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Encyclopedia > Jim Crow law

The term "Jim Crow laws" refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 1,556,678 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 74,500 Total dead: 198,500 Wounded: 137,000+  The American...


During the Reconstruction period following the war, the federal government of the United States briefly provided some civil rights protection in the South for African-Americans, the majority of whom had been enslaved by white owners. When Reconstruction abruptly ended in 1877, and federal troops withdrawn, southern state governments passed laws prohibiting black people from using the same public accommodations as whites, and prohibited whites from hiring black workers in all but menial jobs, a situation that created severe economic hardship for the families of black workers. Jim Crow laws, named after a familiar minstrel character of the day, also required black and white people to use separate water fountains, public schools, public bath houses, restaurants, public libraries, and rail cars in public transport. Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... A minstrel was a medieval European bard who performed songs whose lyrics told stories about distant places or about (real or imaginary) historical events. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ...


In the mid 1940s, African-American soldiers returning from fighting overseas in a segregated military during World War II and clergy in African-American churches took on the leadership of the renewed quest to overturn laws requiring segregation in most southern states in the U.S. Early goals of the Civil Rights movement were to remove segregation laws from the books, and to stop the lynching of black people. The movement was made up of massive numbers of people, both black and white, who confronted racist school and library officials, sat in at lunch counters, chose to walk rather than ride on segregated buses, and stood firm in large protest marches when faced with dogs and police who turned water hoses on the marchers. It was not a bloodless struggle in that some who struggled for Civil Rights were murdered before racist segregation laws were overturned. The Supreme Court of the U.S. finally responded by declaring segregation (Jim Crow laws) illegal in a series of decisions beginning in 1954. Ten years later, and pushed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, the United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which outlawed state laws requiring segregation. Legal segregation was known as de jure segregation, but it did not stop de facto or the fact of segregation, which continues in many parts of the United States where most African Americans live and attend schools separately from whites. Combatants Allies: • Soviet Union, • UK & Commonwealth, • USA, • France/Free France, • China, • Poland, • ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Japan, • Italy, • ...and others Casualties Military dead: 18 million Civilian dead: 33 million Full list Military dead: 7 million Civilian dead: 4 million Full list World War II, also known as the Second World... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Congress in Joint Session. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary De jure (in Classical Latin de iure) is an expression that means based on law, as contrasted with de facto, which means in fact. The terms de jure and de facto are used like in principle and in practice when one... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

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Origins of the Jim Crow laws

The conclusion of the American Civil War in 1865 led to the policy of Reconstruction, in which the Republican-controlled Federal government intervened to protect the rights conferred on black Americans by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution, as well as (upon their introductions) the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In almost-immediate response Southern legislatures, overwhelmingly dominated by Democrats, passed the black codes, which attempted to return freed slaves to bondage in legal fact, rather than official terminology. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 1,556,678 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 74,500 Total dead: 198,500 Wounded: 137,000+  The American... Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution abolished slavery and, with the exception of allowing punishments for crimes, prohibits involuntary servitude. ... The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. ... Image:Joint Resolution Proposing the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, 7 December 1868. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... In March 1866, the Republican United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which gave further rights to the freed slaves after the end of the American Civil War. ... The United States Civil Rights Act of 1875, proposed by Charles Sumner and Benjamin F. Butler in 1870, was passed on March 1, 1875. ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...


"One must always remember that there were more small farms where there were slaves than large plantations, although always the majority of the slaves were on large plantations," historian John Hope Franklin told a Public Broadcasting Service audience. [1]


Reconstruction ended by 1877. According to an online article in the New York Times, "As the U.S. Army gradually withdrew from the post-Civil War South in the 1870s, and Northern support for Reconstruction waned, black men were increasingly kept from the polls, allowing the election across the South of white-only Democratic administrations called 'Redeemer' governments."


In 1876, six black men were murdered by whites during a race riot in Hamburg, South Carolina. The race riot and murders "strengthened the "Straight-Out" faction of the Democratic Party. They were victorious in the fall elections, and South Carolina joined the ranks of the "redeemed" states. In the North, the Hamburg Massacre became a symbol of the anti-black, anti-Reconstruction violence perpetrated by segments of the Democratic Party in the South. Seven white men were indicted for the Hampton murders, but the case against them was dropped after the Redeemers assumed office. On August 12, 1876, Harper's Weekly featured a cartoon by artist Thomas Nast about these events.[2]


In the aftermath of Reconstruction, the resurgent white elites, who referred to themselves as Redeemers, reversed many of the civil rights gains that black Americans had made during Reconstruction, passing laws that mandated discrimination by both local governments and by private citizens. These became known as the Jim Crow laws, a reference to the character Jump Jim Crow (popular in antebellum minstrel entertainment) who was a racist stage depiction of a poor and uneducated rural black. Since "Jim Crow law" is a blanket term for any of this type of legislation following the end of Reconstruction, the exact date of inception for the laws is difficult to isolate; consensus points to the 1890s and the adoption of segregational railroad legislation in New Orleans as the first genuine Jim Crow law. By 1915, every Southern state had effectively destroyed the gains in civil liberties that blacks had enjoyed due to the Reconstructionist efforts. We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... Jim Crow Jump Jim Crow is a song and dance from 1828 done in blackface by white comedian Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before the war. In United States history and historiography, the term Antebellum is often used (especially in U.S. South) to refer to the period of increasing sectionalism leading to the American Civil War, instead of the term pre–Civil War. ... A minstrel was a medieval European bard who performed songs whose lyrics told stories about distant places or about (real or imaginary) historical events. ...


Many state governments prevented blacks from voting by requiring poll taxes and literacy tests, both of which were not enforced on whites of British descent due to grandfather clauses. One common "literacy test" was to require the black would-be voter to recite the entire U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence from memory. It is estimated that of 181,471 African-American males of voting age in Alabama in 1900, only 3,000 were registered to vote. A poll tax, head tax, soul tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... A literacy test, in a strict sense, is a test designed to determine ones ability to read and write a given language. ... In American English, a grandfather clause, or grandfather rule, is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply instead in all future situations. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 30th 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² 190 mi/306 km 330 mi/531 km 3. ...


The discriminatory Jim Crow laws were enacted to support racial segregation. They required black and white people to use separate water fountains, public schools, public bath houses, restaurants, public libraries, and rail cars in public transport. Originally called the Black Codes, [3] (Linked source describing Black Codes based on Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction by Page Smith) they later became known as Jim Crow laws, after a familiar minstrel character of the day. The laws became the legal justification for segregating black and white citizens for much of the latter part of the nineteenth century and for more than half of the twentieth century. The term "Jim Crow" does not apply to all racist laws, but only to those passed after Reconstruction. The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation exists where governments have passed laws either allowing or requiring discrimination on the basis of race. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... A minstrel was a medieval European bard who performed songs whose lyrics told stories about distant places or about (real or imaginary) historical events. ... Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


Examples of Jim Crow Laws in various states

The following examples of segregation (Jim Crow laws) are excerpted from examples of Jim Crow laws shown on a (U.S.) National Park Service web site. [4]

  • Nurses. No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which Negro men are placed. Alabama
  • Buses. All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races. Alabama
  • Railroads. The conductor of each passenger train is authorized and required to assign each passenger to the car or the division of the car, when it is divided by a partition, designated for the race to which such passenger belongs. Alabama
  • Restaurants. It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama
  • Intermarriage. All marriages between a white person and a Negro, or between a white person and a person of Negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. Florida
  • Cohabitation. Any Negro man and white woman, or any white man and Negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida
  • Education. The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately.
  • Restaurants. All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant, shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room or serve the two races anywhere under the same license. Georgia
  • Amateur Baseball. It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race. Georgia
  • Housing. Any person...who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five ($25.00) nor more than one hundred ($100.00) dollars or be imprisoned not less than 10, or more than 60 days, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court. Louisiana
  • Promotion of Equality. Any person...who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine or not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both. Mississippi
  • Textbooks. Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. North Carolina
  • Libraries. The state librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals. North Carolina
  • Theaters. Every person...operating...any public hall, theatre, opera house, motion picture show or any place of public entertainment or public assemblage which is attended by both white and colored persons, shall separate the white race and the colored race and shall set apart and designate...certain seats therein to be occupied by white persons and a portion thereof , or certain seats therein, to be occupied by colored persons. Virginia
  • Railroads. The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are hereby required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race. Virginia
  • Intermarriage. All marriages of white persons with Negroes, Mulattos, Mongolians, or Malaya hereafter contracted in the State of Wyoming are and shall be illegal and void. Wyoming

More examples of state-ordered discrimination against African-American people appear here [5].


Examples of laws requiring discrimination against black people in the following states Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, & Kentucky are here: [6] Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, and North Carolina are here: [7] Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming are here: [8]


Further discussion of state laws requiring segregation of the races is here [9] and here [10].


Attempts at dismantling Jim Crow

Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875, legislation introduced by Charles Sumner and Benjamin F. Butler in 1870, and passed March 1, 1875. It guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations" (i.e. inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement). The United States Civil Rights Act of 1875, proposed by Charles Sumner and Benjamin F. Butler in 1870, was passed on March 1, 1875. ... Charles Sumner Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811–March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (1795–1858) was a U.S. lawyer. ...


The Supreme Court of the United States invalidated most of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 in 1883. The nation's highest court held that Congress had no power under the U.S. Constitution to regulate the conduct of individuals (see Civil Rights Cases). After Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875, it did not pass another civil rights law until 1957. The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the U.S.. As the highest court, it provides the leadership of the judicial branch of the U.S. federal government. ... The United States Civil Rights Act of 1875, proposed by Charles Sumner and Benjamin F. Butler in 1870, was passed on March 1, 1875. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


In 1890, the State of Louisiana passed a law requiring separate accommodations for black and white passengers on railroads. A group of concerned black and white citizens in New Orleans formed an association dedicated to the repeal of that law. They persuaded Homer Plessy, who was light-skinned and one-eighth African, to test it. In 1892, Plessy purchased a first-class ticket from New Orleans on the East Louisiana Railway. Once he had boarded the train, he informed the train conductor of his racial lineage, and took a seat in the whites-only section. He was asked to leave the railway car designated for white passengers, and ordered to sit instead in the "blacks only" car. Plessy refused and was immediately arrested. The Citizens Committee of New Orleans appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the United States and lost. The loss of the case, called Plessy vs. Ferguson, resulted in 58 more years of hardship and legal discrimination against black people in the United States. Homer Plessy (March 17, 1862, New Orleans, Louisiana – March 1, 1925, New Orleans, Louisiana) colored (because of an African American great grandmother) man who agreed, to a group called Citizens Committee of African Americans and Creoles, to violate the Separate Car law, which called for the segregation of passenger trains... The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the U.S.. As the highest court, it provides the leadership of the judicial branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Plessy v. ...


When black soldiers returning from World War II refused to put up with the second class citizenship of segregation, the movement for Civil Rights was renewed. Activities designed to throw off the yoke of racist segregation began. Those post-World War II efforts to end discrimination resulted in the NAACP Legal Defense Committee--and its lawyer Thurgood Marshall-- bringing the landmark case that came to be known as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) before the Supreme Court. In 1954, the Court effectively overturned the 1896 Plessy decision in its ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. Thurgood Marshall who would later become a U.S. Supreme Court Justice. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the United States Supreme Court. ... Brown v. ...


The legacy of Jim Crow

Racism continues to be present in the United States in laws directed at restricting the voting power of black citizens through careful definition of voting districts to try to assure they do not achieve majority status. These are residuals left over from century-old laws mandating segregation of the races. For example, in an article November 12, 1999 in The New York Times describing problems present in the late 20th century that are traceable to Jim Crow laws, reporter David Firestone wrote in an article called "Mississippi's History Haunts Gubernatorial Election":

In the 1870s and '80s, while carpetbaggers roamed a state still reeling from its losses in the Civil War, newly enfranchised blacks managed to elect dozens of representatives to the state Legislature. But white planters, part of the regional movement of conservative Democrats known as "the Redeemers," constructed a new constitution to regain control of the state, adding literacy tests, poll taxes, and other impediments to strip blacks of their Union-imposed power. Even if black voters managed to muster a majority of votes for a governor, there would be enough white-controlled districts, with their electoral votes, to throw the decision to the House.

The Supreme Court of the United States held in the Civil Rights Cases 109 US 3 (1883) that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give the federal government the power to outlaw private discrimination, and then held in Plessy v. Ferguson 163 US 537 (1896) that Jim Crow laws were constitutional as long as they allowed for "separate but equal" facilities. In the years that followed, the Court made this "separate but equal" requirement a hollow phrase, by approving discrimination even in the face of evidence of profound inequalities in practice. The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the U.S.. As the highest court, it provides the leadership of the judicial branch of the U.S. federal government. ... The Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883) was an important United States Supreme Court decision that held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments. ... Holding The separate but equal provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ...


In 1902, Reverend Thomas Dixon, a white, Southern anti-Reconstructionist, published the novel The Leopard's Spots, which intentionally fanned racial animosity.[11] Illustration from The Clansman. ... The Leopards Spots: A Romance of the White Mans Burden—1865–1900 is a book by Thomas Dixon, written in 1902, and published by Doubleday, Page & Co. ...


Jim Crow laws were a product of the solidly Democratic South. As the party which supported the Confederacy, the Democrats quickly dominated all aspects of local, state, and federal political life in the post-Civil War South, right up through the 1970s. Even as late as 1956, a resolution called Southern Manifesto, condemning the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, was read into the Congressional Record, and supported by 96 southern congressman and senators, each one a Democrat. The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era. ... The Southern Manifesto was a document written in 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. ... Brown v. ...


While African-American entertainers, musicians, and literary figures had broken into the white world of American art and culture after 1890, African-American athletes found obstacles confronting them at every turn. By 1900, white opposition to African-American boxers, baseball players, track athletes, and basketball players kept them segregated and limited in what they could do. But their prowess and abilities in all-African-American teams and sporting events could not be denied, and one by one the barriers to African-American participation in all the major sports began to crumble in the 1950s and 1960s.


Twentieth century

An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.
An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.

In the 20th century, the Supreme Court began to overturn Jim Crow laws on constitutional grounds. The Court held in Guinn v. United States 238 US 347 (1915) that an Oklahoma law that denied the right to vote to some citizens was unconstitutional. (Nonetheless, the majority of African-Americans were unable to vote in most states in the Deep South of the US until the 1950s or 1960s.) In Buchanan v. Warley 245 US 60 (1917), the Court held that a Kentucky law could not require residential segregation. The Supreme Court outlawed the white primary election in Smith v. Allwright 321 US 649 (1944), and, in 1946, in Irene Morgan v. Virginia ruled segregation in interstate transportation to be unconstitutional, though its reasoning stemmed from the commerce clause of the Constitution rather than any moral objection to the practice. It wasn't until 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 347 US 483 that the Court held that separate facilities were inherently unequal in the area of public schools, effectively overturning Plessy v. Ferguson, and outlawing Jim Crow in other areas of society as well. These decisions, along with other cases such as McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents 339 US 637 (1950), NAACP v. Alabama 357 US 449 (1958), and Boynton v. Virginia 364 US 454 (1960), slowly dismantled the state-sponsored segregation imposed by Jim Crow laws. Colored drinking fountain from mid-20th century with colored man drinking This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Colored drinking fountain from mid-20th century with colored man drinking This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Guinn v. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 20th 181,196 km² 355 km 645 km 1. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Buchanan v. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Smith v. ... Irene Morgan was an important precursor to Rosa Parks in the successful fight to overturn segregationist laws in the United States. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, empowers the United States Congress To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. ... Brown v. ... Holding The separate but equal provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. ... NAACP v. ... Boynton v. ...


In addition to Jim Crow laws, in which the state compelled segregation of the races, businesses, political parties, unions and other private parties created their own Jim Crow arrangements, barring blacks from buying homes in certain neighborhoods, from shopping or working in certain stores, from working at certain trades, etc. The Supreme Court outlawed some forms of private discrimination in Shelley v. Kraemer 334 US 1 (1948), in which it held that "restrictive covenants" that barred sale of homes to blacks or Jews or Asians were unconstitutional, on the grounds that they represented state-sponsored discrimination, in that they were only effective if the courts enforced them. Shelley v. ...


The Supreme Court was unwilling, however, to attack other forms of private discrimination; it reasoned that private parties did not violate the Equal Protection clause of the Constitution when they discriminated, because they were not "state actors" covered by that clause. The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ...


As attitudes turned against segregation in the Federal courts after World War II, the segregationist white governments of many of the states of the Southeast countered with even more numerous and strict segregation laws on the local level until the start of the 1960s. The modern Civil Rights movement is often considered to have been sparked by an act of civil disobedience against Jim Crow laws when Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. Her action, and the demonstrations that it spawned, led to a series of legislation and court decisions in which Jim Crow laws were repealed or annulled. Combatants Allies: • Soviet Union, • UK & Commonwealth, • USA, • France/Free France, • China, • Poland, • ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Japan, • Italy, • ...and others Casualties Military dead: 18 million Civilian dead: 33 million Full list Military dead: 7 million Civilian dead: 4 million Full list World War II, also known as the Second World... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... It has been suggested that Civil and social disobedience be merged into this article or section. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey a bus drivers demand that...


However, the Montgomery Bus Boycott led by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. which followed Rosa Parks' action, did not come in a vacuum. Numerous boycotts and demonstrations against segregation had occurred throughout the 1930s and 1940s. These early demonstrations achieved positive results and helped spark political activism. For instance, K. Leroy Irvis of Pittsburgh's Urban League led a demonstration against employment discrimination by Pittsburgh's department stores in 1947, and later became the first 20th Century African-American to serve as a state Speaker of the House. It has been suggested that Montgomery Improvement Association be merged into this article or section. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


In 1964, the U.S. Congress attacked the parallel system of private Jim Crow practices. It invoked the commerce clause to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed discrimination in public accommodations, i.e., privately owned restaurants, hotels, and stores, and in private schools and workplaces. This use of the commerce clause was upheld in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 379 US 241 (1964). Congress in Joint Session. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, empowers the United States Congress To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Holding Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to prohibit racial discrimination in businesses that relied on interstate commerce. ...


End of de jure segregation

In January, 1964, President Johnson met with civil rights leaders. On January 8, during his first State of the Union address, Johnson asked Congress to "let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined." On June 21, civil rights workers Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney, disappeared in Neshoba County, Mississippi. The three were volunteers traveling to Mississippi to aid in the registration of African-American voters as part of the Mississippi Summer Project. The FBI recovered their bodies, which had been buried in an earthen dam, 44 days later. The Neshoba County deputy sheriff and 16 others, all Ku Klux Klan members, were indicted for the crimes; seven were convicted. On July 2, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [12] Michael Schwerner Michael Schwerner (November 6, 1939 – June 21, 1964), called Mickey by friends and colleagues, was a Jewish CORE field worker kidnapped and killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by the Ku Klux Klan in response to the civil-rights work he coordinated, which included promoting registration to vote among Mississippi... Andrew Goodman Andrew Goodman (November 23, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was a Jewish-American civil rights activist who was murdered by gunshot in 1964. ... James Chaney James Earl Chaney was a civil rights worker who was murdered (along with Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman) by members of the Ku Klux Klan on June 21, 1964. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


According to the United States Department of Justice, "By 1965 concerted efforts to break the grip of state disfranchisement had been under way for some time, but had achieved only modest success overall and in some areas had proved almost entirely ineffectual. The murder of voting-rights activists in Philadelphia, Mississippi, gained national attention, along with numerous other acts of violence and terrorism. Finally, the unprovoked attack on March 7, 1965, by state troopers on peaceful marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, en route to the state capitol in Montgomery, persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights legislation. President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings began soon thereafter on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act." [13]


The name

A depiction of Thomas D. Rice's "Jim Crow"
A depiction of Thomas D. Rice's "Jim Crow"

The term Jim Crow comes from the minstrel show song "Jump Jim Crow" written in 1828 and performed by Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice, a white English migrant to the U.S. and the first popularizer of blackface performance. The song and blackface itself were an immediate hit. A caricature of a shabbily dressed rural black, "Jim Crow" became a standard character in minstrel shows. He was often paired with "Zip Coon," a flamboyantly dressed urban black who associated more with white culture. By 1837, Jim Crow was being used to refer to racial segregation. http://www. ... Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice (May, 1808 - September 16, 1860), was a comedian and the creator of the blackface form of comedy of the 19th century and early 20th century. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843. ... Jim Crow Jump Jim Crow is a song and dance from 1828 done in blackface by white comedian Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... White (collection: White people or White race) is a term used as a form of ethnic or racial classification of people. ...


Pop culture implications

In an episode of the Cartoon Network cartoon The Boondocks, during a flashback to a protest speech being given by Martin Luther King, Jr., the self-hating African-American character Uncle Ruckus is depicted yelling at Dr. King while holding a sign that says "I Love Jim Crow". The Boondocks cast. ...


Bibliography

  • America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War by Eric Foner; Olivia Mahoney (Harpercollins, January 1, 1995) ISBN 0060553464, (Perennial, February 1, 1995) ISBN 0807122343 (Louisiana State Univ Pr, November 1, 1997), reprint edition, ISBN 006096989X
  • At Freedom’s Door: African American Founding Fathers And Lawyers In Reconstruction South Carolina by James Lowell Underwood (editor) (Univ of South Carolina Pr, August 1, 2000), with Lewis W. Burke (editor), Eric Foner (introduced by), ISBN 1570033579 (Univ of South Carolina Pr, January 30, 2005), ISBN 1570035865
  • Black Like Me by John Howard Griffin (Signet, 1996) ISBN 0451192036
  • Black Reconstruction in America by W. E. B. Dubois (Atheneum: March 1, 1992) ISBN 0689708203
  • Forever Free: The Story Of Emancipation And Reconstruction by Eric Foner, Joshua Brown (Alfred a Knopf Inc, November 1, 2005), ISBN 0375402594
  • Freedom's Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction by Eric Foner (Oxford Univ Pr, April 1, 1993), ISBN 0807120820, (Louisiana State Univ Pr, July 1, 1996), revised edition, ISBN 0195074068
  • Reconstruction in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography by David A. Lincove; Eric Foner (foreword by) (Greenwood Pub Group, January 1, 2000), ISBN 0313291993
  • Reconstruction by Eric Foner, Cassette/Spoken Word (Blackstone Audiobooks, August 1, 1997) ISBN 0786102136, Cassette/Spoken Word (Blackstone Audiobooks, August 1, 1997), ISBN 0786102128
  • Reconstruction, America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 by Eric Foner (Harpercollins, April 1, 1988), 1st edition, ISBN 0060158514; (Harpercollins, March 1, 1989), illustrate edition, ISBN 006091453X; (Peter Smith Pub Inc, June 1, 2001), ISBN 0844671738; (Perennial, February 1, 2002), illustrate edition, ISBN 0060937165
  • Separate and Unequal: Homer Plessy and the Supreme Court Decision That Legalized Racism, by Harvey Fireside, Carroll & Graf, New York, 2004. ISBN 0786712937
  • A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877 by Eric Foner (Harpercollins, December 1, 1989), 1st edition, ISBN 0060964316
  • Slavery, the Civil War & Reconstruction by Eric Foner (Amer Historical Assn, September 1, 1991) ISBN 0872290921, (Amer Historical Assn, September 1, 1997), ISBN 0872290549
  • Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction by Page Smith, (McGraw Hill: 1982) ISBN 0070585717
  • Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow by Leon F. Litwack, (Alfred A. Knopf: 1998) "This is the most complete and moving account we have had of what the victims of the Jim Crow South suffered and somehow endured" — C. Vann Woodward, historian
  • We As Freemen: Plessy v. Ferguson by Keith Weldon Medley, Pelican Publishing Company, March, 2003. ISBN 1589801202. Tells the turn of the nineteenth century story of Homer Plessy, the shoemaker whom the U.S. Supreme Court ruled could not ride on the same trains as white passengers because he was one/eighth African American. The case legalized segregation in the U.S. for the next 58 years.

Black Like Me Black Like Me is a non-fiction book written by the white journalist John Howard Griffin about his experiences traveling as a black man in the segregated South in 1959. ... John Howard Griffin (June 16, 1920 - September 9, 1980) was a noted 20th century American writer best known for his critically acclaimed Black Like Me, an account of his journeys through the Deep South while disguised as an African-American. ... W. E. B. DuBois William Edward Burghardt DuBois (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African-American civil rights activist, sociologist, freemason, and scholar. ...

See also

Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868. ... The Dunning School was from 1900 to 1960 the dominant school of historiography regarding the Reconstruction period in American history, 1865-1877. ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated during the American Civil War. ... The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmens Bureau or (mistakenly) the Freedmans Bureau, was an agency of the government of the United States that was formed to aid distressed refugees of the United States Civil War, including former slaves and poor white... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... The Group Areas Act of 1950 (Act No. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist) referes to the historiographic tradition in American history adopted by the abolitionists after the Civil War. ... 1923 - The Native Urban Areas Act is passed by British Governors in South Africa - which deemed the urban areas white & forced all African men in cities & towns to carry permits called passes at all times. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation exists where governments have passed laws either allowing or requiring discrimination on the basis of race. ... The Radical Republicans were an influential group of American politicians in the Republican party (GOP) during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... Redemption, in the history of the United States, was a term used by white Southerners to refer to the reversion of the U.S. South to conservative Democratic rule after the period of Reconstruction (1865 - 1877), which in turn followed the U.S. Civil War. ... The term scalawag traces its origin to the Reconstruction era in the South of the United States. ... Second-class citizens are persons within a nation, state or other government polity who are politically discriminated against, or treated unequally relative to other citizens. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The History of Jim Crow (4463 words)
The word Jim Crow became a racial slur synonymous with fl, colored, or Negro in the vocabulary of many whites; and by the end of the century acts of racial discrimination toward fls were often referred to as Jim Crow laws and practices.
Numerous race riots erupted in the Jim Crow era, usually in towns and cities and almost always in defense of segregation and white supremacy.
Various registration laws, such as poll taxes, were established in Georgia in 1871 and 1877, in Virginia in 1877 and 1884, in Mississippi in 1876, in South Carolina in 1882, and in Florida in 1888.
What Was Jim Crow? (2542 words)
Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s.
Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that Blacks were introduced to Whites, never Whites to Blacks.
Under Jim Crow any and all sexual interactions between Black men and White women was illegal, illicit, socially repugnant, and within the Jim Crow definition of rape.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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