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Encyclopedia > Jiang Qing
Madame Mao
Madame Mao
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang.

Jiang Qing (Chinese: 江青), real name Lǐ Shūméng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of Chairman Mao Zedong of the People's Republic of China. Jiang Qing was most famous for leading the chaos in the Cultural Revolution and forming the Gang of Four. She, along with Lin Biao, were recorded as the main counterrevolutionary factions during the Cultural Revolution in official Chinese Communist Party history. Image File history File links Madam_Mao. ... Image File history File links Madam_Mao. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Chinese surname, family name (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or clan name (氏; pinyin: shì), is one of the hundreds or thousands of family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups in mainland China, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities. ... A stage name, or a screen name, is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers (such as actors, comedians, musicians, and clowns). ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ...

Contents

Early years

As actress
As actress

Jiang Qing was born as Lǐ Shūméng (Chinese: 李淑蒙) in Zhucheng (Chinese: 诸城), Shandong Province in 1914. Jiang Qing's father was called Li Dewen (Chinese: 李德文). Jiang Qing, first known as Li Yunhe (meaning "Crane in the Clouds"), grew up in the homes of her concubine mother's rich lovers. She was an only child who was never doted upon and whose instincts were never curbed. In her early twenties, and after already exhausting two marriages, Jiang Qing went to university and studied literature and drama. Soon, Jiang Qing adopted the stage name "Lan Ping" (meaning "Blue Apple"), and became a professional actress. She made numerous films and dramas, including "A Doll's House", "Big Thunderstorm", "God of Liberty", "The Scenery of City", "Wolves on the Blood Mountain", and "Old Mr. Wang". In Ibsen's play, "A Doll's House", Jiang Qing played the role of Nora, who, after being accused of talking like a child and not understanding the world she lives in, replies, "No I don't [understand the world]. But now I mean to go into that... I must find out which is right - the world or I." Being out of sorts with the world was also Jiang Qing's experience, whose early life was fraught with harsh realities.[clarify] At 24, Jiang Qing, then known by yet another name - Lan Ping, left her life on the stage behind and went to the Chinese Communist headquarters in Yan'an to study Marxist-Leninst theory. There she met and became the wife of Mao Zedong, who had just returned from the Long March. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Zhucheng is a city of more than 100,000 inhabitants located in the Chinese province of Shandong. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Dolls House A Dolls House (original Norwegian title: Et dukkehjem) is an 1879 play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... “Mao” redirects here. ...


Rise to power

Jiang Qing and Mao Zedong in Yan'an
Jiang Qing and Mao Zedong in Yan'an

Madame Mao was involved with the Ministry of Culture in the 1950s and a leader in the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution. In 1969, Jiang Qing was elected to the Politburo. Jiang Qing emerged as a serious political figure in China during the Cultural Revolution when she criticized party leaders such as Liu Shaoqi, who favoured the introduction of piecework, greater wage differentials and measures that sought to undermine collective farms and factories. She became a member of the Politburo in 1969. She was appointed as the deputy director of the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and formed the Gang of Four with Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan and Wang Hongwen. From that point on, she was one of the most powerful figures in China during Mao's last years and became a controversial figure. Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_and_Mao_Zedong. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_and_Mao_Zedong. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the... Zhang Chunqiao (Simplified Chinese: 张春桥; Traditional Chinese: 張春橋; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Chun-chiao) (1917–April 21, 2005) was a member of the Gang of Four. ... Yao Wenyuan (Chinese: 姚文元; Pinyin: ) (1931–23 December 2005) was a former Chinese writer and propaganda official and a member of the Gang of Four in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wang Hongwen (Chinese: 王洪文, pinyin Wáng Hóngwén, Wade-Giles: Wang Hung-wen) (1933/1935–August 3, 1992) was the youngest member of the Gang of Four. ...


During this period Mao Zedong galvanized students and young workers as his Red Guards to attack what he termed as revisionists in the party. Mao told them the revolution was in danger and that they must do all they could to stop the emergence of a privileged class in China. He argued this is what had happened in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev.


Jiang Qing incited radical youths organized as Red Guards against other senior political leaders and government officials, including Liu Shaoqi, the President of the PRC at that time, and Deng Xiaoping, the Deputy Premier. Internally divided into factions both to the "left" and "right" of Jiang Qing and Mao, not all Red Guards were friendly to Jiang Qing. In the Peoples Republic of China, the Red Guards (Chinese: 紅衛兵; Hanyu Pinyin: Hóng Wèi BÄ«ng) were civilians who were the frontline implementers of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1960s-1970s). ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


The Cultural Revolution came to an end when Liu Shaoqi resigned from all his posts on 13th October 1968. Lin Biao now became Mao's designated successor. Chairman Mao now gave his support to the Gang of Four: Jiang Qing, Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan and Zhang Chunqiao. These four radicals occupied powerful positions in the Politburo after the Tenth Party Congress of 1973. This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Wang Hongwen (Chinese: 王洪文, pinyin Wáng Hóngwén, Wade-Giles: Wang Hung-wen) (1933/1935–August 3, 1992) was the youngest member of the Gang of Four. ... Yao Wenyuan (Chinese: 姚文元; Pinyin: ) (1931–23 December 2005) was a former Chinese writer and propaganda official and a member of the Gang of Four in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhang Chunqiao (Simplified Chinese: 张春桥; Traditional Chinese: 張春橋; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Chun-chiao) (1917–April 21, 2005) was a member of the Gang of Four. ...

Madame Mao accompanying the U.S. President Richard Nixon to watch the modern revolutionary ballet Red Detachment of Women. (Beijing, 1972)
Madame Mao accompanying the U.S. President Richard Nixon to watch the modern revolutionary ballet Red Detachment of Women. (Beijing, 1972)

Jiang Qing also directed operas and ballets with communist and revolutionary content as part of an effort to transform China's culture. The Eight model plays were allegedly created under her guidance. Critics say her influence on art was too restrictive. She replaced nearly all earlier works of art with revolutionary Maoist works. Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_and_President_Nixon. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_and_President_Nixon. ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Red Detachment of Women (Chinese: 红色娘子军, pinyin: Hóngsè NiángzǐjÅ«n) is a Chinese ballet which premiered in 1964. ...   (Chinese:  ; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Red Detachment of Women The eight model plays (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) were the only operas and ballets that were permitted during the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-1976). ...


According to Jung Chang's and Jon Halliday's biography of Mao Zedong, Jiang Qing's favorite hobbies included photography, playing cards, and watching foreign movies, especially Gone with the Wind. She suffered as a hypochondriac as diagnosed by Mao's physician Li Zhisui). Jung Chang (Traditional Chinese: 張戎, Simplified Chinese: 张戎, Wade-Giles: Chang Jung, Pinyin: Zhāng Róng; born March 25, 1952) is a Chinese-born British writer, best known for her family autobiography Wild Swans, selling over 10 million copies worldwide, but banned in mainland China. ... Jon Halliday is a historian of Russia who was a former Senior Visiting Research Fellow at Kings College, University of London. ... Gone with the Wind, one of the most popular films of all time, and the most enduring symbol of the golden age of Hollywood, is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... Hypochondria (sometimes hypochondriasis) is the unfounded belief that one is suffering from a serious illness. ... Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ...


Jiang Qing first collaborated with then 2nd-in-charge Lin Biao, but after Lin's death in a plane crash in 1971, she turned against him publicly in the Criticize Lin, Criticize Confucius Campaign. She also spearheaded the campaign against Deng Xiaoping in the mid '70s (later saying that this was inspired by Mao). The Chinese public became intensely unhappy at this time and, rather than blaming Mao, chosing to blame a more accessible and easier target, Jiang Qing. An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... A Chinese poster from 1974 which reads Criticizing Lin, Criticizing Confucius, is a major event for the whole party, the whole army and the whole people of the country The Criticize Lin (Biao), Criticize Confucius campaign (Chinese: ; pinyin: pī Lín pī Kǒng yùndòng) was a political...


Downfall

Jiang Qing at a Politburo Meeting
Jiang Qing at a Politburo Meeting

On October 6, 1976 (very soon after the death of Mao Zedong on September 9, 1976), Jiang Qing and three others were arrested for attempting to seize power by setting up militia coups in Shanghai and Beijing. After her arrest, Jiang Qing was sent to the Qincheng Prison, and was held under detention for five years. Jiang Qing was tried for crimes against innocent people and subverting the government between years 1981 and 1982, and there was a command that she exacted from her audience. During her public trials at the "Special Court", Jiang Qing was the only member of the Gang of Four who bothered to argue on her behalf. The defense's argument was that she obeyed the orders of Chairman Mao Zedong at all times. Jiang Qing maintained that all she had done was to defend Chairman Mao. It was at this trial that Jiang Qing made the famous quote "I was Chairman Mao's dog. Whomever he asked me to bite, I bit"[1] . The official records of the trial have not yet been released. Jiang Qing was sentenced to death with a two-year reprieve in 1981, and the sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment. This was allegedly to "give her time to repent." While in prison, Jiang Qing was diagnosed with throat cancer. However, she refused an operation. Jiang Qing was released for medical reasons in 1991. At the hospital, Jiang Qing used the name Lǐ Rùnqīng (Chinese: 李润青). On May 14, 1991, Jiang Qing committed suicide by hanging herself in a bathroom of her hospital, aged 77. Image File history File links Madam_Mao. ... Image File history File links Madam_Mao. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jiang Qing On Trial

Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_1. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_2. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_3. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_4. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_5. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_6. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_7. ... Image File history File links Jiang_Qing_On_Trial_8. ...

Names of Jiang Qing

  1. Birth name: Lǐ Shūméng (Chinese: 李淑蒙)
  2. Given name: Lǐ Jìnhái (Chinese: 李进孩)
  3. School name: Lǐ Yúnhè (Chinese: 李云鹤)
  4. Modified name: Lǐ Hè (Chinese: 李鹤)
  5. Stage name: Lán Píng (Chinese: 蓝苹)
  6. Commonly referred to as: Jiāng Qīng (Chinese: 江青)
  7. Pen name: Lǐ Jìn (Chinese: 李进)
  8. Last used name: Lǐ Rùnqīng (Chinese: 李润青)

References

  1. ^ Hutchings, Graham (2001). Modern China. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01240-2. 
  • Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story (London, 2005); Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
  • Ross Terrill, The White-Boned Demon: A Biography of Madame Mao Zedong (New York: Morrow, 1984). ISBN 0-671-74484-4
  • Roxane Witke, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing (Boston: Little Brown, 1977). ISBN 0-316-94900-0
  • Jung Chang, Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China (London, 1990) ISBN 0-671-68546-5
  • Li Zhisui,The Private Life of Chairman Mao (London: Random House, 1996) ISBN 0-09-9648814

Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China is an autobiographical family history by Chinese writer Jung Chang. ... Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ... The Private Life of Chairman Mao is an extensive biography of Mao Zedong, published in 1994 by his personal physician Dr. Li Zhisui after fleeing to the USA following Mao Zedongs death. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jiang Qing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (874 words)
Jiang Qing was a Chinese political leader most famous for leading in the Cultural Revolution and forming the Gang of Four.
Jiang Qing emerged as a serious political figure in China during the Cultural Revolution when she criticized party leaders such as Liu Shaoqi, who favoured the introduction of piecework, greater wage differentials and measures that sought to undermine collective farms and factories.
Jiang Qing incited radical youths organized as Red Guards against other senior political leaders and government officials, including Liu Shaoqi, the President of the PRC at that time, and Deng Xiaoping, the Deputy Premier.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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