ Mellen, Joan. A Farewell To Justice: Jim Garrison, JFK’s Assassination, and the Case that Should Have Changed History, p. 11.
  4. ^ Marrs, Jim. Crossfire, (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989), p. 494. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  5. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, p. 494.
  6. ^ Posner, Gerald Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, (New York: Random House Publishers, 1993), p. 428. ISBN 0-679-41825-3
  7. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, pp. 496-97.
  8. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 226. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  9. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, p. 497.
  10. ^ Summers, Not in Your Lifetime, p. 233.
  11. ^ Garrison, Jim. On The Trail of The Assassins, (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1988), p. 12, ISBN 0-446-36277-8
  12. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, pp. 501-2.
  13. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, p. 502.
  14. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, p. 503.
  15. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, p. 503.
  16. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, p. 497.
  17. ^ Posner, Gerald Case Closed, p. 430.
  18. ^ Warren commission Hearings Vol. 11 p. 334.
  19. ^ Garrison, pp. 85-86.
  20. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, pp. 504-5.
  21. ^ Posner, Gerald Case Closed, p. 441.
  22. ^ Posner, Gerald Case Closed, p. 441
  23. ^ Posner, Gerald Case Closed, p. 451
  24. ^ DiEugenio, Jim. Probe magazine, January-February, 1996 issue (Vol. 3 No. 2)
  25. ^ James Kirkwood American Grotesque: An Account of the Clay Shaw-Jim Garrison-Kennedy Assassination Trial in New Orleans pp. 353-359 (ISBN 0-06-097523-7).
  26. ^ Posner, Gerald Case Closed pp. 449-50.
  27. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, pp. 507-8.
  28. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 234. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  29. ^ Frontline "Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald", broadcast on PBS stations, November 1993 (various dates).
  30. ^ Anson, Robert Sam, "The Shooting of JFK", Esquire, November 1991.
  31. ^ Posner, Gerald Case Closed, p. 441.

The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Look was a weekly, general-interest magazine published in the United States from 1937 to 1971, with more of an emphasis on photographs than articles. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Sunday Weekly Comic 漫畫周刊 Neoz Original run 1994 – Volumes 59, 630 chapters (as of November 26, 2007) TV anime Director Kenji Kodama, Yasuichiro Yamamoto Studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha (TMS) Network NTV, Yomiuri TV, Animax Original run 8 January 1996 – ongoing Episodes 488 (as of November 11... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Sunday Weekly Comic 漫畫周刊 Neoz Original run 1994 – Volumes 59, 630 chapters (as of November 26, 2007) TV anime Director Kenji Kodama, Yasuichiro Yamamoto Studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha (TMS) Network NTV, Yomiuri TV, Animax Original run 8 January 1996 – ongoing Episodes 488 (as of November 11... Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Sunday Weekly Comic 漫畫周刊 Neoz Original run 1994 – Volumes 59, 630 chapters (as of November 26, 2007) TV anime Director Kenji Kodama, Yasuichiro Yamamoto Studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha (TMS) Network NTV, Yomiuri TV, Animax Original run 8 January 1996 – ongoing Episodes 488 (as of November 11... Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Sunday Weekly Comic 漫畫周刊 Neoz Original run 1994 – Volumes 59, 630 chapters (as of November 26, 2007) TV anime Director Kenji Kodama, Yasuichiro Yamamoto Studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha (TMS) Network NTV, Yomiuri TV, Animax Original run 8 January 1996 – ongoing Episodes 488 (as of November 11... Look up probe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Sunday Weekly Comic 漫畫周刊 Neoz Original run 1994 – Volumes 59, 630 chapters (as of November 26, 2007) TV anime Director Kenji Kodama, Yasuichiro Yamamoto Studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha (TMS) Network NTV, Yomiuri TV, Animax Original run 8 January 1996 – ongoing Episodes 488 (as of November 11... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... A frontline is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... This article is about the title. ... Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Sunday Weekly Comic 漫畫周刊 Neoz Original run 1994 – Volumes 59, 630 chapters (as of November 26, 2007) TV anime Director Kenji Kodama, Yasuichiro Yamamoto Studio Tokyo Movie Shinsha (TMS) Network NTV, Yomiuri TV, Animax Original run 8 January 1996 – ongoing Episodes 488 (as of November 11...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jim Garrison - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1127 words)
Earling Carothers Garrison was born in Denison, Iowa.
Garrison became a flamboyant, colorful, well-known figure in New Orleans, but was initially unsuccessful in his run for public office, losing a 1959 election for criminal court judge.
Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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