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Encyclopedia > Jianzhou Jurchens

The Jianzhou Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were the southernmost group of the Jurchen people (the other being the Wild Jurchens and Haixi Jurchens) in the fourteenth century, inhabiting modern Jilin province in China. The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; Hanyu Pinyin: ) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ...


In 1388, the Hongwu Emperor established contact with three tribes of the Jianzhou Jurchens, the Odoli, Huligai and Tuowen and attempted to enlist them as allies against the Mongols. There was a general migration south of the various Jurchen groups around the turn of the century and the three tribes established themselves around the Tumen River (near the modern border of China, Russia and North Korea). Not long afterwards, the various Jurchens began accepting Ming titles from the Yongle Emperor but not Chinese authority. Ahacu, chief of the Huligai, became commander of the Jianzhou Guard in 1403, named after a Yuan Dynasty political unit in the area. Möngke Temür of the Odoli became leader of the Jianzhou Left Guard and accepted the Chinese surname of Tong not long afterward. The two Jianzhou groups engaged in trade with the Ming at the designated market of Kaiyuan and Fushun. They undertook several short-term moves west, battling the Wild Jurchens of the north and the Koreans to their south. Jurchen raids into Korean territory brought about joint Korean-Ming counterattacks in 1467 and 1478 which severely weakened the Jianzhou Jurchens. The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, occasionally known as the Mongol Dynasty. ...

Confederation building

By the mid-sixteenth century, the Ming guard structure had mostly disappeared and the Jurchens were split between two confederations: the Haixi Jurchens and the Jianzhou Jurchens. The Jianzhou confederates, continued to live north of the Yalu River in five tribes: the Suksuhu River tribe, Hunehe, Wanggiya, Donggo and Jecen. Under the leadership of Wang Gao, the confederation raided the Ming frontier and even killed the Ming commander at Fushun in 1573. A major counterattack by the Chinese ended in the death of Wang Gao and the dissolution of the confederation.

A number of leaders within the Suksuhu tribe stood ready to take his place. In 1582 the chieftain Nikan Wailan allied with the Ming general Li Chengliang against Wang Gao's son Atai. Giocangga, chief of the Beiles of the Sixes, was originally under Li's command since his grandson, the young Nurhaci was under his hostage but later chose to oppose Nikan Wailan and took his fourth son Taksi to support Atai at his stronghold Fort Gure. In the ensuing battle at Gure, Atai was defeated, Giocangga and his son were massacred by Nikan Wailan when Li thought they had mutiny and left them behind. Soon afterwards, the Ming troops became engaged in another struggle amongst the Haixi Jurchens. Li Chengliang was a general of Korean descent in the reign of the Wanli Emperor during the Ming Dynasty who was in charge of maintaining peace and relations with the Jurchen tribes. ... Giocangga (Manchu: ; Chinese: 覺昌安) (d. ... Also known as Emperor Tai Zu, Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ...

Nurhaci and the Manchu state

It was at this junction that Nurhaci, son of Taksi, appeared on the scene. Taking control of his grandfather's Suksuhu River tribe, he drove Nikan Wail Also known as Emperor Tai Zu, Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Jurchens (819 words)
The early Jurchen script was based on the Khitan script, which in turn was inspired by Chinese characters.
However, because Chinese is an isolating language and the Jurchen and Khitan languages are agglutinative, the script proved to be cumbersome.
Chinese chroniclers of the Ming Dynasty distinguished three groups of Jurchens: the Wild Jurchens of northernmost Manchuria, the Haixi Jurchens of modern Heilongjiang and the Jianzhou Jurchens of modern Jilin province.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Jurchens (1696 words)
The Jurchen named their dynasty the Jin ("Golden") after the Anchuhu River (anchuhu is the Jurchen equivalent of Manchu aisin "gold, golden") in their homeland — For more detailed treatment of dynastic history and administration, see Jin Dynasty.
At first, the Jurchen tribesmen were kept in readiness for warfare but decades of urban and settled life in China eroded their original hunting-gathering lifestyle in Manchurian tundra and marshes.
The Manchus, descendents of the Jurchen, later made the Han shave their heads and adopt the Queue (ponytail), which was the traditional Manchurian hairstyle.
  More results at FactBites »



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