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Encyclopedia > Jews in India
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Jewish religion (Judaism)
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Jews in India are a religious minority, living among India's predominantly Hindu and Muslim populace. However, few are aware that Judaism is one of the oldest religions to arrive in India and assimilate with local traditions through cultural diffusion. The Jewish population in India is hard to estimate since each Jewish community is distinct with different origins; some are from the Kingdom of Judah, others from Israel's Lost Ten Tribes. Of the first three listed communities, about half that figure as a whole are living in Mizoram and another quarter living in the city of Mumbai. Unlike many parts of the world, Jews have historically lived in India without largescale anti-Semitism. However, Jews in India have recently suffered from terrorist attacks by Lashkar-e-Toiba, who has declared Jews and Hindus the enemies of Islam [1]. In Mumbai, two synagogues are located in predominantly Muslim inhabited areas. See also: Terrorism in India Download high resolution version (1024x1180, 21 KB)Created from Image:Wikipedia blue star of david. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Judaism affirms a number of basic principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... Look up Jew on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Who is a Jew? (Hebrew: מיהו יהודי?; transliterated as mihu yehudi) can be a complicated question because Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, and a culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary depending on whether a religious, sociological, or national approach to... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Jewish ethnic divisions: The most commonly used terms to describe ethnic divisions among Jews presently are: Ashkenazi (meaning German in Hebrew, denoting the Central European base of Jewry); and Sephardi (meaning Spanish in Hebrew, denoting their Spanish and North African location). ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa. ... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... The Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who, in the mid-twentieth century, lived primarily in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and parts of Pakistan. ... The Beta Israel (or House of Israel), known by outsiders by the term Falasha or Falash Mura (exiles or strangers), a term that they consider to be pejorative, are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... The number of Jews in the world is difficult to calculate, especially given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. ... // Early History Tradition places Jews in southern Russia, Armenia, and Georgia since before the days of the First Temple, and records exist from the fourth century showing that there were Armenian cities possessing Jewish populations ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 along with substantial Jewish settlements in the Crimea. ... This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... History of the Jews in Latin America. ... Main article: List of Jews. ... Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Jewish denominations: Over time, the Jewish community has become divided into a number of religious denominations, also called branches or movements. Each denomination has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, and how one should live as a Jew. ... Orthodox Judaism is that stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and all the Rabbinical... Conservative Judaism (or Masorti Judaism) is a denomination of Judaism characterized by: A positive attitude toward modern culture The belief that traditional rabbinic modes of study, and modern scholarship and critical text study, are both valid ways to learn about and from Jewish religious texts. ... Reform Judaism is the first modern branch of Judaism; it developed in Germany and is now international, and the largest in North America. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a denomination of Judaism with a relatively liberal set of beliefs: an individuals personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus, modern culture is accepted, traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well as modern scholarship and critical... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Zionism is a political movement and an ideology that supports a Jewish homeland in the Land of Israel, where the Jewish nation originated and where Jewish kingdoms and self governing states existed at various times in history. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... This entry contains a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (the Old Testament) and other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history known as the Kebra Nagast, the writings of historians such as Nicolaus of Damascus, Artapanas, Philo... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Beit HaMikdash בית המקדש in Hebrew) was built in ancient Jerusalem and was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, or Galut, exile) refers to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is considered an authoritative record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense) was a religious movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Hasidic Judaism (from the Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious, from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Jump to: navigation, search Children survivors of the Holocaust before their liberation The Holocaust is the name applied to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of various ethnic, religious and political groups during World War II by Nazi Germany and its collaborators. ... Main article: Israel. ... Related articles: anti-Semitism; history of anti-Semitism; modern anti-Semitism This article deals with various persecutions that the Jewish people have experienced throughout history. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... The new anti-Semitism refers to the contemporary international resurgence of anti-Jewish incidents and attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of anti-Semitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hindu people. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of... Judah (יְהוּדָה Praise, Standard Hebrew YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew YÉ™hûḏāh) is the name of several Biblical and historical figures. ... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... Mizoram is a state in northeastern India. ... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A synagogue or synagog (from Greek συναγωγη, transliterated sunagoge, place of assembly literally meeting, assembly) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


There are five Jewish communities in India:

  1. The Cochin Jews arrived in India 2,500 years ago and settled down in Cochin, Kerala as traders.
  2. The Baghdadi Jews arrived in the city Mumbai from Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan, and Arab countries about 250 years ago.
  3. The Bene Israel arrived in the state of Maharashtra 2,100 years ago.
  4. The Bnei Menashe are Mizo and Kuki tribesmen in Manipur and Mizoram who claim descent from the tribe of Menasseh.
  5. The Bene Ephraim (also called Telugu Jews) are a small group who speak Telugu; their observance of Judaism dates to 1981.

Contents

Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient Jews and their descendants of the South Indian port city of Cochin. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin... List of famous Keralites Districts of Kerala Local Body Election in Kerala Government Websites Government of Kerala Chief Minister of Kerala Kerala Tourism Other Websites Business Information on Kerala Kerala Matrimonials Kerala movies Kerala web directory Online Newspaper kerala portal Kerala news Maps of Kerala Holidays in Kerala Keralam Ayurveda... The Baghdadi Jews are one of the main Jewish communities of India. ... The Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who, in the mid-twentieth century, lived primarily in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and parts of Pakistan. ... Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Bnei Menashe (Children of Menasseh, Hebrew בני מנשה) are a group of an estimated 9,000 Jews from Indias northeastern states of Manipur and Mizoram, claiming descent from the Ten Lost Tribes, specifically, from the tribe of Menasseh (Menashe, in Hebrew). ... The Mizos are a scheduled tribe in northeastern India, primarily in the state of Mizoram, of which they are in the majority. ... The term Kuki refers to an ethnic entity that spreads out in a contiguous region in Northeast India, Northwest Burma (Myanmar), and the Chittagong Hill tracts in Bangladesh. ... Manipur (মনিপুর) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Mizoram is a state in northeastern India. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Bene Ephraim, also called Telugu Jews because they speak Telugu, are a small community of Jews living primarily in Kottareddipalem, a village outside Guntur, India, near the delta of the River Krishna. ... Telugu belongs to the family of Dravidian languages and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cochin Jews

Main article: Cochin Jews

The oldest of the three Jewish communities, traders from Palestine arrived in the city of Cochin 2,500 years ago. Assimilated with the local populace, the community built synagogues and colonies there. The Jewish synagogue in Cochin is a protected heritage site and is a popular tourist destination. Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient Jews and their descendants of the South Indian port city of Cochin. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin...


Bene Israel

Main article: Bene Israel

The Bene Israel arrived 2,100 years ago after a shipwreck stranded seven Jewish families from Palestine at Navagaon near Alibag, just south of Mumbai. The families multiplied and integrated with the local Maharashtrian population adopting their language, dress and food. They were nicknamed the śaniwar telī ("Saturday oil-pressers") by the local population as they abstained from work on Saturdays which is Judaism's Shabbat. The Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who, in the mid-twentieth century, lived primarily in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and parts of Pakistan. ... The Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who, in the mid-twentieth century, lived primarily in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and parts of Pakistan. ... Alibag is a coastal town in the state of Maharashtra, India. ... Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is a state in west-central India. ... Shabbat (שבת shabbāṯ, rest in Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ...


The Bene Israel claim a lineage to the Cohanim, the Israelite priestly class, which claims descent from Aaron, the brother of Moses. In 2002, a DNA test confirmed that the Bene Israel share the same heredity as the Cohanim. The position of a Kohens hands when he raises them to bless a Jewish congregation A Kohen (or Cohen, Hebrew priest, pl. ... AARON is a program written by artist Harold Cohen that creates original artistic images. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and many viruses). ...


Baghdadi Jews

Despite the name, the Baghdadi Jews are not only of Iraqi origin. Many originate in Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, and Yemen. These Jews emigrated to India around 250 years ago and settled down in the city of Mumbai. They were traders and quickly became one of the highest earning communities in the city. As philanthropists, they donated their wealth to public structures. The David Sassoon Docks and a Sassoon Library are some of the famous landmarks still standing today. A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad For other meanings see Baghdad (disambiguation) Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ... The Sasoon Docks The Sassoon Docks is one of the few docks open to the public in Mumbai. ...


As well as Mumbai, Baghdadi Jews spread to other parts of India, with an important community in Kolkota. Scions of this community did well in trade (particularly jute, but also tea) and, in later years, contributed officers to the army. One, Lt-Gen JFR Jacob PVSM, becoming state governor of, first, Goa and then Punjab. Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jute matting being used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. ... A hot cup of tea A tea bush. ... Goa (गोवा in Devanāgarī) is Indias smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population after Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (Meaning: Land of five Rivers) (also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ...


Bnei Menashe

Main article: Bnei Menashe

An estimated 9,000 people in the northeasern Indian states of Mizoram and Manipur started practicing Judaism in the 1970s, claiming to be the lost tribe of Menashe. They have since been recognized by Israel as a lost tribe. The Bnei Menashe (Children of Menasseh, Hebrew בני מנשה) are a group of an estimated 9,000 Jews from Indias northeastern states of Manipur and Mizoram, claiming descent from the Ten Lost Tribes, specifically, from the tribe of Menasseh (Menashe, in Hebrew). ... Mizoram is a state in northeastern India. ... Manipur (মনিপুর) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ...


Bene Ephraim

Main article: Bene Ephraim

The Bene Ephraim, also called Telugu Jews because they speak Telugu, are a small community of Jews living primarily in Kottareddipalem, a village outside Guntur, India, near the delta of the River Krishna. ...

Today

Jews in India typically do not intermarry with gentiles. The majority of Indian Jews have made aliya to Israel since the creation of the modern state in 1948. The word Gentile (from the Latin gentilis, a translation of the Hebrew Nochri/נכרי) has several meanings. ... Aliyah is a Hebrew term, literally meaning ascent, widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Russia in 1882, are known as aliyot (the plural of aliyah). ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


See also

Knanaya Christians (kanaanite Christians or Canaanite Christians) are Jewish Christians from Kerala, South India. ... The Nasrani people are an ethnic community from Kerala, South India, who follow the early Hebrew-Syriac Christian tradition. ... India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with one of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. ...

External links

  • Kulanu's Indian Jews page
  • Sephardic Chief Rabbi recognizes Jewishness of Bnei Menashe
  • Kochini Jews of Kerala
  • Jews of Kerala
  • Bollywood star 'idolises Hitler' - TotallyJewish.com


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jews of India-Introduction (632 words)
India has, historically, been a refuge and sheltered people of all religions, creeds and beliefs – Zoroastrians, Jews, Sufis, and more recently Bahais - all were granted protection and security when they sought it.
Jews settled in different areas – from Kashmir in the north, to Cochin in the south, Calcutta in the east and Bombay (renamed Mumbai) in the west.
The Pardesi synagogue in Cochin, Kerala is the oldest among the surviving synagogues in the country.
The Virtual Jewish History Tour - India (1060 words)
The Jews of Cochin say that they came to Cranganore (south-west coast of India) after the destruction of the Temple in 70 C.E. They had, in effect, their own principality for many centuries until a chieftainship dispute broke out between two brothers in the 15th century.
Under British rule, the Jews of India achieved their maximum population and wealth, and the Calcutta community continued to grow and prosper and trade amongst all the cities of the Far East and to the rest of the world.
India's Jewish population declined dramatically starting in the 1940s with heavy immigration to Israel, England and the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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