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Encyclopedia > Jim Crow laws
African American topics
African American history
Slavery in the United States
African American military history
Jim Crow laws · Redlining
Civil Rights: 1896-1954 1955-1968
Reparations
African American culture
African American studies
Contemporary issues
Neighborhoods
Black Colleges · Kwanzaa
Art · Dance · Literature · Music
Blackface · Minstrel show · Museums
Religion
Black church  · Doctrine of Father Divine
Nation of Islam  · Black Hebrew Israelites
Vodou  · Hoodoo  · Santería
Political movements
Pan-African  · nationalism · Black power
capitalism · conservatism · populism
leftism · Black Panther Party · Garveyism
Civic and economic groups
NAACP  · SCLC  · CORE  · SNCC  · NUL
Rights groups · ASALH · UNCF
NBCC · NPHC · The Links
Sports
Negro Leagues
CIAA · SIAC · MEAC · SWAC
Languages
English  · Gullah  · Creole
African American Vernacular
Lists
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Related topics
Category · Portal

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General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism
Religious intolerance · Xenophobia Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States (1619-1865) began soon after the English colonists first settled in Virginia and lasted until the passage of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... See also: American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968) The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Reparations for slavery is a movement in the United States, which suggests that the government apologize to slave descendants for their hardships, and bestow on them reparations, whether it be in the form of money, land, or other goods. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... African American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... This is a list of museums about, or otherwise focused on African Americans. ... The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African American Christian churches that minister to black communities in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of African ancestry situated mostly in the United States who claim to be descendants of the ancient Israelites. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African American, Christian, traditional folk magic. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Pan-African people are all people with African physical features. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Black Capitalism is a name for a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African-American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... National Black Chamber of Commerce The National Black Chamber of Commerce, (NBCC), was “incorporated in March of 1993, in Washington D.C.” The organizations mission is “To economically empower and sustain African American communities, through the process of entrepreneurship and capitalistic activity within the United States and via interaction with... The National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service and was was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1946, from a group of ladies known as the Philadelphia Club to have focuses on civic, cultural, and educational endeavors[1... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. ... The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... logo of Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) is a College athletic conference consisting of historically black colleges located in the southern United States. ... The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which consists of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... The Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black universities in the southern United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Notable African-American or Black people, other than Black Caribbeans. ... This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders, and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This box:      Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms
Social

Ableism · Adultism · Biphobia · Classism
Elitism · Ephebiphobia · Gerontophobia
Heightism · Heterosexism · Homophobia
Lesbophobia · Lookism · Misandry
Misogyny · Pediaphobia · Sizeism
Transphobia Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This box:      Heightism is a form of discrimination based on height. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Fear of children and/or infants or childhood is alternately called pedophobia or pediaphobia. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide (examples) · Ethnocide
Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war
Religious persecution · Gay bashing
Blood libel · Paternalism
Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements
Policies

Discriminatory
Race / Religion / Sex segregation
Apartheid · Redlining · Internment Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights
Desegregation · Integration
Equal opportunity For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ...


Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota
Reservation (India) · Reparation
Forced busing
Employment equity (Canada) Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration
Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws
Black codes · Apartheid laws
Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Anti-discrimination acts
Anti-discrimination law
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism
Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism
Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism
Androcentrism · Economic Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism
Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity
Multiculturalism · Oppression
Political correctness
Reverse discrimination · Eugenics
Racialism · For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Not to be confused with suprematism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Discrimination Portal Image File history File links Portal. ...

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Part of a series of articles on
Racial segregation


White Australia policy
South African Apartheid
Zionism and Racism The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Segregation in the US
Black Codes
Jim Crow laws
Redlining
Racial steering
Gentrification
White flight
Sundown towns
Proposition 14
Indian Appropriations
Indian Reservations
Immigration Act of 1924
Separate but equal
Ghettos
Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... Racial Steering refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... A sundown town is a community in the United States where non-Caucasians— especially African Americans— are systematically excluded from living in or passing through after the sun went down. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... BIA map of Indian reservations in the continental United States. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ...

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The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided to white Americans. The Jim Crow period or the Jim Crow era refers to the time during which this practice occurred. The most important laws required that public schools, public places and public transportation have separate bulidings, toilets, and restaurants for whites and blacks. (These Jim Crow Laws were separate from the 1800-66 Black Codes, which had restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans.) State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Voting Rights Act. None were in effect at the end of the 1960s. Historic Southern United States. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ...


During the Reconstruction period of 1865-76, federal law provided civil rights protection in the South for freedmen—the African-Americans who had formerly been slaves. Reconstruction ended at different dates (the latest 1877), and was followed in each Southern state by Redeemer governments that passed the Jim Crow laws to separate the races. In the Progressive Era the restrictions were formalized, and segregation was extended to the federal government by President Woodrow Wilson in 1913. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


After 1945, the Civil Rights movement gained momentum and used federal courts to attack Jim Crow. The Supreme Court declared legal, or de jure, public school segregation unconstitutional in 1954, and it ended in practice in the 1970s. The court ruling did not stop de facto or informal school segregation, which continued in large cities. President Lyndon B. Johnson, building a coalition of northern Democrats and Republicans, pushed Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which immediately annulled Jim Crow laws that segregated restaurants, hotels and theatres; these facilities (with rare exceptions) immediately dropped racial segregation. The Voting Rights Act ended discrimination in voting for all federal, state and local elections. See also: American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968) The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... LBJ redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ...

Contents

Origins

Presidential Reconstruction, let legislatures overwhelmingly dominated by ex-Confederates, abolished laws regarding slavery but passed the black codes, which gave new rights to the freedmen but fewer than whites possessed. The North reacted against those codes, which never went into effect in any state. Instead, the Radical Republicans passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which gave freedmen legal rights (but not the right to vote). The country, by 1870, passed the 14th and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution, guaranteeing civil rights and the right to vote. The southern states came under Republican control— a party comprising the Freedmen, white Southerners ("Scalawags") and migrants from the North ("Carpetbaggers"). The Klan and related groups reacted violently, but they were suppressed by President Ulysses S. Grant using the federal courts and troops. By 1877, the conservatives and Democrats, forming a Redeemer coalition, ousted all the Republican governments. From 1877 until the 1970s, the Southern Democrats largely controlled every Southern state. // Reconstruction was a period in United States history, 1865–1877, that attempted to resolve the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... The Civil Rights Act Of 1866 is a piece of United States legislation that gave further rights to the freed slaves after the end of the American Civil War. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ... American usage In the United States, the negative term carpetbagger was used to refer to a Northerner who traveled to the South after the American Civil War, through the late 1860s and the 1870s, during Reconstruction. ... KLAN or Klan can mean:- The Ku Klux Klan. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


After 1877, the Redeemers reversed many of the civil rights gains that African Americans had made during Reconstruction, passing laws that mandated discrimination by both local governments and by private citizens. Since "Jim Crow law" is a blanket term for any of this type of legislation, the date of inception for the laws varies by state. The most important laws came in the 1890s with the adoption of legislation segregating railroad cars in New Orleans as the first genuine Jim Crow law. By 1915, every Southern state had effectively destroyed the gains in civil rights and liberties that flap jacks had enjoyed from the Reconstructionist efforts. The term Jim Crow comes from the minstrel show song "Jump Jim Crow" written in 1828 and performed by Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice, a white New Yorker and the first popularizer of blackface performance. The song and blackface itself were an immediate hit. A caricature of a shabbily dressed rural black, "Jim Crow" became a standard character in minstrel shows. He was often paired with "Zip Coon," a flamboyantly dressed urban black who associated more with white culture. By 1837, Jim Crow was being used to refer to racial segregation in Vermont. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... Jim Crow Jump Jim Crow is a song and dance from 1828 done in blackface by white comedian Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice (May, 1808 - September 16, 1860), was a comedian and the creator of the blackface form of comedy of the 19th century and early 20th century. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Turkey in the Straw is a well known United States folk song dating from the early 19th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Many of the discriminatory Jim Crow laws were enacted to support racial segregation in everyday life. They required black and white people to use separate water fountains, public schools, public bath houses, restaurants, public libraries, buses and rail cars—although, even without legal segregation, the desire of the white majority to use the frequently inferior facilities set aside for black use was limited. Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


Voting disfranchisement

Between 1890 and 1920, many state governments prevented most blacks from voting by various techniques, such as poll taxes and literacy tests. (These could be waived for whites by grandfather clauses, until this was found to be unconstitutional in 1915.) It is estimated that of 181,000 African-American males of voting age in Alabama in 1900, only 3,000 were registered to vote. The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1870 in response to the American Civil War, prevented any state from denying the right to vote to any citizen on account of his race. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... A Voting test is a test designed to determine ones ability to read and write a given language. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Examples

The following examples of segregation are excerpts from examples of Jim Crow laws shown on the National Park Service website. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


The examples include anti-miscegenation laws; though sometimes counted among the "Jim Crow laws" of the South, those laws had also existed outside the South for many years. Anti-miscegenation laws were not repealed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 but were declared unconstitutional in the 1967 Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia. Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... Holding The Court declared Virginias anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, unconstitutional, thereby ending all race-based legal restriction on marriage in the United States. ...


Alabama

  • "All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races."

Arkansas

  • Various laws from 1884 to 1947 prohibited marriage or relations between whites and blacks or mulattoes, providing for specific fines and imprisonment of up to three years.[1]
  • Various laws from 1891 to 1959 segregated rail travel, streetcars, buses, all public carriers, race tracks, gaming establishments, polling places, washrooms in mines, tuberculosis hospitals, public schools and teachers' colleges.
  • A poll tax was first imposed in the 1890s.

Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ...

Florida

  • "All marriages between a white person and a Negro, or between a white person and a person of Negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited."
  • "Any Negro man and white woman, or any white man and Negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars."
  • "The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately."

Georgia

  • "All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant, shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room or serve the two races anywhere under the same license."
  • "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race."

Louisiana

  • "Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five ($25.00) nor more than one hundred ($100.00) dollars or be imprisoned not less than 10, or more than 60 days, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court."

A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ...

Mississippi

  • "Any person...who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine or not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both."

North Carolina

  • "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. "
  • "The state librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals."

Oklahoma

  • "The [Conservation] Commission shall have the right to make segregation of the white and colored races as to the exercise of rights of fishing, boating and bathing."
  • "The baths and lockers for the negroes shall be separate from the white race, but may be in the same building."
  • "The Corporation Commission is hereby vested with power and authority to require telephone companies...to maintain separate booths for white and colored patrons when there is a demand for such separate booths. That the Corporation Commission shall determine the necessity for said separate booths only upon complaint of the people in the town and vicinity to be served after due hearing as now provided by law in other complaints filed with the Corporation Commission."

South Carolina

  • "No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter."
  • "It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a negro."

Child custody and guardianship are the legal terms used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and child, including e. ...

Texas

Twenty-seven Jim Crow laws were passed in the Lone Star state from 1866 to 1958. Some examples include:

  • 1925: Required racially segregated schools.
  • 1950: Separate facilities required for white and black citizens in state parks
  • 1953: Public carriers to be segregated
  • 1958: No child compelled to attend schools that are racially mixed. No desegregation unless approved by election. Governor may close schools where troops used on federal authority.
An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City
An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City

Colored drinking fountain from mid-20th century with colored man drinking This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Colored drinking fountain from mid-20th century with colored man drinking This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...

Virginia

  • "Every person...operating...any public hall, theater, opera house, motion picture show or any place of public entertainment or public assemblage which is attended by both white and colored persons, shall separate the white race and the colored race and shall set apart and designate...certain seats therein to be occupied by white persons and a portion thereof, or certain seats therein, to be occupied by colored persons."
  • "The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are hereby required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race."

Attempts at dismantling the laws

Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875, legislation introduced by Charles Sumner and Benjamin F. Butler in 1870, and passed March 1, 1875. It guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations" (inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement). The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (18 Stat. ... For other persons named Charles Sumner, see Charles Sumner (disambiguation). ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (1795–1858) was a U.S. lawyer. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1883, the Supreme Court restricted the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to actions by state and local government. It ruled Congress could not control private persons or corporations. After Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875, it did not pass another civil rights law until 1957. Holding The Equal Protection clause applies only to state action, not segregation by privately owned businesses. ...


In 1890, Louisiana passed a law requiring separate accommodations for colored and white passengers on railroads. Louisiana law distinguished between "white," "black" and "colored" (that is, people of mixed white and black ancestry). The law already had provided that blacks could not ride with white people, but colored people could ride with whites prior to 1890. A group of concerned black, colored and white citizens in New Orleans formed an association dedicated to the repeal of the law. They persuaded Homer Plessy, who was only one-eighth "Negro" and of fair complexion, to test it. In 1892, Plessy purchased a first-class ticket from New Orleans on the East Louisiana Railway. Once he had boarded the train, he informed the train conductor of his racial lineage and took a seat in the whites-only car. He was directed to leave that car and sit instead in the "coloreds only" car. Plessy refused and was immediately arrested. The Citizens Committee of New Orleans fought the case all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. They lost in 1896, and Plessy v. Ferguson resulted in 58 more years of legal discrimination against black and colored people in the United States. Homer Adolph Plessy (March 17, 1863 – March 1, 1925) was the American plaintiff in the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. ... Plessy redirects here. ...


When black soldiers returning from World War II refused to put up with the second class citizenship of segregation, the movement for Civil Rights was renewed. The NAACP Legal Defense Committee (a group independent of the NAACP)—and its lawyer Thurgood Marshall—brought the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) before the Supreme Court. In 1954, the court unanimously overturned the 1896 Plessy decision in its ruling; Thurgood Marshall later became the first black Supreme Court Justice. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... A Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States is nominated by the President of the United States and approved by the U.S. Senate, with at least half of that body approving in the affirmative. ...


Legacy

The Supreme Court of the United States held in the Civil Rights Cases 109 US 3 (1883) that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give the federal government the power to outlaw private discrimination, and then held in Plessy v. Ferguson 163 US 537 (1896) that Jim Crow laws were constitutional as long as they allowed for "separate but equal" facilities. In the years that followed, the court made this "separate but equal" requirement a hollow phrase by approving discrimination even in the face of evidence of profound inequalities in practice. Holding The Equal Protection clause applies only to state action, not segregation by privately owned businesses. ...


In 1902, Reverend Thomas Dixon, a white Southern anti-Reconstructionist, published the novel The Leopard's Spots, which intentionally fanned racial animosity. [2] Illustration from The Clansman. ... The Leopards Spots: A Romance of the White Mans Burden—1865–1900 is a book by Thomas Dixon, written in 1902, and published by Doubleday, Page & Co. ...


Jim Crow laws were a product of the solidly Democratic South. As the party which supported the Confederacy, the Democrats quickly dominated all aspects of local, state, and federal political life in the post-Civil War South, right up through the 1970s. As late as 1956, a resolution called Southern Manifesto, condemning the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, was read into the Congressional Record and supported by 96 southern congressmen and senators, all of them but two Democrats. The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... The Southern Manifesto was a document written in 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. ...


The Jim Crow laws were a major factor in the Great Migration during the early part of the 20th century, because opportunities were so limited in the South that African Americans moved in great numbers to northern cities to seek a better life. The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans during the Great Migration, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses[1]. The Great Migration was the movement of over 1 million[1] African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from...


While African-American entertainers, musicians, and literary figures had broken into the white world of American art and culture after 1890, African-American athletes found obstacles confronting them at every turn. By 1900, white opposition to African-American boxers, baseball players, track athletes, and basketball players kept them segregated and limited in what they could do. But their prowess and abilities in all-African-American teams and sporting events could not be denied, and the barriers to African-American participation in all the major sports began to crumble in the 1950s and 1960s.


Twentieth century

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For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... In the United States the term progressivism refers to two political movements: first, the original political progressive movement towards social and economic reform of the late 1800s and early 1900s; and second, the continuation of this movement/ideology in the form of modern progressivism which sees itself as a reform... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Educational progressivists believe that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. ... Progressive Libertarianism is a political or philosophy whose adherents promote social change through voluntarism rather than government laws and regulation. ...

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The Great Society The Square Deal (1904) was the term used by Theodore Roosevelt and his associates for the domestic policies of his administration, particularly with regard to economic policies, such as enforcement. ... New Nationalism was Theodore Roosevelts Progressive political philosophy during the 1912 election. ... The New Freedom policy of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... In United States history, the Fair Deal was U.S. President Harry S Trumans policy of social improvement, outlined in his 1949 State of the Union Address to Congress on January 5, 1949. ... The term New Frontier was used by John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in 1960 to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic nominee and was used as a label for his administrations domestic and foreign programs. ... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ...

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In the 20th century, the Supreme Court began to overturn Jim Crow laws on constitutional grounds. In Buchanan v. Warley 245 US 60 (1917), the court held that a Kentucky law could not require residential segregation. The Supreme Court in 1946, in Irene Morgan v. Virginia ruled segregation in interstate transportation to be unconstitutional, though its reasoning stemmed from the commerce clause of the Constitution rather than any moral objection to the practice. It was not until 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 347 US 483 that the court held that separate facilities were inherently unequal in the area of public schools, effectively overturning Plessy v. Ferguson, and outlawing Jim Crow in other areas of society as well. This landmark case consisted of complaints filed in the states of Delaware (Gebhart v. Belton); South Carolina (Briggs v. Elliott); Virginia (Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County); and Washington, D.C. (Spottswode Bolling v. C. Melvin Sharpe). These decisions, along with other cases such as McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents 339 US 637 (1950), NAACP v. Alabama 357 US 449 (1958), and Boynton v. Virginia 364 US 454 (1960), slowly dismantled the state-sponsored segregation imposed by Jim Crow laws. Buchanan v. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Irene Morgan (1917 – August 10, 2007), later known as Irene Morgan Kirkaldy, was an important predecessor to Rosa Parks in the successful fight to overturn segregationist laws in the United States. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... Gebhart v. ... Briggs et al. ... Davis v. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Bolling v. ... NAACP v. ... Boynton v. ...


In addition to Jim Crow laws, in which the state compelled segregation of the races, businesses, political parties, unions and other private parties created their own Jim Crow arrangements, barring blacks from buying homes in certain neighborhoods, from shopping or working in certain stores, from working at certain trades, etc. The Supreme Court outlawed some forms of private discrimination in Shelley v. Kraemer 334 US 1 (1948), in which it held that "restrictive covenants" that barred sale of homes to blacks or Jews or Asians were unconstitutional, on the grounds that they represented state-sponsored discrimination, in that they were only effective if the courts enforced them. Holding The Fourteenth Amendment prohibits a state from enforcing restrictive covenants which would prohibit a person from owning or occupying property on the basis of race or color. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ...


The Supreme Court was unwilling, however, to attack other forms of private discrimination; it reasoned that private parties did not violate the Equal Protection clause of the Constitution when they discriminated, because they were not "state actors" covered by that clause. The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ...


After World War II, as attitudes in the Federal courts turned against segregation, the segregationist white governments of many of the states of the Southeast countered with even more numerous and strict segregation laws on the local level until the start of the 1960s. The modern Civil Rights movement is often considered[citation needed] to have been sparked by an act of civil disobedience against Jim Crow laws when Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man after being ordered to do so by the bus driver. Her action, and the demonstrations that it spawned, led to a series of legislation and court decisions in which Jim Crow laws were repealed or annulled. The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake...


However, the Montgomery Bus Boycott led by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. which followed Rosa Parks' action, was not an isolated case. Numerous boycotts and demonstrations against segregation had occurred throughout the 1930s and 1940s. These early demonstrations achieved positive results and helped spark political activism. For instance, K. Leroy Irvis of Pittsburgh's Urban League led a demonstration against employment discrimination by Pittsburgh's department stores in 1947, and he became the first 20th century African-American to serve as a state Speaker of the House. Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Irvis K. Leroy Irvis (December 27, 1919 – March 16, 2006) was the first African American to serve as a speaker of the house in any state legislature in the United States. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...


In 1964, the U.S. Congress attacked the parallel system of private Jim Crow practices. It invoked the commerce clause to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed discrimination in public accommodations (privately owned restaurants, hotels, and stores, and in private schools and workplaces). This use of the commerce clause was upheld in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 379 US 241 (1964). Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Holding Congress did not unconstitutionally exceed its powers under the Commerce Clause by enacting Title II of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which prohibited racial discrimination in public accommodations. ...


In 1971, the Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld desegregation busing of students to achieve integration. Holding Busing students to promote integration is constitutional. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


End of de jure segregation

A depiction of Thomas D. Rice's "Jim Crow"
A depiction of Thomas D. Rice's "Jim Crow"

In January, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson met with civil rights leaders. On January 8, during his first State of the Union address, Johnson asked Congress to "let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined." On June 21, civil rights workers Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney, disappeared in Neshoba County, Mississippi. The three were volunteers traveling to Mississippi to aid in the registration of African-American voters as part of the Mississippi Summer Project. The FBI recovered their bodies, which had been buried in an earthen dam, 44 days later. The Neshoba County deputy sheriff, Cecil Price and 16 others, all Ku Klux Klan members, were indicted for the crimes; seven were convicted. On July 2, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[3] http://www. ... Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice (May, 1808 - September 16, 1860), was a comedian and the creator of the blackface form of comedy of the 19th century and early 20th century. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union is an annual address in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Schwerner Michael Schwerner (November 6, 1939 – June 21, 1964), called Mickey by friends and colleagues, was a CORE field worker killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by the Ku Klux Klan in response to the civil-rights work he coordinated, which included promoting registration to vote among Mississippi African Americans. ... Andrew Goodman Andrew Goodman (November 23, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was an American civil rights activist who was murdered by gunshot in 1964 by members of the Ku Klux Klan. ... James Chaney James Earl Chaney (May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was a civil rights worker who was murdered (along with Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman) by members of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Neshoba County is a county located in the state of Mississippi. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Cecil Ray Price (born about 1937 - died May 6, 2001) was linked to the murders of three civil rights workers in 1964. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...


According to the United States Department of Justice, "By 1965 concerted efforts to break the grip of state disfranchisement had been under way for some time, but had achieved only modest success overall and in some areas had proved almost entirely ineffectual. The murder of voting-rights activists in Philadelphia, Mississippi, gained national attention, along with numerous other acts of violence and terrorism. Finally, the unprovoked attack on March 7, 1965, by state troopers on peaceful marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, en route to the state capitol in Montgomery, persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights legislation. President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings began soon thereafter on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act."[4] The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... Philadelphia is a city located in Neshoba County, Mississippi. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... The Edmund Pettus Bridge, named for Edmund Winston Pettus, a Confederate brigadier general, and eventual U.S. Senator, is a bridge in Selma, Alabama. ... Selma is a city in Alabama located on the banks of the Alabama River in Dallas County, Alabama, of which it is the county seat. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ...


See also

Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... Color blind racism is a term coined by the modern social theorist Eduardo Bonilla-Silva. ... The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1870 in response to the American Civil War, prevented any state from denying the right to vote to any citizen on account of his race. ... The Dunning School was from 1900 to 1960 the dominant school of historiography regarding the Reconstruction period in American history, 1865-1877. ... poop. ... The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmens Bureau or (mistakenly) the Freedmans Bureau, was an agency of the government of the United States that was formed to aid distressed refugees of the United States Civil War, including former slaves and poor white... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... The Group Areas Act of 1950 (Act No. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist or new abolitionism) is a term used by some historians to refer to the rebirth of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and in a limited number of cases, to the late 20th century historiographic tradition in United States history by... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... Redemption, in the history of the United States, was a term used by white Southerners to refer to the reversion of the U.S. South to conservative Democratic rule after the period of Reconstruction (1865 - 1877), which in turn followed the U.S. Civil War. ... In the United States, a Scalawag was a Southern white who joined the Republican party in the ex-Confederate South during Reconstruction. ... Second class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person who is discriminated against or generally treated unequally within a state or other political jurisdiction. ... This is a timeline of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ...

References

  1. ^ The History of Jim Crow—Inside the South
  2. ^ http://docsouth.unc.edu/dixonclan/bio.html
  3. ^ LBJ for Kids CIVIL RIGHTS DURING THE JOHNSON ADMINISTRATION
  4. ^ United States Department of Justice Introduction To Federal Voting Rights Laws

Further reading

  • Ayers, Edward L. The Promise of the New South Oxford University Press, 1992, a general history of the South in the late 19th century
  • Barnes, Catherine A. Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit Columbia University Press, 1983.
  • Bartley, Numan V. The Rise of Massive Resistance: Race and Politics in the South during the 1950s Louisiana State University Press, 1969.
  • Bond, Horace Mann. “The Extent and Character of Separate Schools in the United States.” Journal of Negro Education 4(July 1935):321–27. online via JSTOR
  • Gabriel Chin & Hrishi Karthikeyan, Preserving Racial Identity: Population Patterns and the Application of Anti-Miscegenation Statutes to Asians, 1910 to 1950, 9 Asian L.J. (2002)
  • Campbell, Nedra. "More Justice, More Peace: The Black Person's Guide to the American Legal System" Lawrence Hill Books; Chicago Review Press], 2003, which includes in its chapter "Free at Last" a chronology of laws during the Jim Crow era. ISBN 1-55652-468-4
  • Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon, eds. Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights (2000), essays by scholars on impact of Jum Crow on black communities
  • Fairclough, Adam. “‘Being in the Field of Education and Also Being a Negro…Seems…Tragic’: Black Teachers in the Jim Crow South.” Journal of American History 87 (June 2000): 65–91. online via JSTOR
  • Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915–1949. University of Alabama Press, 1999.
  • Harvey Fireside, Separate and Unequal: Homer Plessy and the Supreme Court Decision That Legalized Racism, 2004. ISBN 0-7867-1293-7
  • Eric Foner Reconstruction, America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (Harpercollins, 1988), ISBN 0-06-015851-4, standard history of Reconstruction from neoabolitionist school
  • Gaines, Kevin. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
  • Gaston, Paul M. The New South Creed: A Study in Southern Mythmaking Alfred A. Knopf, 1970.
  • Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore; Gender and Jim Crow Women and the Politics of in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (1996)
  • John Howard Griffin Black Like Me by (Signet, 1996) ISBN 0-451-19203-6. Author leaves privileged life as Southern white man and darkens his skin to experience segregation in the Deep South in 1959.
  • Haws, Robert, ed. The Age of Segregation: Race Relations in the South, 1890– 1945 University Press of Mississippi, 1978.
  • Sheldon Hackney, Populism to Progressivism in Alabama (1969)
  • Johnson, Charles S. Patterns of Negro Segregation Harper and Brothers, 1943.
  • Michael J. Klarman; From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality Oxford University Press, 2004
  • Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (Alfred A. Knopf: 1998) "This is the most complete and moving account we have had of what the victims of the Jim Crow South suffered and somehow endured" — C. Vann Woodward
  • Stephen Kantrowitz. Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of (2000)
  • McMillen, Neil R. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. University of Illinois Press, 1989.
  • Keith Weldon Medley, We As Freemen: Plessy v. Ferguson by Pelican Publishing Company, March, 2003. ISBN 1-58980-120-2. Popular story of Homer Plessy, who lost his case before the Supreme Court; the case legalized segregation in the U.S. for the next 58 years.
  • Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy Harper and Row, 1944. the most detailed analysis of the Jim Crow system in operation.
  • Percy, William Alexander. Lanterns on the Levee: Recollections of a Planter's Son. 1941. Reprint, Louisiana State University Press, 1993. by conservative white planter
  • Rabinowitz, Howard N. Race Relations in the Urban South, 1856–1890 (1978)
  • J. Douglas Smith; Managing  : Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia University of North Carolina Press, 2002
  • Smith, J. Douglas. “The Campaign for Racial Purity and the Erosion of Paternalism in Virginia, 1922–1930: “Nominally White, Biologically Mixed, and Legally Negro.’” Journal of Southern History 68 (February 2002): 65–106.
  • Smith, J. Douglas. “Patrolling the Boundaries of Race: Motion Picture Censorship and Jim Crow in Virginia, 1922–1932.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 21 (August 2001): 273–91.
  • Sterner, Richard. The Negro's Share (1943) detailed statistics
  • C. Vann Woodward. The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1955) the classic history by Pulitzer prize winner.
  • C. Vann Woodward. The Origins of the New South: 1877-1913 (1951).

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Founded in 1935, the Louisiana State University Press is a nonprofit book publisher dedicated to the publication of scholarly, general interest, and regional books. ... The University of Alabama Press is a university press that is part of the University of Alabama. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist or new abolitionism) is a term used by some historians to refer to the rebirth of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and in a limited number of cases, to the late 20th century historiographic tradition in United States history by... John Howard Griffin (June 16, 1920 - September 9, 1980) was a white journalist and author who wrote largely in favor of racial equality. ... Black Like Me is a non-fiction book by journalist John Howard Griffin first published in 1961 (it was made into a film in 1964 (Black Like Me (film))). The book describes Griffins (a white native of Mansfield, Texas) six-week experience travelling throughout the racially segregated states of... The University Press of Mississippi, founded in 1970, is a publisher that is sponsered by the eight state universities in Mississippi: Alcorn State University Delta State University Jackson State University Mississippi State University Mississippi University for Women Mississippi Valley State University University of Mississippi University of Southern Mississippi University Press... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The University of Illinois Press is a major American university press. ... Founded in 1935, the Louisiana State University Press is a nonprofit book publisher dedicated to the publication of scholarly, general interest, and regional books. ... The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The History of Jim Crow (4463 words)
The word Jim Crow became a racial slur synonymous with fl, colored, or Negro in the vocabulary of many whites; and by the end of the century acts of racial discrimination toward fls were often referred to as Jim Crow laws and practices.
Numerous race riots erupted in the Jim Crow era, usually in towns and cities and almost always in defense of segregation and white supremacy.
Various registration laws, such as poll taxes, were established in Georgia in 1871 and 1877, in Virginia in 1877 and 1884, in Mississippi in 1876, in South Carolina in 1882, and in Florida in 1888.
What Was Jim Crow? (2542 words)
Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s.
Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that Blacks were introduced to Whites, never Whites to Blacks.
Under Jim Crow any and all sexual interactions between Black men and White women was illegal, illicit, socially repugnant, and within the Jim Crow definition of rape.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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