FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Jiaozhou Bay

The Jiaozhou Bay (36°7′24.44″N, 120°14′44.3″E) was a 552km² German colonial Concession, which existed from 1898 to 1914. It was in the imperial province of Shandong, situated on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou used to be romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao (Tsingtao) was the administrative center. German colonial empire The German colonial empire was an overseas area formed in the late 19th century as part of the Hohenzollern dynastys German Empire. ... A concession is a territory within one country that is administered by another country. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Shandong Peninsula (sim. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (Simplified Chinese: 青岛; Traditional Chinese: 青島; pinyin: QÄ«ngdÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal System Pinyin transliteration Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ...

40-cent "Yacht" stamp of 1905
40-cent "Yacht" stamp of 1905

Contents

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Background of the expansion to China

With the development of imperialism, an awareness of having a mission arose in Germany as well as in other states. This awareness was a great influence in the building of a German colony in China. In addition to that came colonialist thinking that colonies (see German colonial empire) were ideal to support the economy in the motherland. So, densely populated China came into view as a potential market. Thinkers like Max Weber demanded an active colonial policy from the government. In particular the opening of China was made a question of life or death, because it was thought to be the most important non-European market in the world. Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... German colonial empire The German colonial empire was an overseas area formed in the late 19th century as part of the Hohenzollern dynastys German Empire. ... Maximilian Weber (IPA: []) (April 21, 1864 – June 14, 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. ...


But a global policy (Weltpolitik) without global military influence appeared impracticable, so a navy, of which the first beginnings were the German East Asia Squadron and the European stationed High Seas Fleet, was built. This fleet was supposed to give German interests emphasis during peace (gunboat diplomacy) and to protect the German trade routes and to disturb the hostile ones during war (cruiser war conception). A network of global naval bases was the key requirement for this intention. The Weltpolitik (world policy) strategy was adopted by Germany in the late 19th century, replacing the earlier Realpolitik approach. ... The German East Asia squadron was a German Kaiserliche Marine (naval) cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the 1870s and 1914. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... In international politics, gunboat diplomacy refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force. ...


Nevertheless the acquisition of a harbour in China should serve another purpose: considering the heavy strain accorded to the building of the fleet, a Chinese colony should also promote the navy. Therefore Jiaozhou was from the start subjected to the idea of a model colony: all installations, the administration, the utilization and the like had to show the Chinese, the Germans and the world the exceptionally effective German colonial policy.


The German acquisition of the bay

In 1860 a Prussian expedition fleet arrived in Asia and explored the region around Jiaozhou Bay. The following year a Chinese-Prussian trade contract was signed. After his journeys to China between 1868 and 1871 Freiherr Ferdinand von Richthofen recommended the Bay of Jiaozhou as a possible German naval base. In 1896 Admiral von Tirpitz, at that time commander of the German East Asia Squadron, examined the area personally. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Ferdinand von Richthofen (1833-1905). ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ... The German East Asia squadron was a German Kaiserliche Marine (naval) cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the 1870s and 1914. ...


When on November 1, 1897 two German missionaries of the Steyler Mission, which had been protected by the German Empire since 1890, were murdered in China, Kaiser Wilhelm II used this as a pretext to occupy the Bay. Even before the Chinese government was informed about the murder, Admiral von Diederichs, commander of the East Asian Squadron, was ordered on November 7 to carry out the occupation; he was the only Military Governor (until 7 March 1898). On November 14 German naval infantry landed on the strands and occupied the area without a fight. China tried futilely to obtain a withdrawal of the troops. On November 20 the German-Chinese negotiations began, which resulted in the settlement of the missionary incident on January 15, 1898. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


A few months later, on March 6, the German Empire leased the Bay for 99 years from the Chinese government (like Hong Kong by the British). Only six weeks later (on April 6, 1898) the area was officially put under German "protection", opening the treaty port on July 1, 1899; to that time the region was populated by approx. 83.000 inhabitants. March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


As a result of the German-Chinese lease contract the Chinese government gave up the exercise of all its sovereign rights within the leased territory (to which the city of Jiaozhou did not belong) as well as in a 50km wide security zone. The "Gouvernement Kiautschou" remained part of China under imperial sovereignty, but for the duration of the lease turned into a German Schutzgebiet (possession). Moreover the Chinese government gave the German Empire concessions for the construction of two railway lines and the mining of local coal deposits. Even the parts of Shandong outside of the German protectorate came under German influence. Although the lease contract set limits to the German expansion, it became starting point for the following cessions of Port Arthur to Russia, of Weihaiwei to Great Britain and Kwang-Chou-Wan to France. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Port Arthur is the name of some places: Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia Old Western name for Lushun, China Port Arthur, Texas, United States of America Port Arthur, Ontario, a city in Ontario, Canada, became part of Thunder Bay in 1970. ... Weihai (威海; pinyin: wēihǎi, also Weihaiwei) is a seaport city on the Bohai Gulf in north-east Shandong province, China. ... Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ...


The organisation of the protectorate

Because of the importance, which the protectorate should have for the reputation of the German navy, it was not put under the supervision of the Imperial colonial office (Reichskolonialamt) but under that of the Imperial naval office (Reichsmarineamt). At the top of the colony stood the governor (all five incumbents were navy officers), who was directly subordinated to the secretary of state of the RMA, Tirpitz. The governor was head of the military and the civil administration within the colony. The former was run by the chief of staff (deputy of the governor), the latter by the Zivilkommissar 'civil commissioner'. Further important functionaries of Jiaozhou were the official for the construction of the harbour and since 1900 the judge and the 'commissioner for Chinese affairs'. The Gouvernementsrat ('government council' of the protectorate) and since 1902 the 'Chinese committee' acted as organs of advice for the governor. The departments of finances, construction and hospital were directly subordinated to the governor, because these crucial with regard to the idea of a model colony. As Jiaozhou should serve above all the propaganda of the fleet, the RMA set great store by the economic (and later) cultural developments. But the first governor (7 March 1898 - 19 February 1899 Kurt - = Carl Rosendahl) neglected these aspects and took care only of the military interests of the naval base. So he was replaced by Otto Ferdinand Paul Jaeschke (19 February 1899 - 27 January 1901 (b. 1851 - d. 1901) ), during which term of office the development of the colony quickly accelerated. The next incumbents were Max Rollmann (acting, 27 January 1901 - 8 June 1901), Oskar Truppel (b. 1854 - d. 1931; in office 8 June 1901 - 19 August 1911) and Alfred Meyer-Waldeck (b. 1864 - d. 1928; 19 August 1911 - 7 November 1914). A governor is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Later history

On 23 August 1914, imperial China cancelled the German lease. On 7 November 1914 the bay was occupied by Japan, which appointed two Military Governors: 7 November 1914 - 1919 Mitsuomi Kamio (b. 1856 - d. 1925) and 1919 - 10 December 1922 Mitsue Yuhi (b. 1860 - d. 1940) This is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some people started singing it not knowing what it was they just started singing it forever just becauseThis is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Finally it was returned to China in on 10 December 1922. Japanese rule was restored between 1937 and 1945. December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


See also

The buildings front gate as seen from the south-west, 2004-10-04 Jiaozhou Governors Hall is a former government building in Qingdao, Shandong province, China, that was built from 1904 to 1906 and designed by German architect Mahlke. ...

Sources and references

(incomplete)

Former German Schutzgebiete (colonies and protectorates)

Colonies Africa German East Africa (Tanganyika, Rwanda, Burundi)
Witu   (sultan under protectorate)
German South-West Africa     (Namibia)
German West Africa (Kamerun, Togoland)

Pacific German New Guinea and   (German Solomon Islands, German Marshall Islands
associated Pacific islands  Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Nauru, Palau)
German Samoa

Concessions China Kiaochow / Kiautschou
Tsingtao (leased)

Unrecognized New Swabia

  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8023 words)
The Triple Alliance itself was undermined by differences between Austria and Italy.
From 1898, German colonial expansion in East Asia (Jiaozhou Bay, the Marianas, the Caroline Islands, Samoa) led to frictions with the United Kingdom, Russia, Japan and the United States.
The construction of the Baghdad Railway, financed by German banks and heavy industry, and aimed at connecting the North Sea with the Persian Gulf via the Bosporus, also collided with British and Russian geopolitical and economic interests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m