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Encyclopedia > Jihad
Flag, featuring the first Kalimah, the Shahada, used by Muslims' Army during early Islam.[citation needed]
Flag, featuring the first Kalimah, the Shahada, used by Muslims' Army during early Islam.[citation needed]

Jihad (Arabic: جهاد IPA: [ ʤi'haːd]), meaning "to strive" or "to struggle", in Arabic, is an Islamic term and a duty for Muslims. It appears frequently in the Qur'an and common usage as the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)".[1][2] A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid, the plural is mujahideen. Look up jihad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... For the Iranian opposition group, see Peoples Mujahedin of Iran. ...


A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this Islamic duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status.[3] In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion. Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ...


The meaning of jihad is disputed. According to scholar John Esposito, Jihad requires Muslims to "struggle in the way of God" or "to struggle to improve one's self and/or society."[3][4] Jihad is directed against the devil's inducements, aspects of one's own self, or against a visible enemy.[1][5] The four major categories of jihad that are recognized are Jihad against one's own self (self-perfection), Jihad of the tongue, Jihad of the hand, and Jihad of the sword.[5] Other sources deny jihad refers to war,[6] while still others define it as combat in the way of God, making no mention of non-violent jihad.[7] For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...

Contents

Usage of the term

The term Jihad used without any qualifiers is generally understood to be referring to war on behalf of Islam.[5] In broader usage and interpretation, the term has accrued both violent and non-violent meanings. It can imply striving to live a moral and virtuous life, spreading and defending Islam as well as fighting injustice and oppression, among other things.[8] The relative importance of these two forms of jihad is a matter of controversy.


Jihad as warfare (Jihad bis Saif)

Within Islamic jurisprudence Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible under Islamic law, and may be declared against apostates, rebels, highway robbers, violent groups, non-Islamic leaders or non-Muslim combatants, but there are other ways to perform jihad as well including civil disobedience.[9][10][5] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ...


In the classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the rules associated with armed warfare are covered at great length.[10] Such rules include not killing women, children and non-combatants, as well as not damaging cultivated or residential areas.[11] More recently, modern Muslims have tried to re-interpret the Islamic sources, stressing that Jihad is essentially defensive warfare aimed at protecting Muslims and Islam.[10] Although some Islamic scholars have differed on the implementation of Jihad, there is consensus amongst them that the concept of jihad will always include armed struggle against persecution and oppression.[12] The rules of war in Islam are the basic religious laws of war governing the military conduct of the mujahideen (literally those who struggle [for the Islamic faith]). These rules are part of a broader Islamic military doctrine encompassed by what some Muslims call Lesser Jihad. ... Jihad connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ...


The primary aim of armed jihad is not always the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the expansion and defense of the Islamic state. Thereafter, non-Muslims within the Islamic state would be encouraged to convert pursuant to Sharia Law and the Dhimmi system. Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...


Jihad has also been applied to offensive, aggressive warfare, as exemplified by early movements like the Kharijites and the contemporary Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization (which assassinated Anwar Al Sadat) as well as Jihad organizations in Lebanon, the Gulf states, and Indonesia.[3] When used to describe warfare between Islamic groups or individuals, such as al-Qaeda's attacks on civilians in Iraq, perpetrators of violence often cite collaboration with non-Islamic powers as a justification.[13] The terrorist attacks like September 11, 2001 planned and executed by radical Islamic fundamentalists have not been sanctioned by more centrist groups of Muslims.[14] Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Arab states of the Persian Gulf be merged into this article or section. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


When Muslim populations are attacked on the basis of religion, Jihad becomes mandatory on the government of that particular state (and all Muslims) until all hostile forces are either eliminated or negotiated out of the occupied land. If the threat continues to persist, the Islamic State may have to eliminate the threat through force.[citation needed]


The word itself is recorded in English since 1869, in the Muslim sense, and has been used for any doctrinal crusade since c. 1880.[15]


Non-violent jihad

Some Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad regarded the inner struggle for faith a greater Jihad than even fighting [by force] in the way of God,[16] and quote the famous but controversial hadith which has the prophet saying: "We have returned from the lesser jihad (battle) to the greater jihad (jihad of the soul)." [17]


In Modern Standard Arabic, jihad is one of the correct terms for a struggle for any cause, violent or not, religious or secular (though كفاح kifāḥ is also used). For instance, Mahatma Gandhi's struggle for Indian independence is called a "jihad" in Modern Standard Arabic (as well as many other dialects of Arabic) even though it was neither an Islamic struggle nor conducted violently; the same terminology is applied to the fight for women's liberation.[18] Literary Arabic ( the Eloquent Arabic language) or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the Indian subcontinent for independence from British colonial rule, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Feminists redirects here. ...


In modern times, Pakistani scholar and professor Fazlur Rahman has used the term to describe the struggle to establish "just moral-social order",[19] while President Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia has used it to describe the struggle for economic development in Tunisia.[20]


Controversy

Controversy has arisen over whether use of the term jihad without further explanation refers to jihad of the sword, and whether some have used confusion over the definition of the term to their advantage.[21]


Middle East historian Bernard Lewis argues that "the overwhelming majority of classical theologians, jurists, and traditionalists [i.e., specialists in the hadith] ... understood the obligation of jihad in a military sense."[22] For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ...


According to scholar David Cook:

In reading Muslim literature -- both contemporary and classical -- one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non-Western language (such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu), would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad. Such claims are made solely by Western scholars, primarily those who study Sufism and/or work in interfaith dialogue, and by Muslim apologists who are trying to present Islam in the most innocuous manner possible.[23] Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...

And according to Douglas Streusand, "in hadith collections, jihad means armed action; for example, the 199 references to jihad in the most standard collection of hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari, all assume that jihad means warfare."[24] Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


In Muslim tradition, the world is divided into two houses: the House of Islamic Peace (Dar al-Salam), in which Muslim governments rule and Muslim law prevails, and the House of War (Dar al-Harb), the rest of the world, still inhabited and, more important, ruled by infidels. The presumption is that that by natural law these domains will compete and fighting is inevitable therefore the duty of jihad will continue, interrupted only by truces, until all the world either adopts the Muslim faith or submits to Muslim rule. Those who fight in the jihad qualify for rewards in both worlds—booty in this one, paradise in the next. For most of the recorded history of Islam, from the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad onward, the word jihad was used in a primarily military sense. [25] Dar es Salaam (Arabic: [translation: Abode of Peace] Dār as-Salām, Yer u-salem), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city in Tanzania. ... Dar al-Harb (Arabic: house of war) is a term used in many Islamic countries to refer to those areas outside Muslim rule. ... An infidel (literally, one without faith) is one who doubts or rejects central tenets of a religion, especially those regarding its deities. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Views of Jihad of different Muslim groups

Sunni view of Jihad

See also: Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad

Jihad has been classified either as al-jihād al-akbar (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's soul (nafs), or al-jihād al-asghar (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting. Jihad connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ...


Gibril Haddad has analyzed the basis for the belief that internal jihad is the "greater jihad", Jihad al-akbar. Haddad identifies the primary historical basis for this belief in a pair of similarly worded hadeeth, in which Mohammed is reported to have told warriors returning home that they had returned from the lesser jihad of struggle against non-Muslims to a greater jihad of struggle against lust. Although Haddad notes that the authenticity of both hadeeth is questionable, he nevertheless concludes that the underlying principle of superiority internal jihad does have a reliable basis in the Qur'an and other writings.[26][27] Gibril Fouad Haddad (b. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


On the other hand, the Hanbali scholar Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya did believe that "internal Jihad" is important[28] but he suggests those hadith as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".[29] Contemporary Islamic scholar Abdullah Yusuf Azzam has argued the hadith is not just weak but "is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality."[30] Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Not to be confused with the other Islamic scholar Ibn al-Jawzi. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (born 1941 As-baah Al-Hartiyeh, British Mandate of Palestine – died November 24, 1989, Peshawar, Pakistan) (Arabic عبدالله عزام) was a highly influential Palestinian Islamic scholar and theologian, and a central figure in preaching for defensive jihad by Musilms to help the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet...


Muslim scholars explained there are five kinds of jihad fi sabilillah (struggle in the cause of God):[31]

  • Jihad of the heart/soul (jihad bil qalb/nafs) is an inner struggle of good against evil in the mind, through concepts such as tawhid.
  • Jihad by the tongue (jihad bil lisan) is a struggle of good against evil waged by writing and speech, such as in the form of dawah (proselytizing), Khutbas (sermons), etc.
  • Jihad by the pen and knowledge (jihad bil qalam/lim) is a struggle for good against evil through scholarly study of Islam, ijtihad (legal reasoning), and through sciences.
  • Jihad by the hand (jihad bil yad) refers to a struggle of good against evil waged by actions or with one's wealth, such as going on the Hajj pilgrimage (seen as the best jihad for women), taking care of elderly parents, or political activity for furthering the cause of Islam.
  • Jihad by the sword (jihad bis saif) refers to qital fi sabilillah (armed fighting in the way of God, or holy war), the most common usage by Salafi Muslims and offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood.

Some contemporary Islamists have succeeded in replacing the greater jihad, the fight against desires, with the lesser jihad, the holy war to establish, defend and extend the Islamic state.[32] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Khutba (خطبة) is an Arabic term referring to the Islamic sermon delivered either before the Friday Salah (see: Jumuah) and after the Eid Salat. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political...


Shi'a view of Jihad

Shi'a Muslims classify Jihad into two; the Greater Jihad and the Lesser Jihad.[33] The Lesser Jihad refers to defending oneself, one's family and community against oppression and tyranny, upon which there are strict regulations.[34] The Greater Jihad refers to the struggle inside oneself to obey God (Arabic: Allah) and reject sin.[35] The Greater Jihad, or the struggle to follow God (Allah) and reject sin, is one of the Twelver (Arabic: Ithna 'Ashariyya) Shia Practices of the Religion. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ...


Sufic view of Jihad

The Sufic view classifies "Jihad" into two; the "Greater Jihad" and the "Lesser Jihad". It is Muhammad who put the emphasis on the "greater Jihad" by saying that "Holy is the warrior who wrestles ("struggles") with himself". Here Muhammad was inferring Jacob's "wrestling" with the angel by which he gained the name "Israel". In this sense external wars and strife are seen but a satanic counterfeit of the true "jihad" which can only be fought and won within; no other Salvation existing can save man without the efforts of the man himself being added to the work involved of self-refinement. In this sense it is the western view of the Holy Grail which comes closest to the Sufic ideal; for to the Sufis Perfection is the Grail; and the Holy Grail is for those who after they become perfect by giving all they have to the poor then go on to become "Abdal" or "changed ones" like Enoch who was "taken" by God because he "walked with God". (Genesis:5:24) here the "Holy Ones" gain the surname "Hadrat" or "The Presence". Jihad (ǧihād جهاد) is an Arabic word which comes from the Arabic root word jahada; which means exerting utmost effort or to strive. ... Jihad (ǧihād جهاد) is an Arabic word which comes from the Arabic root word jahada; which means exerting utmost effort or to strive. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


Jihad as warfare

See also: Offensive jihad, Defensive jihad, Ghazw, Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad, and Itmam al-hujjah

The Qur’an asserts that if the use of force would not have been allowed in curbing the evils by nations, the disruption and disorder caused by insurgent nations could have reached the extent that the places of worship would have become deserted and forsaken. As it states: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... There are two types of armed religious warfare in Islam, namely the defensive Jihad and the offensive Jihad. ... There are two types of armed religious warfare in Islam, namely the defensive Jihad and the offensive Jihad. ... This article is about the history and concept of ghazw and ghāzÄ«. For other meanings of gazi, see Gazi (disambiguation). ... Jihad connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ... Itmām al-hujjah (Arabic completion of proof, from completion, realization and pretext, proof) is an Islamic term, which is used when the unveiling of truth by a Messenger of God to his addressees occurs to the extent that the addressees have no excuse but stubbornness and enmity to deny...

And had it not been that Allah checks one set of people with another, the monasteries and churches, the synagogues and the mosques, in which His praise is abundantly celebrated would have been utterly destroyed.

Qur'an[Qur'an 22:40]

Javed Ahmed Ghamidi divides just warfare into two types:[36] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ...

  1. Against injustice and oppression
  2. Against the rejecters of truth after it has become evident to them

The first type of Jihad is generally considered eternal, but Ghamidi holds that the second is specific to people who were selected by God for delivering the truth as an obligation. They are called witnesses of the truth (Arabic:شهادة, see also Itmam al-hujjah); the implication being that they bear witness to the truth before other people in such a complete and ultimate manner that no one is left with an excuse to deny the truth.[36] There is a dispute among Islamic jurists as to whether the act of being "witness" was only for the Companions of Muhammad or whether this responsibility is still being held by modern Muslims, which may entitle them to take actions to subdue other Non-Muslim nations. Proponents of Companions of Muhammad as being "the witness" translate the following verse only for the Companions[36] while others translate it for the whole Muslim nation.[37] As in Qur'an: Itmām al-hujjah (Arabic completion of proof, from completion, realization and pretext, proof) is an Islamic term, which is used when the unveiling of truth by a Messenger of God to his addressees occurs to the extent that the addressees have no excuse but stubbornness and enmity to deny... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

And similarly [O Companions of the Prophet!] We have made you an intermediate group[38] so that you be witnesses [to this religion] before the nations, and the Messenger be such a witness before you. In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...

Qur'an[Qur'an 2:143]

Similarly, proponents of Companions of Muhammad as being "the witness" present following verse to argue that Companions of Muhammad were chosen people as witnesses just as God chooses Messengers from mankind. As in Qur'an:[36] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...

He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the religion of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this [Qur’an]: [He chose you so that] the Messenger may be a witness [of this religion] to you, and you be witnesses of this religion to non-Muslims [of your times].

Qur'an[Qur'an 22:78]

Following is the first verse of the Qur’an in which the Companions of Muhammad, who had migrated from Mecca were given permission to fight back if they were attacked:[36] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

Permission to take up arms is hereby given to those who are attacked because they have been oppressed – Allah indeed has power to grant them victory – those who have been unjustly driven from their homes, only because they said: “Our Lord is Allah”.

Qur'an[Qur'an 22:39]

The reason for this directive in Medina instead of Mecca considered by most Muslim scholars is that without political authority armed offensives become tantamount to spreading disorder and anarchy in the society. As one of Islamic jurist writes: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

Among Kafayah obligations, the third category is that for which the existence of a ruler is necessary e.g., Jihad and execution of punishments. Therefore, only a ruler has this prerogative. Because, indeed, no one else has the right to punish another person.

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Directive of warfare

The directive of the Jihad given to Muslims in Qur'an is:[36]


These verses told Muslims that they should not merely fight the Banu Quraish if they resist them in offering Hajj, but the Qur’an goes on to say that they should continue to fight the Banu Quraish until the persecution perpetrated by them is uprooted and Islam prevails in the whole of Arabia. Initially Muslims were required to fulfill this responsibility even if the enemy was ten times their might. Afterwards, the Qur'an reduced the burden of this responsibility.[36] As in Qur'an: Banu Quraish was the dominant tribe of Mecca. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Banu Quraish was the dominant tribe of Mecca. ...

Prophet! Rouse the believers to wage war. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will subdue two hundred: if a hundred, they will subdue a thousand of the disbelievers: for these are a people without understanding.

Qur'an[Qur'an 8:65]

[From] now, God has lightened your [task] for He knows that there is now weakness amongst you: But [ever so], if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will subdue two hundred, and if a thousand, they will subdue two thousand, with the leave of God: for God is with those who patiently persevere. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Qur'an[Qur'an 8:66]

Some interpret above verses that Jihad never becomes obligatory unless the military might of the Muslims is up to a certain level. In the times of Muhammad, when large scale conversions took place in the later phase, the Qur'an reduced the Muslim to enemy ratio to 1:2. It seems that Muslims should not only consolidate their moral character, but it is also imperative for them to build their military might if they want to wage Jihad when the need arises. The Qur’an gave a similar directive to Muslims of Muhammad times in the following words:[36] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Muster against them all the men and cavalry at your disposal so that you can strike terror into the enemies of Allah and of the believers and others beside them who may be unknown to you, though Allah knows them. And remember whatever you spend for the cause of Allah shall be repaid to you. You shall not be wronged.

Qur'an[Qur'an 8:60]

While other scholars consider the later command of ratio 1:2 only for a particular time.[39] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


A policy was adopted regarding the extent of requirement that arose in wars that the Muslims had to fight. In the battles of Badr, Uhud and Tabuk, the responsibility was much more and each Muslim was required to present his services as a combatant.[36] As in Qur'an: This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... view of Mt. ... Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) is the capital city of the Tabuk province in north western Saudi Arabia. ...

Not equal are those of the believers who sit [at home] without any [genuine] excuse and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has given preference by a degree to those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit [at home]. [In reality], for each, Allah has made a good promise and [in reality] Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight above those who sit [at home] by a huge reward. Degrees of [higher] grades from Him and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Qur'an[Qur'an 4:95]

Qur'an also states that turning backs in the battle field, except for tactical purposes, is a big sin and will bring wrath of God.[40] As in Qur'an: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

O you who believe! when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war, then turn not your backs to them. And whoever shall turn his back to them on that day-- unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to a company-- then he, indeed, becomes deserving of Allah's wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil destination shall it be.

Qur'an[Qur'an 8:15]

The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

The driving force

Islamic scholars agree that Jihad should not be undertaken to gratify one’s whims nor to obtain wealth and riches. Many also consider that it must also not be undertaken to conquer territories and rule them or to acquire fame or to appease the emotions of communal support, partisanship and animosity. On the contrary, it should be undertaken only and only for the cause of Allah as is evident from the words.[36] As in Qur'an:

Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Satan. So fight you against the friends of Satan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.

Qur'an[Qur'an 4:76]

Prophet Muhammad, at various instances, also explained very forcefully this purport of the Qur’an: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

  • Abu Musa Ash‘ari (rta) narrates that once a person came to the Prophet (sws) and said that some people fight for the spoils of war, some for fame and some to show off their valor; he then asked the Prophet (sws): “Which one of them fights in the way of Allah”. The Prophet (sws) replied: “Only that person fights in the way of Allah who sets foot in the battlefield to raise high the name of Allah”. Sahih Bukhari 2810
  • Abu Hurayrah (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “I swear by the Almighty that a person who is wounded in the way of Allah – and Allah knows full well who is actually wounded in His way – he would be raised on the Day of Judgement such that his colour be the colour of blood with the fragrance of musk around him”. Sahih Bukhari 2803
  • Ibn Jabr narrates from the Prophet (sws): “A person whose feet become dust ridden because of [striving] in the way of Allah will never be touched by the flames of Hell”. Sahih Bukhari 2811
  • Sahal Ibn Sa‘ad says that the Prophet (sws) once said: “To reside in a border area for a day to protect [people] against an enemy [invasion] is better than this world and everything it has”. Sahih Bukhari 2892

Similarly as a reward for participation in such a strive, the Qur'an states: The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...

Consider not those who are killed in the way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive with their Lord, and they will be provided for. They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty and rejoice for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind [not yet martyred] that on them too no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve. They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers.

Qur'an[Qur'an 3:169]

The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Ethical limits

Main article: Rules of war in Islam

Islamic Law, based upon the Quran and practices of Muhammad has set down a set of laws to be observed during the lesser Jihad. The rules of war in Islam are the basic religious laws of war governing the military conduct of the mujahideen (literally those who struggle [for the Islamic faith]). These rules are part of a broader Islamic military doctrine encompassed by what some Muslims call Lesser Jihad. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...


Qur'an forbids fighting in sacred month and similarly within the boundaries of Haram. But if non-Muslims disregard these sanctities, Muslims are asked to retaliate in equal measure.[41] It is stated in Qur'an: This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ...

A sacred month for a sacred month; [similarly] other sacred things too are subject to retaliation. So if any one transgresses against you, you should also pay back in equal coins. Have fear of Allah and [keep in mind that] Allah is with those who remain within the bounds [stipulated by religion].

Qur'an[Qur'an 2:194]

Observance of treaties and pacts is stressed in Qur'an. When some Muslims were still in Mecca, and they couldn't migrate to Medina, the Qur'an stated: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

And to those who accepted faith but did not migrate [to Madinah], you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate; but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance; and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.

Qur'an[Qur'an 8:72]

Similar reports are attributed to Muhammad: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

  • Abu Sa‘id (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “On the Day of Judgment, to proclaim the traitorship of a traitor and the betrayal of a person who betrayed his words, a flag shall be hoisted which would be as high as [the extent of his] traitorship”, and [the Prophet (sws) also said]: “Remember that no traitor and betrayer of promises is greater than the one who is the leader and ruler of people”. Sahih Muslim 1738

Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ...

Objectives of warfare

According to verses [Qur'an 2:190], the Qur'an implies two objectives:[36] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

  1. Uproot fitnah (فتنة) or persecution
  2. Establish supremacy of Islam in the world

Against persecution

Directives for action against persecution and unbelief:

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do.

Qur'an[Qur'an 8:39]

Also: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

And what has come over you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: ‘Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help. [You should know that] those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Satan. So fight you against the friends of Satan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.

Qur'an[Qur'an 4:75]

Most Muslim scholars consider it an eternal directive and believe that all types of oppression should be considered under this directive.[36][42] Similarly, if a group of Muslims commit unwarranted aggression against some of their brothers and does not desist from it even after all attempts of reconciliation, such a group according to the Qur’an should be fought with: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

And if two parties or groups among the believers start fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you against the one which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. Then if it complies, make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are the equitable. The believers are brothers to one another. So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah that you may receive mercy.

Qur'an[Qur'an 49:9]

If Muslims do not have a state, then in such a situation, Muhammad while answering a question raised by one of his followers, directed Muslims to dissociate themselves from such anarchy and disorder: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

I asked: If there is no state or ruler of the Muslims? He replied: In this situation, dissociate yourself from all groups, even if you have to chew the roots of a tree at the time of your death. Sahih Bukhari 7084

The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...

Supremacy of Islam in the Arabian peninsula

It is stated in Qur'an:

Indeed those who are opposing Allah and His Messenger are bound to be humiliated. The Almighty has ordained: ‘‘I and My Messengers shall always prevail’’. Indeed Allah is Mighty and Powerful.

Qur'an[Qur'an 58:20]

After Itmam al-hujjah (clarification of religion to the addressees in its ultimate form), Jews were the ones who were subdued first. They had been granted amnesty because of various pacts. Those among them who violated these pacts were given the punishment of denying a Messenger of God.[36] Muhammad exiled the tribe of Banu Qaynuqa to Khyber and that of Banu Nadir to Syria.[43] The power they wielded at Khyber was crushed by an attack at their strongholds.[44] Prior to this, Abu al-Rafi and Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf were put to death in their houses.[45] The tribe of Banu Qurayza was guilty of treachery and disloyalty in the battle of the Ahzab.[46] When the clouds of war dispersed and the chances of an external attack no longer remained, Muhammad laid siege around them. When no hope remained, they asked Muhammad to appoint Sa'd ibn Mua'dh as an arbitrator to decide their fate. Their request was accepted. Since, at that time, no specific punishment had been revealed in the Qur’an about the fate of the Jews, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh announced his verdict in accordance with the Torah. As per the Torah, the punishment in such situations was that all men should be put to death; the women and children should be made slaves and the wealth of the whole nation should be distributed among the conquerors.[47][48] In accordance with this verdict pronounced, all men were executed.[49] John Esposito writes that Muhammad's use of warfare in general was alien neither to Arab custom nor to that of the Hebrew prophets, as both believed that God had sanctioned battle with the enemies of the Lord.[50] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Itmām al-hujjah (Arabic completion of proof, from completion, realization and pretext, proof) is an Islamic term, which is used when the unveiling of truth by a Messenger of God to his addressees occurs to the extent that the addressees have no excuse but stubbornness and enmity to deny... The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Do you mean: The Khyber Pass, which links Pakistan to Afghanistan Carry On Up the Khyber, the 1966 Carry On film about the British on the Northwest Frontier ... Banu Nadir (Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Do you mean: The Khyber Pass, which links Pakistan to Afghanistan Carry On Up the Khyber, the 1966 Carry On film about the British on the Northwest Frontier ... Abu al-Rafi ibn Abu al-Huqayq was a chieftain of the Jewish tribes of the Khaibar oasis. ... Kab ibn al-Ashraf (Arabic: كعب بن الاشرف)(d. ... Detail from miniature painting The Prophet, Ali, and the Companions at the Massacre of the Prisoners of the Jewish Tribe of Beni Qurayzah, illustration of a 19th century text by Muhammad Rafi Bazil. ... Sa’d ibn Muadh was a chief of the Banu Aus tribe in Yathrib. ... Sa’d ibn Muadh was a chief of the Banu Aus tribe in Yathrib. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ...


No other incident of note took place regarding the Jews until the revelation of At-Tawba, the final judgement, was declared against them:[36] Surat at-Tawba (Arabic: سورة التوبة ) (the Repentance) is the 9th sura of the Quran, with 129 ayat according to mainstream Islam and 127 ayat according to Quran Alone Muslims. ...

Fight those who believe not in Allah or the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth, from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and are subdued.

Qur'an[Qur'an 9:29]

This directive related to both the Jews and the Christians. The punishment mentioned in these verses is a show of lenience to them because they were originally adherents to monotheism. However, they did not benefit from this lenience because after the death of Muhammad they once again allegedly resorted to fraud and treachery.[51][52][53][54] Consequently, the Jews of Khyber and the Christians of Najran were exiled once and for all from the Arabian peninsula by Umar. This exile actually fulfilled the following declaration of the Qur’an about them:[36] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Do you mean: The Khyber Pass, which links Pakistan to Afghanistan Carry On Up the Khyber, the 1966 Carry On film about the British on the Northwest Frontier ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...

And had it not been that Allah had decreed exile for them, He would certainly have punished them in this world; and in the Hereafter theirs shall be the torment of the Fire.

Qur'an[Qur'an 59:3]

When the polytheists of Arabia had been similarly subdued, it was proclaimed in At-Tawba that in future no pact would be made with them. They would be given a final respite of four months and then they would be humiliated in retribution of their deeds and would in no way be able to escape from this punishment. After this time limit, the declaration is made in the Qur’an:[36] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Surat at-Tawba (Arabic: سورة التوبة ) (the Repentance) is the 9th sura of the Quran, with 129 ayat according to mainstream Islam and 127 ayat according to Quran Alone Muslims. ...

And a declaration should be made from Allah and His Messenger to these people on the day of the great Hajj that Allah is free from [all] obligations to these Idolaters and so is His Messenger. So if you [O Idolaters!] repent, it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape from the grasp of Allah. And give tidings [O Muhammad (sws)] of a painful torment to these disbelievers. Except those of these Idolaters with whom you have a treaty, and who have not shown treachery in it nor have supported anyone against you. So fulfill their treaty to the end of their term. Indeed, Allah loves those who abide by the limits. Then when the sacred months [after the Hajj] have passed, kill these Idolaters wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush. But if they repent and establish the prayer, and give Zakah, then leave them alone. Indeed, Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful. A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

Qur'an[Qur'an 9:3]

After the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Muhammad himself singled out nations by writing letters to them. In all, they were written to the heads of eight countries.[55] Consequently, after consolidating their rule in the Arabian peninsula, the Companions launched attacks against these countries giving them two options if they wanted to remain alive: to accept faith or to accept a life of subjugation by paying Jizya. None of these nations were considered to be adherents to polytheism, otherwise they would have been treated in the same way as the Idolaters of Arabia.[36]. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...


Warfare in Muslim societies

History records instances of the "call for jihad" being invoked by Islamic leaders to 'legitimate' wars of conquest. The major imperial Muslim dynasties of Ottoman Turkey (Sunni) and Persia (Shia) each established systems of authority around traditional Islamic institutions. Part of this incorporation involved various interpretations of jihad.[citation needed] For example, in the Ottoman empire the concept of ghaza was promulgated as a sister obligation to jihad. The Ottoman ruler Mehmed II is said to have insisted on the conquest of Constantinople (Christian Byzantium) by justifying ghaza as a basic duty. Later Ottoman rulers would apply ghaza to justify military campaigns against the Persian Safavid dynasty. Thus both rival empires established a tradition that a ruler was only considered truly in charge when his armies has been sent into the field in the name of the true faith, usually against giaurs or heretics -often meaning each other-, often invoking some Sufi or other theological dispute, but rather driven by the universal craving for power, prestige, and if possible booty or territory.[citation needed]. The 'missionary' vocation of the Muslim dynasties was prestigious enough to be officially reflected in a formal title as part of a full ruler style- the Ottoman (many also had Ghazi as part of their name) Sultan Murad Khan II Khoja-Ghazi, 6th Sovereign of the House of Osman (1421 - 1451), literally used Sultan ul-Mujahidin[citation needed]. Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzÄ«. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against either... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Arabic term for those who engage in Islamic holy war–jihad (struggle). The word is a plural form of , , which literally translated from Arabic means struggler but is often translated in the West as holy warrior. ...


The so-called Fulbe jihad states and a few other jihad states in western Africa were established by a series of offensive wars.[3] The Fula is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa, from Mauritania in the northwest to Cameroon in the east. ... West Africa is the region of western Africa generally considered to include these countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Equatorial Guinea Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Chad, Mauritania, and...


The commands inculcated in the Quran (in five suras from the period after Muhammad had established his power) on Muslims to put to the sword those who will neither embrace Islam nor pay a poll-tax (Jizya) were not interpreted as a general injunction on all Muslims constantly to make war on the infidels (originally only polytheists who claimed to be monotheists, not "People of the Book", Jesus is seen as the last of the precursors of the Prophet Muhammed; the word infidel had different historical uses, notably used by the Crusaders to refer to the Muslims they were fighting against). It was generally supposed that the order for a general war can only be given by the Caliph (an office that was claimed by the Ottoman sultans), but Muslims who did not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Caliphate (which is vacant), such as non-Sunnis and non-Ottoman Muslim states, always looked to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Muslims on non-believers since the early caliphate. Some proclaimed Jihad by claiming themselves as mahdi, e.g. the Sudanese Mahommed Ahmad in 1882. In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... Muhammad Ahmad. ...


Non-Muslim opinions

Barbary Pirates

The Barbary Pirates is what Europe and the United States called the 18th century Jihad[56] [57]by Ottoman corsairs, an Islamic group that attacked as far north in Europe as Iceland. The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ...


Modern Views

The United States Department of Justice has used its own ad hoc definitions of jihad in indictments of individuals involved in terrorist activities: The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ...

  • "As used in this First Superseding Indictment, 'Jihad' is the Arabic word meaning 'holy war'. In this context, jihad refers to the use of violence, including paramilitary action against persons, governments deemed to be enemies of the fundamentalist version of Islam."[58]
  • "As used in this Superseding Indictment, 'violent jihad' or 'jihad' include planning, preparing for, and engaging in, acts of physical violence, including murder, maiming, kidnapping, and hostage-taking."[59] in the indictment against several individuals including José Padilla.

Karen Armstrong in her book "Muhammed", writes: José Padilla (born October 18, 1970), also known as Abdullah al-Muhajir or Muhajir Abdullah, is a United States citizen convicted of aiding terrorists. ... Karen Armstrong (b. ...

"Fighting and warfare might sometimes be necessary, but it was only a minor part of the whole jihad or struggle."[60]

The Orientalist, Maxime Rodinson, wrote that "Jihad is a propagandistic device which, as need be, resorts to armed struggle – two ingredients common to many ideological movements." (Maxime Rodinson. Muhammad. Random House, Inc., New York, 2002. p. 351.) Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ... Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915–23 May 2004) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist. ...


In English-speaking countries, especially the United States, the term jihadist, technically a euphemism of mujahid, is frequently used to describe militant Islamic groups, including but not restricted to Islamic terrorism. Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. (1999). Ed. Wendy Doniger. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 087-7790442. , Jihad, p.571
  2. ^ Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. (2005). Ed. Josef W. Meri. Routledge. ISBN 041-5966906. , Jihad, p.419
  3. ^ a b c John Esposito(2005), Islam: The Straight Path, pp.93
  4. ^ Humphreys, Stephen (2005). Between Memory and Desire. University of California Press. ISBN 052-0246918.  pg 174-176
  5. ^ a b c d Firestone, Rueven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019-5125800.  pg. 17
  6. ^ Islam: Did you know Jihad does NOT mean 'Holy War'?
  7. ^ What Does Jihad Mean? by Douglas E. Streusand Middle East Quarterly, September 1997
  8. ^ Esposito (2002a), p.26
  9. ^ "Djihād". Encyclopedia of Islam Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  10. ^ a b c R. Peters (1977), pp.3-5
  11. ^ Maududi. Human Rights in Islam, Chapter Four. Retrieved on 2006-01-09.
  12. ^ Ghamidi, Javed (2001). "The Islamic Law of Jihad", Mizan. Dar ul-Ishraq. 
  13. ^ VII. Attacks on Civilians Applying for the Iraqi Security Forces. Human Rights Watch (October 2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  14. ^ John K. Roth, Ethics, p.775
  15. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  16. ^ BBC - Religion & Ethics - Jihad: The internal Jihad. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  17. ^ JOIN THE CARAVAN Imam Abdullah Azzam
  18. ^ Al-Batal, Mahmoud; Kristen Brustad, and Abbas Al-Tonsi (2006). "6-"من رائدات الحركة النسائية العربية" (One of the Pioneers of the Arabic Feminist Movement)", Al-Kitaab fii Tacllum al-cArabiyya, Part II, 2 (in Arabic, English), Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-1-58901-096-3. “To struggle or exert oneself for a cause........جاهََدَ، يجاهِد، الجهاد” 
  19. ^ Fazlur Rahman, Major Themes of the Qur'an, (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980), pp. 63-64.
  20. ^ Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner, 1996), pp. 116-17
  21. ^ What Does Jihad Mean? "For example, Yasir Arafat's May 1994 call in Johannesburg for a "jihad to liberate Jerusalem" was a turning point in the peace process; Israelis heard him speak about using violence to gain political ends and questioned his peaceable intentions. Both Arafat himself and his aides then clarified that he was speaking about a "peaceful jihad" for Jerusalem."
  22. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 72.
  23. ^ Cook, David, Understanding Jihad, University of California Press, 2005, p.165-6
  24. ^ Muhammad ibn Isma'il Bukhari, The Translation of the Meaning of Sahih al-Bukhari, trans. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, 8 vols. (Medina: Dar al-Fikr: 1981), 4:34-204. Quoted in Douglas Streusand, `What Does Jihad Mean?` Middle East Quarterly, September 1997.
  25. ^ Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam, 2001 Chapter 2
  26. ^ Haddad, Gibril (2005-02-28). Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith (HTML). living Islam. Retrieved on August 16, 2006.
  27. ^ Haddad, Gibril. RE: Accusations on Shaykh Hamza Yusuf (HTML). sunnipath.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2006.]
  28. ^ http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/dgjh_e.html
  29. ^ Jihad in the Hadith, Peace with Realism, April 16, 2006
  30. ^ JOIN THE CARAVAN
  31. ^ Jihad (HTML). Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft® (2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  32. ^ Understanding Jihad, February, 2005
  33. ^ http://www.al-islam.org/al-serat/jihad-nasr.htm
  34. ^ http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/books/jihad/3.htm
  35. ^ http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/greater_jihad.htm
  36. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  37. ^ Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, The Meaning of the Qur'an (tafsir), commentary on verse 2:143.[1]
  38. ^ This means that this group stands between Muhammad and the rest of the world who were able to observe the whole process of witnessing
  39. ^ Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. Tafhim al-Qur'an. Verse 8:66
  40. ^ Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), pp. 450-1
  41. ^ Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), pp. 479-80
  42. ^ Concept of Dar Al-Islam and Dar Al-Harb, Islamonline.net.[2]
  43. ^ Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 40-2 / Ibid. vol. 3, pp. 151-160
  44. ^ Ibid., pp. 40-2 / Ibid., pp. 151-160
  45. ^ Ibid., pp. 43-8 / Ibn Sa‘ad, al-Tabaqatu’l-Kubra, vol. 2, (Beirut: Dar Sadir, 1960), p. 28
  46. ^ Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 180-2
  47. ^ Deuteronomy, 20:10-14
  48. ^ Caesar E. Farah. Islam: Beliefs and Observances, pp.52
  49. ^ Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 188-9
  50. ^ John Esposito(2005), Islam: The Straight Path, p.15
  51. ^ Sahih Bukhari, 2730
  52. ^ Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-kharaj, Fasl fi’l-Fay wa al-Khiraj, (1302 AH), p. 42
  53. ^ Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri, Futuhu’l-Buldan, (Qumm: Manshurat al-Arummiyyah, 1404 AH), p. 73
  54. ^ Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh, 1st ed., vol. 2, (Beirut: Dar Beirut, 1965), p. 112
  55. ^ The names of these heads of state are: 1. Negus of Abyssinia, 2. Maqawqas of Egypt, 3. Khusro Parvez of Persia, 4. Qaysar of Rome, 5. Mundhar Ibn Sawi of Bahrain, 6. Hudhah Ibn ‘Ali of Yamamah, 7. Harith Ibn Abi Shamr of Damascus, 8. Jayfar of Amman, see Muhammad as a diplomat
  56. ^ Andrew C. Hess. The Evolution of the Ottoman Seaborne Empire in the Age of the Oceanic Discoveries, 1453-1525. The American Historical Review, Vol. 75, No. 7 (Dec., 1970), pp. 1892-1919
  57. ^ H. W. Crocker III, Lepanto, 1571: The Battle That Saved Europe. Crisis Magazine. http://www.crisismagazine.com/december2006/croker.htm
  58. ^ http://www.milnet.com/2nd-indictment-hayat-dist-court.pdf
  59. ^ http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/padilla/uspad111705ind.pdf
  60. ^ B.A. Robinson (2003-03-28). The Concept of Jihad "Struggle" in Islam (HTML). Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved on August 16, 2006.

Wendy Doniger (born November 20, 1940) is an American professor of religion, active in international religious studies since 1973. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Dr. Josef (Yousef) Waleed Meri (born 1969) is a leading specialist in Islam in the pre-modern period, Islamic cultural and social history and interfaith relations. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in October 28: Richard Smalley 26: Emil Kyulev 24: José Azcona del Hoyo 24: Rosa Parks 23: Stella Obasanjo 22: Liam Lawlor 22: Shirley Horn 20: Endon Mahmood 17: Ba Jin 10: Milton Obote 7: Charles... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prof. ... Gibril Fouad Haddad (b. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gibril Fouad Haddad (b. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... The Meaning of the Quran (Arabic: Tafhim al-Quran) is a book in six volumes written by the Sunni Islamic scholar Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (1903-1979). ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... The Meaning of the Quran is a book in six volumes written by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. ... Amin Ahsan Islahi (1904–1997) was an Indian/Pakistani exegete of the Quran , who became famous for his Urdu exegeses of Quran, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an—an exegesis that he based on Hamiduddin Farahis (1863-1930) idea of thematic and structural coherence in the Quran. ... Tadabbur-i-Qur’an is a tafsir (exegeses) of the Quran by Amin Ahsan Islahi based on the concept of thematic and structural coherence, which was originally inspired by Allama Hamiduddin Farahi. ... Amin Ahsan Islahi (1904–1997) was an Indian/Pakistani exegete of the Quran , who became famous for his Urdu exegeses of Quran, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an—an exegesis that he based on Hamiduddin Farahis (1863-1930) idea of thematic and structural coherence in the Quran. ... Tadabbur-i-Qur’an is a tafsir (exegeses) of the Quran by Amin Ahsan Islahi based on the concept of thematic and structural coherence, which was originally inspired by Allama Hamiduddin Farahi. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... Caesar E. Farah is a professor of history at the University of Minesota. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari, better known as Abu Yusuf (Arabic:أبو يوسف) (d. ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri, Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Al Biladuri. ... Ibn Athir is the family name of three brothers, all famous in Arabian literature, born at JazIrat ibn Umar in Kurdistan. ... Imprint of seal stamped on letters sent by Muhammad. ... 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See also

Islamic military jurisprudence consists of the basic religious laws governing warfare and the military conduct of those who participate in it. ... Itmām al-hujjah (Arabic completion of proof, from completion, realization and pretext, proof) is an Islamic term, which is used when the unveiling of truth by a Messenger of God to his addressees occurs to the extent that the addressees have no excuse but stubbornness and enmity to deny... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Jihad connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle. ... Aslim Taslam (Arabic: أسلم تسلم) (submit to Islam) is a phrase that was taken from the letters sent by the Prophet Muhammed to the chiefs of tribes in his times in which he urged them to convert to Islam to spare their lives. ... Hirabah is the Arabic word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”. Hirabah comes from the root hariba, which means “to become angry and enraged”. The noun harb (pl. ...

Political and military aspects

The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad, viewed by Muslims as the last prophet of Islam, was, amongst other things, a military leader during the last ten years of his life. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Imam Shamil Imam Shamil (1797 – March 1871) was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Islam in the world. ...

Similar concepts in other religions and in secularism

The church militant comprises Christians who are living; the church triumphant comprises those who are in Heaven. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Zealotry. ... A religious war is a war where the main cause is, or appears to be, religion or religious differences. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Many Muslims in the Middle East regard the American occupation of Iraq to be part of a long-standing Crusade of the West against Islam. ... The doctrine of the just war has its foundations in ancient Greek society and was first developed in the Christian tradition by Augustine in Civitas Dei, The City of God, in reaction to the absolutist pacifist strain of Christian ethics based on the doctrine of Turn the other cheek espoused... // Introduction The Goumiere were the Algerian and Moroccon troops who fought alongside the Allied forces during their campaigns in WWII. From November 17, 1942 to July 14, 1943 their unrivalled persistence, and love of night invasion brought trembling and many a sleepless night into the hearts of the Italians and... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... It has been suggested that Tapasya be merged into this article or section. ... Flagellants mortifying the flesh, at the time of the Black Death Mortification of the flesh literally means putting the flesh to death. The term is primarily used in religious contexts, and is practiced in a variety of ways. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Moki redirects here. ...

Philosophers of Jihad doctrine

Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab at-Tamimi (1703AD – 1792AD) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمي) was an Arab theologian born in Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and an influential scholar among modern Salafis; it is from him that the term Wahhabism is derived. ... Syed Ahmad of Rai Bareilly (b. ... Hassan al Banna (October 14, 1906 - February 12, 1949) was an Egyptian Islamist best known for founding the Muslim Brotherhood or Ikhwan ul Muslimeen. ... Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (IPA pronunciation: []) (also Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, or Sayed; last name also Koteb or Kutb) (Arabic: ; born October 9, 1906[1] – executed August 29, 1966) was an Egyptian author, Islamist, and the leading intellectual of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 60s. ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (died 1106) was a Damascene jurist and philologist who was the first to preach jihad against the crusaders in the aftermath of the First Crusade. ... Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (born 1941 As-baah Al-Hartiyeh, British Mandate of Palestine – died November 24, 1989, Peshawar, Pakistan) (Arabic عبدالله عزام) was a highly influential Palestinian Islamic scholar and theologian, and a central figure in preaching for defensive jihad by Musilms to help the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Fazlur Rahman Malik (Urdu: فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988) was a well-known scholar of Islam; M. Yahya Birt of the Association of Islam Researchers described him as probably the most learned of the major Muslim thinkers in the second-half of the twentieth century, in terms of both... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ...

Further reading

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (Urdu: ابو الاعلى مودودی, Arabic: أبو الأعلى المودودي; alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, and Mawdudi) (September 25, 1903) - September 22, 1979),[1] also known as Mawlana (Maulana) Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi, is considered an influential Islamic thinker of the 20th century. ... Walid Phares Dr. Walid Phares, is an American of Lebanese descent and expert on global terrorism and Middle Eastern affairs. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Onward Muslim Soldiers: How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West (ISBN#: 0895261006 is a topical nonfiction book by popular counter-terrorism author Robert Spencer, published in October 2003. ... Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... The Legacy of Jihad by Andrew G. Bostom The Legacy of Jihad is a book by Andrew Bostom. ... Andrew G. Bostom, MD, MS is an American scholar and Associate Professor of Medicine at Brown University Medical School. ... Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a controversial British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history of Christian and Jewish dhimmis living under Islamic governments. ... Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... Gilles Kepel on a Frontline documentary Gilles Kepel is a prominent French scholar and analyst of the Islamic and the Arab world. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ...

Sources and external links

Look up Jihad in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Jihad
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Jihad

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Encyclopedic and various non-specialized sites

  • Jihad, Encarta Encyclopedia
  • Jihad, Encyclopædia Britannica
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • RoyalArk- Ottoman dynasty of Turkey
  • EtymologyOnLine
  • JihadMonitor.org Open Sources Project on Jihadist doctrine and groups

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Islamic sites discussing Jihad

  • Excerpts from the Qur'an and Hadiths Condemning Wanton Destruction and Indiscriminate Killing
  • Jihad Hasan al-Banna
  • Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid: Ruling on jihad and kinds of jihad
  • Murder, Manslaughter & Terrorism All in the Name of Allah
  • Classical Muslim scholars' condemnation of terrorism
  • Jihad - Understanding-Islam.com (Affiliated with Al-Mawrid Institute)
  • - Defending The Transgressed By Censuring The Reckless Against The Killing Of Civilians
  • - Jihad: A spiritual perspective, Jihad in the way of Allah - (Sunnipath.com)
  • The Ruling On Physical Jihad From Islamic Source – Islam Q&A
  • Jihad:Meaning and Purpose, Not Only Fighting, War Ethics in Islam, How to Comprehend Jihad, Jihad, Empire and the Ethics of War and Peace, Jihad and Shari`ah in the Life of the Average Muslim, Muslims/non-Muslim Relations; Peace or War (Islamonline.net)
  • Shaykh Hisham Kabbani; Shaykh Seraj Hendricks, Shaykh Ahmad Hendricks. Jihad - A Misunderstood Concept from Islam (HTML). The Muslim Magazine. Retrieved on 08-16, 2006.
  • The Spiritual Significance of Jihad by Seyyed Hossein Nasr
  • An Islamic View of the Battlefield by L. Ali Khan
  • Islam and non-violence
  • The Objectives and Aims of Jihaad, Shaykh Sa`eed ibn `Ali ibn Wahf al-Qahtaani
  • "Jihad in the Cause of God" -- an essay on the theory of Jihad by Sayyid Qutb, from his book Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq (Milestones) [alternate translation here

Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... Islamonline. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (IPA pronunciation: []) (also Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, or Sayed; last name also Koteb or Kutb) (Arabic: ; born October 9, 1906[1] – executed August 29, 1966) was an Egyptian author, Islamist, and the leading intellectual of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 60s. ... Maalim fi-l-Tariq or Milestones (Arabic: معالم في الطريق), first published in 1964, is a book by Egyptian Islamist author Sayyid Qutb in which he lays out a plan and makes a call to action to re-create the Muslim world on strictly Quranic grounds, casting off what Qutb calls...

Non Islamic sites discussing Jihad

  • Douglas E. Streusand: What Does Jihad Mean?
  • Research on Islamic Jihad and 911
  • What is Jihad? by Daniel Pipes published in the New York Post on December 31, 2002
  • The Investigative Project by Steven Emerson: "American Jihad"
  • Scientific American Magazine (December 2005) Virtual Jihad
  • hWeb - The Rules of War and Jihad According to Islam
  • Anti-Jihad Federation
  • Jihad Watch - by Robert Spencer
  • Middle East Media Research Institute
  • Militant Islam Monitor
  • Front Page Magazine

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jihad, Holy War - The Peace Encyclopedia (7397 words)
In early Islamic history "jihad" meant holy war, and, as a strictly Islamic phenomenon, it bears a strict relation to the spread of the faith by Muslims arms...among the descendants of the Kharijits...it was ranked as a sixth pillar of religion.
Jihad "Holy war", a Divine institution of warfare to extend Islam into the dar al-harb (the non-Islamic territories which are described as the "abode of struggle", or of disbelief) or to defend Islam from danger.
Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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