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Encyclopedia > Jewish refugees

In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. The article History of anti-Semitism contains more detailed chronology of anti-Jewish hostilities, while Jewish history and Timeline of Jewish history outline the broader picture. After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel proclaimed itself as a safe haven for Jewish refugees (as well as an ideal destination for voluntary Jewish immigration). For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... A safe haven is any security or other investment that loses none or little of its value in case of a market crash. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ...


Partial list of events that prompted major streams of Jewish refugees

(In reverse chronological order) An order is a way of sorting entries, also called elements, in a list. ...

1960s-1999
State-sponsored persecution in the Soviet Union prompted more than 1 million Soviet Jews to emigrate to Israel, 250,000 to the United States with "refugee" status, and 100,000 to Germany. See also rootless cosmopolitan, Doctors' plot, Jackson-Vanik amendment, refusenik, Zionology, Pamyat.
1952. A tent city for Jewish refugees in Israel
1948-1958
The Jewish exodus from Arab lands. The combined population of Jewish communities in the Greater Middle East (excluding Israel) was reduced from about 900,000 in 1948 to less than 8,000 today. Some of these communities were more than 2,500 years old. Israel absorbed approximately 600,000 of these refugees, many of whom were temporarily settled in tent cities called Ma'abarot. They were eventually absorbed into Israeli society, and the last Maabarah was dismantled in 1958. The Jewish refugees had no assistance from the UNRWA. See also Farhud.
1935-1945
The Nazi persecution culminated in the Holocaust of the European Jewry. The British Mandate of Palestine prohibited Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel. The Bermuda Conference, Evian Conference and other attempts failed to resolve the problem of Jewish refugees, a fact widely used in Nazi propaganda. See also S.S. St. Louis
1881-1884, 1903-1906, 1914-1921
Repeated waves of pogroms swept Russia, propelling mass Jewish emigration (more than 2 million Russian Jews emigrated in the period 1881-1920). During World War I, some 250,000 Jews were transferred from western Russia. See also Pale of Settlement, May Laws, Russian Civil War.
1744-1790s
The reforms of Frederick II, Joseph II and Maria Theresa sent masses of impoverished German and Austrian Jews east.
1648-1654
Ukrainian Cossacks and peasants led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky destroyed hundreds of Jewish communities and committed mass atrocities. Ukraine was annexed by the Russian Empire, where officially no Jews were allowed.
1654
The fall of the Dutch colony of Recife in Brazil to the Portuguese prompted the first group of Jews to flee to North America.
1492
Ferdinand II and Isabella issued the Alhambra decree, General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (approx. 200,000), from Sicily (1493, approx. 37,000), from Portugal (1496).
1348
European Jews were blamed for poisoning wells during the Black Death. Many of those who survived the epidemic and pogroms were either expelled or fled.
1290
King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion for all Jews from England. The policy was reversed after 350 years in 1655 by Oliver Cromwell.
12th-14th centuries
France. The practice of expelling the Jews accompanied by confiscation of their property, followed by temporary readmissions for ransom, was used to enrich the crown: expulsions from Paris by Philip Augustus in 1182, from France by Louis IX in 1254, by Charles IV in 1322, by Charles V in 1359, by Charles VI in 1394.
Mid-12th century
The invasion of Almohades brought to end the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Among other refugees was Maimonides, who fled to Morocco, then Egypt, then Eretz Israel.
1095 - mid-13th century
The waves of Crusades destroyed hundreds of Jewish communities in Europe and in the Middle East, including Jerusalem.
7th century
Muhammad expelled Jewish tribes Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir from Medina, after they betrayed him and broke the laws of the constitution of Medina which they agreed to. The Banu Qurayza tribe was slaughtered and the Jewish settlement of Khaybar was ransacked.
135
The Romans defeated Bar Kokhba's revolt. Emperor Hadrian expelled hundreds of thousands Jews from Judea, wiped the name off the maps, replaced it with Syria Palaestina, forbade Jews to set foot in Jerusalem.
70
The defeat of the Great Jewish Revolt. Masses of Jews were sold to slavery across the Roman Empire, many fled.
597 BCE
The Babylonian captivity. In 537 BCE the Persians, who conquered Babylon two years earlier, allowed Jews to return and rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple.
722 BCE
The Assyrians led by Shalmaneser conquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel and sent the Israelites into captivity at Khorasan. Ten of twelve Tribes of Israel are lost.

Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodniy kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins campaign of 1949–1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. ... The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... According to the 1974 Trade act, the Jackson-Vanik amendment, named for its major co-sponsors, Sen. ... Refusenik (Hebrew: , transliterated: mesorav); or Otkaznik (Russian: , from отказ, i. ... Zionology (Russian language: сионология sionologiya) was a doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the course of the Cold War, and intensified after the 1967 Six Day War. ... The symbol of NPF Pamyat with the Russian swastika Pamyat (Russian language: Память, English translation: Memory) is a Russian ultra-nationalist organization identifying itself as the Peoples National-patriotic Orthodox Christian movement. History In the end of 1970s, a historical association Vityaz (В&#1080... Maabarah children This work is copyrighted. ... Maabarah children This work is copyrighted. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East. ... The Maabarot (Hebrew: מעברות) were transit camps that were in Israel in the 1950s. ... The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a controversial relief and human development agency, providing education, healthcare, social services and emergency aid to over four million Palestinian refugees living in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Farhud (translation from Arabic: pogrom, violent dispossession) was a violent pogrom against the Jews of Iraq on June 1-2, 1941. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... The Bermuda Conference was held on April 19, 1943 at Hamilton, Bermuda. ... The Evian Conference was convened at the initiative of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in July, 1938 to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from during the Cultural Revolution. ... The SS was a steamship which is most famous for carrying 963 Jewish refugees, fleeing the Holocaust during World War II. It was repeatedly denied permission to land in safe harbors in North America and was turned back from Florida on June 4, 1939 after being turned away from Cuba. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Reds Finnish Reds White Army Czech Legion Allied intervention UK France United States Japan Italy  Canada  Greece  Romania  Serbia New states Poland Finland  Latvia  Estonia  Lithuania Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Commanders Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Kamenev Budyonny Frunze... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, Archduchess of Austria, (German: , Hungarian: , Romanian: , Slovak: , Czech: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was (reigning) Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий (Bogdan Khmelnitsky)) ( 1595 — August 6, 1657) was a famous and a somewhat controversial leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km²  (84. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Poisoning the well is a logical fallacy where adverse information about someone is pre-emptively presented to an audience, with the intention of discrediting or ridiculing everything that person is about to say. ... It has been suggested that Plague doctor be merged into this article or section. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... In 1290, King Edward I issued an edict ordering all Jews expelled from England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 - July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Banu Nadir (Arabic: ‎) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The massacre of the Banu Qurayza. ... Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Shalmaneser is a name of Assyrian Kings: Shalmaneser I Shalmaneser II Shalmaneser III Shalmaneser IV Shalmaneser V Shalmaneser is also the name of a powerful computer system in John Brunners novel Stand on Zanzibar. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... It has been suggested that Israelite Diaspora be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of the Tribes of Israel. ...

See also

The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the expulsion of the Jewish people out of the Roman province of Judea. ... The Hebron massacre of 1929 was the murder by Arab rioters of 67 Jews in Hebron, then part of the Palestine under the British mandate. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... // Several of these have been re-settled since the Six-Day War. ... // Several of these have been re-settled since the Six-Day War. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... See anti-Semitism for etymology and semantics of the term. ... Arab anti-Semitism is anti-Semitism (bias towards or discrimination against Jews) in the Arab world. ...

External links

  • Ordinary exilethe story of Austrian Jewish refugees in France and in Belgium, Search page

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jewish refugees - definition of Jewish refugees in Encyclopedia (646 words)
In the modern political discourse, the term Jewish refugee is most frequently used for immigrants to Israel from Arab and Muslim lands in the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
The British Mandate of Palestine prohibited Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel.
The practice of expelling the Jews accompanied by confiscation of their property, followed by temporary readmissions for ransom was used to enrich the crown: expulsion from Paris by Philip Augustus in 1182, from France by Louis IX in 1254, by Charles IV in 1322, by Charles V in 1359, by Charles VI in 1394.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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