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Encyclopedia > Jiang Zemin
江泽民
Jiang Zemin
Jiang Zemin

In office
1989 – 2002
Preceded by Zhao Ziyang
Succeeded by Hu Jintao

In office
March 27, 1993 – March 15, 2003
Vice President(s) Hu Jintao
Rong Yiren
Preceded by Yang Shangkun
Succeeded by Hu Jintao

In office
1992 – 2004
Preceded by Deng Xiaoping
Succeeded by Hu Jintao

Born August 17, 1926 (1926-08-17) (age 80)
Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
Nationality Chinese
Political party Communist Party of China
Spouse Wang Yeping

Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the "core of the third generation" of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004. Image File history File linksMetadata Jiang_Zemin_at_Hickam_Air_Base,_October_26,_1997,_cropped. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhao Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Zǐyáng; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rong Yiren (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Róng Yìrén) (born 1916 in Wuxi, Jiangsu, died in October 26, 2005 in Beijing) was the Vice-President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 1998 and was heavily involved with the opening of the Chinese economy... Yáng ShàngkÅ«n (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Paramount leader (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally the highest leader of the country), in modern Chinese political science, unofficially refers to the political leader of the Peoples Republic of China who controls the three branches of the Chinese political system (Communist Party of China, Peoples Republic of China and... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Yangzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; former spellings: Yang-chou, Yangchow; literally Rising Prefecture) is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Wife of Jiang Zemin, former president of Peoples Republic of China. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Because both the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Liberation Army promote according to seniority, it is possible to discern distinct generations of Chinese leadership. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Under the leadership of Jiang Zemin, China experienced substantial developmental growth with reforms, saw the peaceful return of Hong Kong and Macau from European rule (Hong Kong from Great Britain and Macau from Portugal), and improved its relations with the outside world while the Communist Party maintained its tight control over the government. Known to be one of China's more charismatic political figures, Jiang has been criticized for being too concerned about his personal image at home, and too conciliatory towards Russia and the United States abroad. Critics also point to Jiang's inability to maintain control on various social imbalances and problems that surfaced during his term. Traditionalist communists in China charge Jiang of being a revisionist leader who legitimized outright capitalism. His contribution to the Marxist doctrine, a list of guiding ideologies by which the CCP rules China, is called the theory of the Three Represents, which has been written into the party and state constitutions. Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Look up Outside in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Things commonly named outside include: Outside — a magazine 1. ... The Three Represents (Simplified Chinese: 三个代表; Traditional Chinese: 三個代表; pinyin: sān gè dài biÇŽo) is a policy developed by Jiang Zemin for the Communist Party of China. ... The Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC) has 53 Articles and includes contents of General Program, Membership, Organization System, Central Organizations, Local Organizations, Primary Organizations, Party Cadres, Party Discipline, Party Organs for Discipline Inspection, Leading Party Members Groups, Relationship Between the Party and the Communist Youth League, Party... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Contents

Background and ascendancy

Jiang was born in the historical city of Yangzhou, Jiangsu. His ancestral home, a notion important in traditional Chinese society, was the Jiang Village (江村), Jingde County (旌德县) of Anhui Province, which was also the hometown of a number of prominent figures in Chinese academic and intellectual establishments. Jiang grew up during the years of Japanese occupation. His uncle, Jiang Shangqing, died fighting the Japanese, and was considered a martyr.[1] Jiang attended the National Central University (国立中央大学) in the Japanese-occupied Nanjing before being transferred to Shanghai Jiaotong University. He graduated there in 1947 with a Bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. He joined the Communist Party of China when he was in college. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Jiang received his training at the Stalin Automobile Works in Moscow in the 1950s. He worked for Changchun's First Automobile Works. He eventually got transferred to government services, where he began rising in rank, becoming a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Minister of Electronic Industries in 1983. In 1985 he became Mayor of Shanghai, and subsequently the Party Chief of Shanghai. Yangzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; former spellings: Yang-chou, Yangchow; literally Rising Prefecture) is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro Strength 5,600,000 4,100,000 (including 900... Shanghai Jiao Tong University, (SJTU, 上海交通大學), abbreviated Jiao Da (交大), is one of the leading universities in China. ... Zavod Imeni Likhacheva More commonly called ZIL (or ZiL, Russian: Завод имени Лихачёва (ЗиЛ) — Likhachev Factory) is a major Russian truck and heavy equipment manufacturer, which also produced armored cars for most Soviet leaders, as well as buses, armored fighting vehicles, and aerosans. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Changchun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located at the northeast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... FAW seen near Peoples Square in Shanghai. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Jiang received mixed reviews as mayor. Many of his critics dismissed him as a "flower vase", a Chinese term used to describe a decorative but useless person.[2] Many credited Shanghai's growth during the period to Zhu Rongji[citation needed]. Jiang was an ardent believer, during this period, in Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms. In an attempt of curbing student discontent in 1986, Jiang recited the Gettysburg Address in English in front of a group of student protesters.[3] [4] ZhÅ« RóngjÄ« (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: 朱镕基; Traditional Chinese: 朱鎔基; Wade-Giles: Chu Jung-chi) was the 9th Premier of the Peoples Republic of China State Council (March 1998-March 2003), and was a Standing Committee member of the Politburo of 15th CPC Central Committee (September 1997-November... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. ...


Jiang was described as having a passable command of several foreign languages, including Romanian, Russian, and English. One of his favorite activities was to engage foreign visitors in small talks on art and literature in their native tongue, in addition to singing foreign songs in the original language. He became friendly with Allen Broussard, the African American judge who visited Shanghai in 1987. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Allen Broussard (1929 – 1996) was an [African American]] He was born on 13 April, 1929, in Lake Charles, Louisiana the son of Clemire and Eugenia Broussard. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jiang was elevated to national politics in 1987, automatically becoming a member of the Politiburo of the CPC Central Committee because it is customarily dictated that the Party Chief of Shanghai would also have a seat in the Politiburo. In 1989, China was in crisis over the Tiananmen Square protest, and the Central Government was in conflict on how to handle the protesters. (The opening policy, brought out by Deng Xiaoping, has been proved as a crucial and brilliant turning point in China's modern history, causing the economy to grow at an astonishing rate during the past decades.) In June, Deng Xiaoping dismissed liberal Zhao Ziyang, who was considered too conciliatory to student protestors. Jiang, at the time, was the Shanghai Party Chief, the top figure in China's new economic center. In an incident with the World Economic Herald, Jiang closed down the newspaper, deeming it harmful. The handling of the crisis in Shanghai was noticed by Beijing, and then paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping. As the protests escalated and then Party-chief Zhao Ziyang was removed from office, Jiang was selected by the Party leaders as a compromise candidate over Tianjin's Li Ruihuan, Premier Li Peng, Chen Yun, and the retired elders to become the new General Secretary. At the time he was considered to be an unlikely candidate. Within three years Deng had transferred most power in the state, party and military to Jiang. 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labour activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. ... Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhao Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Zǐyáng; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Politics of Shanghai is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhao Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Zǐyáng; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lǐ Ruìhuán (李瑞环/李瑞環,September 1934- ) was a politician active late 20th century and early 21st century in the Peoples Republic of China. ... LÄ­ Péng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng) (b. ... Chen Yun (Simplified Chinese: 陈云; Traditional Chinese: 陳雲; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (June 13, 1905 – April 10, 1995) was one of the most influential leaders of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Early leadership

Jiang was elevated to the country's top job in 1989 with a fairly small power base inside the party, and thus, very little actual power. He was believed as simply a transitional figure until a more stable successor government to Deng could be put in place. Other prominent Party and Military figures like Yang Shangkun and brother Yang Baibing were believed to be planning a coup. Jiang used Deng Xiaoping as a back-up to his leadership in the first few years. Jiang, who was believed to have a neo-conservative slant, warned against "bourgeoisie liberalization". Deng's belief, however, stipulated that the only solution to keeping the legitimacy of Communist rule over China was to continue the drive for modernization and economic reform, and therefore placed himself at odds with Jiang. Yáng Shàngkūn (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ...


Deng grew critical of Jiang's leadership in 1992. During Deng's southern tours, he subtly suggested that the pace of reform was not fast enough, and the "central leadership" (i.e. Jiang) had most responsibility. Jiang grew ever more cautious, and rallied behind Deng's reforms completely. In 1993, Jiang coined the new term "Socialist Market Economy", a seemingly paradoxical statement, to move China's centrally-planned socialist economy into essentially a government-regulated capitalist market economy. It was a huge step to take in the advancement of Deng's "Socialism with Chinese characteristics". At the same time, Jiang elevated many of his supporters from Shanghai to high government positions, after regaining Deng's confidence. He abolished the outdated Central Advisory Committee, an advisory body composed of revolutionary party elders. He became Chairman of the Central Military Commission in 1989, followed by his election to the Presidency in March 1993. A market economy (also called free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... Central Advisory Commission (中央顾问委员会 zhong1 yang1 gu4 wen4 wei3 yuan2 hui3) (CAC) of Peoples Republic of China provided political assistance and consultation to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (中央委员会). The Commission was established after the... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Presidency

Jiang Zemin and President Bill Clinton
Jiang Zemin and President Bill Clinton

Deng Xiaoping died in early 1997, and China, emerging gradually out of the Deng-era reforms and the relative stability of the early 1990s, faced a myriad of economic and social problems. At Deng's funeral, Jiang gave the official eulogy, which included a display of tears that many inside China regarded as superficial and fake. Jiang had inherited a China rampant with government corruption, and regional economies growing too rapidly for the stability of the entire country. Deng's idea that "some areas can get rich before others" gave rise to an opening wealth gap between coastal regions and the hinterlands. The unprecedented economic growth had inevitably led to the closing of many State-owned Entreprises (SOE's), and a staggering unemployment rate that hit 40% in some urban areas. Stock markets fluctuated greatly. The scale of rural migration into urban areas was unprecedented anywhere in the world. and little was being done to address an ever-increasing urban-rural wealth gap. Official reports put the figure on the percentage of China's GDP being moved and abused by corrupt officials to 10%.[citation needed] A chaotic environment of illegal bonds issued from civil and military officials resulted in much of the corrupted wealth to end up in foreign countries. Corruption levels had returned, if not exceeded that of the Republican era in the 1940's. A surge in crime rates and the reemergence of organized crime began to plague cities. A careless stance on the destruction of the environment furthered concerns voiced by intellectuals. Jiang's biggest aim in the economy was stability, and he believed that a stable government with highly centralised power would be a prerequisite, choosing to postpone political reform, which in many facets of governance exacerbated the on-going problems.[5] Jiang continued pouring funds to develop the Special Economic Zones and coastal regions. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ... An 1837 political cartoon about unemployment in the United States. ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws different from a countrys typical economic laws. ...


Jiang is believed to be the first Chinese leader to truly manipulate the media to enhance his own image[citation needed], gaining the reputation of being charismatic, although not always in the positive light. Beginning in 1996, Jiang began a series of reforms in the state-controlled media aimed at promoting the "core of leadership" under himself, and at the same time crushing some of his political opponents. The personality enhancements in the media were largely frowned upon during the Deng era, and had not been seen since Mao and Hua Guofeng's time in office in the late 1970s. The People's Daily and CCTV-1's 7PM National News each had Jiang-related events as the front-page or top stories, a fact that remained until Hu Jintao's media administrative changes in 2006. He appeared casual in front of Western media, and gave an unprecedented interview with Mike Wallace of CBS in 2000 at Beidaihe. He would often use foreign languages in front of the camera, albeit not always comprehensible. In an encounter with a Hong Kong reporter in 2002 regarding the central government's apparent "imperial order" of supporting Tung Chee-hwa to seek a second term as Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Jiang branded the Hong Kong journalists infamously as "too simple, sometimes naive" in English [6]. The event was shown on Hong Kong television that night, an event regarded to be in poor taste both inside and outside China. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huà GuófÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (Simplified Chinese: 中国中央电视台; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Zhōngyāng Diànshìtái) and often referred to derogatorily as Chinese Communist Television, is the major broadcast television network in Mainland China. ... Mike Wallace (born Myron Leon Wallace on May 9, 1918) is a former American game show host, television personality, and journalist. ... Beidaihe (Chinese: 北戴河; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei Tai Ho) is a seaside resort in Qinhuangdao municipality, Hebei province, China. ... Tung Chee-hwa (Traditional Chinese: 董建華 Simplified Chinese: 董建华 Pinyin: Dǒng Jiànhuá) (born July 7, 1937, or the 29th day of the fifth month in the Chinese calendar) is the first Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: XiānggÇŽng Tèbié XíngzhèngqÅ« Xíngzhèng ZhÇŽngguān; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dak6 bit6 hang4 zing3 keoi1...


Since 1999, the media has also played an integral role in the persecution of Falun Gong, which is believed to be an act under the direction of Jiang himself, and has been heavily criticized by the West. Jiang reputedly came under conflict with then premier Zhu Rongji over how to contain the fast-growing spiritual organization. Jiang had also began arresting its leaders and breaking up demonstrations, despite protests by various human rights groups. He has been subject to many lawsuits on the issue. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; lit. ... Zhū Róngjī (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: 朱镕基; Traditional Chinese: 朱鎔基; Wade-Giles: Chu Jung-chi) was the 9th Premier of the Peoples Republic of China State Council (March 1998-March 2003), and was a Standing Committee member of the Politburo of 15th CPC Central Committee (September 1997-November...


Foreign Policy

Jiang had been criticized inside China for being too conciliatory towards the United States and Russia.[citation needed] Jiang went on a groundbreaking State Visit to the United States in 1997, drawing various crowds in protest from the Tibet Independence Movement to the Falun Gong practitioners. He made a speech at Harvard University, part of it in passable English, but could not escape questions on democracy and freedom. In the official summit meeting with US President Bill Clinton, the tone was relaxed as Jiang and Clinton sought common ground while largely ignoring areas of disagreement. Clinton would visit China in February 1999, and vowed that China and the United States were partners in the world, and not adversaries. When American-led NATO bombed the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade in 1999, Jiang seemed to have put up a harsh stance for show at home, but in reality only performed symbolic gestures of protest, and no solid action. The same happened when a US spy plane collided with a Chinese military jet, killing the Chinese pilot. Jiang allowed the US crew to enjoy stay at a luxurious hotel in Hainan, and released them three days later without asking for any damages.[citation needed] Much of Jiang's foreign policy was focused on international trade and economic integration. A personal friend of Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien[7] Jiang strengthened China's economic stature abroad, attempting to establish cordial relations with countries whose trade is largely confined to the American economic sphere. State visits usually involve a military review. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... On May 12, the flag at the United States Consulate General in Hong Kong was lowered in respect and sorrow for the Chinese people for a day as the plane carrying the bodies of victims of the embassy bombing came home to Beijing. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with U.S.-China Spy Plane Incident. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Right Honourable Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, PC (born January 11, 1934, Shawinigan, Quebec) was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003. ...


Economic development

Jiang did not specialize in economics, and in 1997 handed a big chunk of the economic governance of the country to Zhu Rongji, who became Premier, and remained in office through the Asian Financial Crisis. Under their joint leadership, Mainland China has sustained an average of 8% GDP growth annually, achieving the highest rate of per capita economic growth in major world economies, raising eyebrows around the world with its astonishing speed. This was mostly achieved by continuing the process of a transition to a market economy. Economists, however, charge Jiang with creating a bubble economy that could fall apart at any time. Strong Party control over economic affairs, however, remained, as Jiang was unrelenting in the centralization of power. The achievements during Jiang's presidency were cemented by the PRC's successful bid to join the World Trade Organization and Beijing winning the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics. 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ZhÅ« RóngjÄ« (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: 朱镕基; Traditional Chinese: 朱鎔基; Wade-Giles: Chu Jung-chi) was the 9th Premier of the Peoples Republic of China State Council (March 1998-March 2003), and was a Standing Committee member of the Politburo of 15th CPC Central Committee (September 1997-November... The Premier (Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of government. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... ... An economic bubble occurs when speculation in a commodity causes the price to increase, thus producing more speculation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, were awarded to Beijing, China after a two-round vote of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on July 13, 2001. ...


Entrenching Three Represents

Before he transferred power to a younger generation of leaders, Jiang had his theory of Three Represents written into the Party's constitution, alongside Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory at the 16th CPC Congress in 2002. Although contradictory to Marxism in many facets, it was also written into China's Constitution. Critics believe this is just another piece added to Jiang's cult of personality, others have seen practical applications of the theory as a guiding ideology in the future direction of the CPC. Largely speculated to step down from all positions by international media, rival Li Ruihuan's resignation in 2002 prompted analysts to rethink the man. The theory of Three Represents was believed by many political analysts to be Jiang's effort at extending his vision to Marxist-Leninist Principles, and therefore elevating himself alongside previous Marxist philosophers Mao and Deng. The Three Represents (Simplified Chinese: 三个代表; Traditional Chinese: 三個代表; pinyin: sān gè dài biǎo) is a policy developed by Jiang Zemin for the Communist Party of China. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Deng Xiaoping Theory (邓小平理论) is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... Lǐ Ruìhuán (李瑞环/李瑞環,September 1934- ) was a politician active late 20th century and early 21st century in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Jiang has been criticized by many groups, noticeably by the Falun Gong, a vocal spiritual group who allege that Jiang and the CPC under his leadership to have persecuted their members. The newspaper Epoch Times has published a book deeply critical of Jiang titled Anything for Power: The Real Story of China’s Jiang Zemin, exposing various scandals and brutalities perpetrated by Jiang during his presidency, including his dubious family background, his brutal crackdown of Falun Gong, and his alleged relationship with singer Song Zuying. [8] Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; lit. ... The Epoch Times is a conservative Chinese newspaper, which is freely distributed in eight languages and in roughly 30 countries worldwide. ... A scandal is a widely publicized incident involving allegations of wrong-doing, disgrace, or moral outrage. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; lit. ... Song Zuying (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (August 1, 1966) is a Chinese singer of Miao nationality. ...


Gradual Retirement

Jiang Zemin with Hu Jintao at the 16th Party Congress
Jiang Zemin with Hu Jintao at the 16th Party Congress

In 2002, Jiang stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a "fourth generation" of leadership headed by Hu Jintao, marking the beginning of a transition of power that would last several years. Hu assumed Jiang's title as party chief, becoming the new general secretary of the Communist Party. Six out of the nine new members of Standing Committee at the time were believed considered part of Jiang's so-called "Shanghai Clique", the most prominent being Vice President Zeng Qinghong and Executive Vice Premier Huang Ju. Jiang Zemin (left) and Hu Jintao (right) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jiang Zemin (left) and Hu Jintao (right) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (Redirected from 16th Party Congress) The delegates to the Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China elected a 356-member new Party Central Committee, as well as a 121-member Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI). ... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Shanghai clique is an informal name for officials in Chinese Communist Party especially central government of the Peoples Republic of China or CCP centre who rose to prominence in the Shanghai city administration under Jiang Zemin or used to be subordinates of Jiang. ... Zeng Qinghong (simplified Chinese: 曾庆红 Pinyin: Zēng Qìnghóng) (born July 1939) is a Chinese politician. ... Official Photo of Huang This is a Chinese name; the family name is Huang. ...


Although Jiang retained the chairmanship of the powerful Central Military Commission, most members of the commission are professional military men. Liberation Army Daily, a publication thought to represent the views of the CMC majority, printed an article on March 11, 2003 which quotes two army delegates as saying, "Having one center is called 'loyalty', while having two centers will result in 'problems.'"[1] This was widely interpreted as a criticism of Jiang's attempt to exercise dual leadership with Hu on the model of Deng Xiaoping. The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Hu succeeded Jiang as president of the People's Republic of China on March 15, 2003. To the surprise of many observers, evidence of Jiang's continuing influence on public policy abruptly disappeared from the official media. Jiang was conspicuously silent during the SARS crisis, especially when compared to the very public profile of Hu and Wen Jiabao. It has been argued that the institutional arrangements created by the 16th Congress have left Jiang in a position where he cannot exercise much influence.[citation needed] Although many of the members of the Politburo Standing Committee are associated with him, the Standing Committee does not have command authority over the civilian bureaucracy. The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhǔxí, or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sars may refer to any of the following: Severe acute respiratory syndrome, commonly abbreviated as SARS Michael Sars, a Norwegian biologist, father of Georg Sars Georg Sars, a Norwegian biologist, son of Michael Sars Special Administrative Regions, commonly abbreviated as SARs Sars, Perm Krai, an urban settlement in Perm Krai... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Jiang Zemin with wife Wang Yeping and George W. Bush with wife Laura in Crawford, Texas (2002)
Jiang Zemin with wife Wang Yeping and George W. Bush with wife Laura in Crawford, Texas (2002)

On September 19, 2004, after a four-day meeting of the 198-member Central Committee, Jiang resigned as chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission, his last party post. Six months later he resigned his last significant post, chairman of the State CMC. This followed weeks of speculation that Hu Jintao's supporters in the Communist Party leadership were pressing Jiang to step aside. Jiang's term was supposed to have lasted until 2007. Hu also succeeded Jiang as the CMC chairman, but, in an apparent political defeat for Jiang, Xu Caihou, and not Zeng Qinghong was appointed to succeed Hu as vice chairman. This power transition officially marks the end of Jiang's era in China, which roughly lasted from 1993 to 2004. President George W. Bush and Mrs. ... President George W. Bush and Mrs. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... Xu Caihou is one of three vice chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Legacy

Historians and biographers have disputed what can be accounted into "Jiang Zemin's legacy". Jiang himself had wanted his Three Represents theory, called an "important thought" on the Mainland, to become his ideological legacy. Although the theory has been codified into both the State and Party constitutions alongside Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory, its actual effect is yet to be assessed. Jiang has come under quiet criticism from within the Communist Party of China for focusing on economic growth at all costs while ignoring the resulting environmental damage of the growth, the widening gap between rich and poor in China and the social costs absorbed by those whom economic reform has left behind.[citation needed] By contrast, the policies of his successors, Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao have widely been seen as efforts to address these imbalances and move away from a sole focus on economic growth toward a broader view of development which incorporates non-economic factors such as health and the environment.[citation needed] The Three Represents (Simplified Chinese: 三个代表; Traditional Chinese: 三個代表; pinyin: sān gè dài biÇŽo) is a policy developed by Jiang Zemin for the Communist Party of China. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893&#8211... Deng Xiaoping Theory (邓小平理论) is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Jiang's Theory of Three Represents justified the incorporation of the new capitalist business class into the party, and changed the founding ideology of the CPC from protection of the peasantry and workers to that of the "overwhelming majority of the people", a euphemism aimed at including the growing enterpreneurial class. Conservative critics within the party have quietly denounced this as betrayal of the communist ideology, while reformers have praised Jiang as a visionary.[citation needed] Such a move, however, increasingly justified a newly found correlation between the business and ruling elites, thus significantly linking bureaucracy and financial gain, which critics argue fosters more corruption. Some have suggested that this is the part of Jiang's legacy that will last, at least in name, as long as the communists remain in power.[citation needed] The Three Represents (Simplified Chinese: 三个代表; Traditional Chinese: 三個代表; pinyin: sān gè dài biǎo) is a policy developed by Jiang Zemin for the Communist Party of China. ...


Many biographers of Jiang have noted that his government resembled an oligarchy as opposed to an autocratic dictatorship.[9] Many of his policies have been attributed to others in government, notably Premier Zhu Rongji, whose tense relationship with Jiang was of widespread speculation, especially following Jiang's decision to suppress the Falun Gong movement. Jiang is often credited with the gains in foreign affairs during the time of his rule, but at the same many Chinese criticize him for being too conciliatory towards the United States and Russia. The issue of Chinese reunification between the mainland and Taiwan gained ground during Jiang's term, as Cross-Strait talks led to the eventual Three Links after Jiang stepped down as President. The Qinghai-Tibet railway began construction under Jiang, and was welcomed by many Tibetans[10], although seen by a few of them to be a purely political move.[citation needed] Jiang was also accused of appeasement towards the Japanese and Americans in diplomacy. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... ZhÅ« RóngjÄ« (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: 朱镕基; Traditional Chinese: 朱鎔基; Wade-Giles: Chu Jung-chi) was the 9th Premier of the Peoples Republic of China State Council (March 1998-March 2003), and was a Standing Committee member of the Politburo of 15th CPC Central Committee (September 1997-November... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; lit. ... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ... The Three Links or Three Linkages (Chinese: 三通; pinyin: sān tōng) are direct postal (通郵 tōng yóu), transportation (especially airline) (通航 tōng háng), and trade (通商 tōng shāng) links between Mainland China and Taiwan. ... Map of the railway The worlds highest railway which traverses the vast terrain of Tibet. ...


Domestically, Jiang's legacy and reputation is mixed. While some people attribute the period of relative stability and growth in the 1990's to Jiang's term, others argue that Jiang did little to correct mistakes resulting from Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms, leaving the next administration facing innumerable problems, some of which too late to adjust. Some of Jiang's legacy remains ambiguous.


See also

  • Politics of the People's Republic of China
  • History of the People's Republic of China (1989-2002)
  • The Man Who Changed China: The Life and Legacy of Jiang Zemin, Jiang's controversial biography by Robert Lawrence Kuhn

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... // Recovery in the 1990s After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ...

References and Further reading

  1. ^ The Epoch Times
  2. ^ BBC: Profile: Jiang Zemin
  3. ^ Kuhn, Robert Lawrence: The Man Who Changed China: The Life and Legacy of Jiang Zemin
  4. ^ Book: Real Story of Jiang Zemin: Introduction(4)
  5. ^ BBC: Profile: Jiang Zemin
  6. ^ Hong Kong Journalists Association: FOE Annual Report, 2001
  7. ^ Xinhua:China's Jiang Zemin, Canada's Jean Chretien discuss relations October 21, 2001.
  8. ^ Anything for Power: The Real Story of China’s Jiang Zemin Published Epoch Times
  9. ^ Kuhn, 2004; Lam, 1997
  10. ^ Qinghai-Tibet Railway Kicks off. People's Daily (June, 2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  • Gilley, Bruce. "Tiger on the Brink: Jiang Zemin and China's New Elite." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. 395pp. This was the first biography of Jiang to appear in the West. A comprehensive and highly readable journalistic account of Jiang's early years, his ascendancy within the Party bureaucracy, and his ultimate rise to power as Deng Xiaoping's successor in the wake of Tiananmen.
  • Kuhn, Robert Lawrence = The Man Who Changed China: The Life and Legacy of Jiang Zemin, Random House (English edition) 2005. Century Publishing Group, Shanghai (Chinese edition) 2005. The book is a general biography of Jiang with a more favorable stance towards him.
    • China Daily = English language review of biography by Dr. Kuhn.
  • The Real Story of Jiang Zemin, The Epoch Times newspaper. http://www.theepochtimes.com This article is largely critical of Jiang. (Authorship remains anonymous for safety reasons)
  • Lam, Willy Wo-Lap. "The Era of Jiang Zemin"; Prentice Hall, Singapore: 1999. General Jiang-era background information and analysis, not comprehensive biography.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Robert Lawrence Kuhn is both an acclaimed scholar, scientist and creator of cultural and financial institutions promoting international relationships between the United States and other nations with particular reference to the People’s Republic of China. ... The Epoch Times (Simplified Chinese: 大纪元; Traditional Chinese: 大紀元; Pinyin: Dàjìyuán) is a privately owned, general-interest, Falun Gong-linked newspaper[1]. According to their own statement the founding Chinese-language Epoch Times started publishing in response to the growing demand for uncensored coverage of events in China and...

External links

  • Biography at People's Daily
  • Biography at China Vitae, the web's largest online database of China VIPs
  • Caricature of Jiang Zemin
Preceded by
Wang Daohan
Mayor of Shanghai
1984–1987
Succeeded by
Zhu Rongji
Preceded by
Zhao Ziyang
General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
1989–2002
Succeeded by
Hu Jintao
Preceded by
Yang Shangkun
President of the People's Republic of China
1993–2003
Preceded by
Deng Xiaoping
Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CPC
1989–2004
Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the PRC
1990–2005
Presidents of the People's Republic of China Flag of People's Republic of China
Mao Zedong - Liu Shaoqi - Li Xiannian - Yang Shangkun - Jiang Zemin - Hu Jintao

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jiang Zemin Biography from Who2.com (201 words)
Jiang earned a university degree in electrical engineering and began his career in the Communist Party while still a student.
He became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in June 1989, cementing his position as the protege of and heir apparent to Deng Xiaoping.
Jiang became President of the People's Republic of China in 1993, and assumed full leadership upon Deng's 1997 death.
Jiang Zemin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2553 words)
According to some sources, Jiang Zemin's father, Jiang Shixi was a traitor to the Japanese during the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937–1945) and subsequently fabricated his early family history, claiming to be the adopted son of a Communist Party martyr in order to climb the echelons of the Communist Party.
Jiang was elevated to national politics in 1987, automatically becoming a member of the CPC Central Committee because it is customarily dictated that the Mayor of Shanghai would also have the Central Committee position in Beijing.
Jiang's Theory of Three Represents justified the incorporation of the new capitalist business class into the party, and changed the founding ideology of the CPC from protection of the peasantry and workers to that of the "overwhelming majority of the people", a euphemism aimed at including the growing enterpreneurial class.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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