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Encyclopedia > Jewish languages

The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. The usual course of development for these languages was through the addition of Hebrew words and phrases, used to express uniquely Jewish concepts and concerns, to the local vernacular. Due to the insular nature of many Jewish communities, many Jewish languages retain vocabulary and linguistic structures long after they have been lost or changed in later forms of the language from which they are descended. Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion at various times and locations. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... See also: Asian and Eurasian World map showing Asia. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ...

Contents


Background

The oldest and most treasured books of the Jewish people have been the Torah and Tanakh (i.e. the Hebrew Bible) written almost entirely in Biblical Hebrew and widely used by Jews during their history. Jews zealously studied these detailed Hebrew texts, observed the commandments formulated in them, based their prayers on them, and spoke its language. Jews maintained a belief that Hebrew was God's "language" as well (as it was the language God uses in the Torah itself), hence its name "lashon hakodesh" ("Holy language" or "tongue"). Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... 613 mitzvot (or 613 Commandments. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ...


The earliest surviving Hebrew inscription, the Gezer Calendar, dates from the 10th century BCE; it was written in the so-called Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, which continued to be used through the time of Solomon's Temple until changed to the new "Assyrian lettering" (ktav ashurit) by Ezra the Scribe following the Babylonian Exile. During this time there were also changes in the language, as it developed towards Mishnaic Hebrew. Until then, most Jews had spoken Hebrew in Israel and Judea, however, by the destruction of the Second Temple, most had already shifted to speaking Aramaic, with a significant number in the large diaspora speaking Greek. As Jews emigrated to far-flung countries, and as the languages of the countries they were in changed, they often adopted the local languages, and thus came to speak a great variety of languages. During the early Middle Ages, Aramaic was the principal Jewish language. The Targum and most of the Talmud is written in Aramaic; later in the Middle Ages, most Jewish literary activity was carried out in Judæo-Arabic: Arabic written in the Hebrew alphabet; this is the language Maimonides wrote in. Hebrew itself remained in vigorous use for religious and official uses such as for all religious events, Responsa, for writing Torah scrolls, and along with Aramaic, retained a position of importance for the writing of marriage contracts and other literary purposes. The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... Ezra (עֶזְרָא, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Ezra, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Ezrâ: short for עַזְרִיאֵל My help/court is God, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Azriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Azrîʾēl) was the scribe who led the second body of exiled Israelites that returned from Babylon to Jerusalem in 459 BC, and the author of the Book of Ezra... The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... The Mishnaic Hebrew language or Rabbinic Hebrew language is the ancient descendant of Biblical Hebrew as preserved by the Jews after the Babylonian captivity, and definitively recorded by Jewish sages in writing the Mishnah and other contemporary documents. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Drawing of the Second Temple in Jerusalem during the time of Herod the Great A stone (2. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ...


As time passed, these Jewish dialects often became so different from the parent languages as to constitute new languages, typically with a heavy influx of Hebrew and Aramaic loanwords and other innovations within the language. Thus were formed a variety of languages specific to the Jewish community; perhaps the most notable of these are Yiddish in Europe (mainly from German) and Ladino (from Spanish), originally in al-Andalus but spreading to other locations, mainly around the Mediterranean, due to the 1492 expulsion of practicing Jews from Spain and the persecution by the Inquisition of the conversos. Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... A loanword is a word directly taken into by one language from another with little or no translation. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Artistic (i. ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ...


Jews in the diaspora have tended to form segregated communities, in part due to ostracisation and persecution by the surrounding communities, and in part due to a desire to maintain their own culture. This sociological factor contributed to the formation of dialects that often developed and diverged to form separate languages.


At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Yiddish was the main language of Jews in Eastern Europe (thus making it the language spoken by the majority of Jews in the world), while Ladino was widespread in the Maghreb, Greece, and Turkey; smaller groups in Europe spoke such languages as Judæo-Italian, Yevanic, or Karaim. The Jews of the Arab world spoke Judæo-Arabic varieties, while those of Iran spoke Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian); smaller groups spoke Judæo-Berber, Judæo-Tat or even, in Kurdistan, Judæo-Aramaic. The Beta Israel were abandoning their Kayla language for Amharic, while the Cochin Jews continued to speak Malayalam. Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... The Maghreb (المغرب العربي ; sometimes also rendered Moghreb), meaning western in Arabic, is the region of the continent of Africa north of the Sahara desert and west of the Nile — specifically, the modern countries of Morocco, Western Sahara (annexed and occupied by Morocco), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya — and to a much lesser extent... Italkian is a Jewish-Italian dialect that combines Hebrew and Italian, it has been spoken mainly between the 10th and the 17th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy (notably in Livorno). ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελληνική) and includes Hebrew elements as well. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... The Arab world The Arab world(العالم العربي) consists of more than twenty countries stretching from Mauritania in the west to Oman in the east. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Judeo-Berber is a collective term given to the Hebrew-influenced Berber varieties spoken by some North Africans Jews, mainly in Morocco (where Tachelhit was the main factor. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Beta Israel (or House of Israel), known by outsiders by the term Falasha (exiles or strangers), a term that they consider to be pejorative, are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... KAYLA IS A FUCKING LOSER! ... Amharic (አማርኛ ’amarñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia. ... Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient Jews and their descendants of the South Indian port city of Cochin. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം) is the language of the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...


Contemporary trends

This broad picture was substantially modified by major historical shifts beginning in the late nineteenth century. The immigration of millions of European Jews to North America caused a dramatic increase in the number of Jewish English-speakers; colonialism in the Maghreb led most of its Jews to shift to French or Spanish; Zionism revived Hebrew as a spoken language, giving it a substantially increased vocabulary and a simplified sound system; the Holocaust tragically and massively eradicated the vast majority of Yiddish-speaking European Jews; and the Arab-Israeli conflict led many Jews to leave the Arab world for other countries (mainly Israel and France), whose languages they largely adopted. World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... The Maghreb (المغرب العربي ; sometimes also rendered Moghreb), meaning western in Arabic, is the region of the continent of Africa north of the Sahara desert and west of the Nile — specifically, the modern countries of Morocco, Western Sahara (annexed and occupied by Morocco), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya — and to a much lesser extent... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Israel (in blue color) and the Arab League states (in green, Comoros is not shown). ...


Jews today speak a large variety of languages, typically adopting the languages of their countries of residence. The largest single language spoken by Jews is English: The largest Jewish population in the world is in the United States, and there are also large, substantial communities in Canada (a majority of Canadian Jews speak English, not French), the United Kingdom, Australia, and South Africa. Ireland and New Zealand also have small English-speaking Jewish communities. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


English is closely followed by Modern Hebrew, the spoken language in Israel, and by Israeli emigrants who live in other countries. Hebrew is the language of daily life in Israel, though a substantial proportion of the country's citizens are immigrants who speak it as their second language. Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ...


After English and Hebrew, the next largest language spoken by large populations of Jews is Russian, with perhaps two million speakers from the former Soviet Union, a majority of whom now live in Israel. Approximately 1.5 million Israelis speak Russian fluently.


French, Spanish, and Portuguese constitute the final "tier" of languages spoken by major Jewish populations. French is spoken by hundreds of thousands of Jews in France and Quebec, most of them immigrants from North Africa who originally spoke Arabic. Spanish and Portuguese are spoken by large Jewish communities in Central and South America. A substantial number of current immigrants to Israel speak French or Spanish as their mother tongue. For Quebec, the capital, see Quebec City. ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ...


Yiddish continues to be spoken by older generations of Jews, as well is in Haredi communities. Although the number of older speakers is continually decreasing, there is revived interest in Yiddish in academia and the arts. Yiddish (Yid. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ...


Thus Yiddish, once the language of the majority of the world's Jews, continues to be spoken, as are nearly all the languages discussed in the preceding section. However, some of these languages, (notably Judæo-Aramaic) are considered to be gravely endangered.


Use of the Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet has also been used to transcribe a number of "gentile" languages including Arabic, English, French, Spanish (as opposed to Ladino), German (as distinct from Yiddish) and Greek (as opposed to Yevanic). While not common, such practice has occurred intermittently over the last two thousand years, and probably was part of the basis of such languages as Ladino and Yiddish. The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...


List of Jewish languages

Afro-Asiatic languages

Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Lishanid Noshan is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... ... Hulaulá is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishana Deni is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishán Didán is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Mizrahi Jews | Arab | Arabic languages | Jewish languages ... Judeo-Berber is a collective term given to the Hebrew-influenced Berber varieties spoken by some North Africans Jews, mainly in Morocco (where Tachelhit was the main factor. ... KAYLA IS A FUCKING LOSER! ... ... Kayla, or Kaïliña is an Agaw language formerly spoken by the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews). ...

Indo-European languages

  • Germanic: Yiddish, Yinglish, Yeshivish, Klezmer-loshn
  • Italic: Judeo-Latin and its putative descendants, the Judeo-Romance languages: Ladino, Shuadit (Judeo-Provençal), Zarphatic (Judeo-French), Judeo-Portuguese, Italkian (Judeo-Italian), Catalanic (Judeo-Catalan), Judeo-Aragonese
  • Slavic: Knaanic (Judeo-Czech)
  • Greek: Yevanic (Judeo-Greek)
  • Indo-Iranian (Judeo-Persian languages): Dzhidi, (Judeo-Persian), Judeo-Bukharic, Judeo-Golpaygani, Judeo-Yazdi, Judeo-Kermani, Judeo-Shirazi, Judeo-Esfahani, Judeo-Hamedani, Judeo-Kashani, Judeo-Borujerdi, Judeo-Nehevandi, Judeo-Khunsari, Judeo-Tat, Judæo-Kurdish, Judeo-Marathi

Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... The term Yinglish describes the distinctive way certain Orthodox Jews in English-speaking countries, principally America, but also the United Kingdom, speak English among themselves. ... Yeshivish is spoken mainly by English-speaking Orthodox Jews who attend or have attended a yeshiva or bais yaakov, and is the working language of those schools. ... Klezmer-loshn (Yiddish: Musicians Tongue) is an extinct dialect of Yiddish. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Judeo-Latin, or La‘az is the Jewish language of the many scattered Jewish communities of the former Roman Empire, but especially by the Jewish communities of the Italian Peninsula and Transalpine Gaul. ... Judeo-Romance languages are those languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by the various Jewish communities, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their own right, joining the great number of other Jewish languages. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Italkian is a Jewish-Italian dialect that combines Hebrew and Italian, it has been spoken mainly between the 10th and the 17th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy (notably in Livorno). ... Catalanic, also called Judæo-Catalan, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελληνική) and includes Hebrew elements as well. ... The Indo-Iranian languages are the language links between India and Iran. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Judæo-Golpaygani was the Indo-Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Golpaygan, in western Esfahan, western Iran. ... Judeo-Shirazi is a dialect form of the Persian language. ... Judæo-Hamedani is the Indo-Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Hamadan, in western Iran. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Judeo-Marathi is a Jewish language spoken by the Bene Israel, a Jewish ethnic group of India. ...

Uralo-Altaic

Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...

Kartvelic

Gruzinic (also known as Kivruli and Judæo-Georgian) is the traditional language spoken by the Gruzim, the ancient Jewish community of the Caucasus nation of Georgia. ...

Dravidian

  • Judæo-Malayalam

Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language spoken by the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by about 8,000 people in Israel and by probably fewer than 100 in India. ...

Alphabetical list

Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Catalanic, also called Judæo-Catalan, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Gruzinic (also known as Kivruli and Judæo-Georgian) is the traditional language spoken by the Gruzim, the ancient Jewish community of the Caucasus nation of Georgia. ... Hulaulá is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Italkian is a Jewish-Italian dialect that combines Hebrew and Italian, it has been spoken mainly between the 10th and the 17th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy (notably in Livorno). ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... Judeo-Berber is a collective term given to the Hebrew-influenced Berber varieties spoken by some North Africans Jews, mainly in Morocco (where Tachelhit was the main factor. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language spoken by the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by about 8,000 people in Israel and by probably fewer than 100 in India. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... KAYLA IS A FUCKING LOSER! ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Lishán Didán is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishana Deni is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishanid Noshan is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελληνική) and includes Hebrew elements as well. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ...

External links

  • Jewish Language Research Website from jewish-languages.org
    • Links to individual languages
  • WW2 propaganda leaflets: A website about airdropped, shelled or rocket fired propaganda leaflets. Allied propaganda leaflet for Moroccan Jews in Judeo-Arabic language.
  • Jewish languages dying out
  • Jewish Languages of Europe


Jewish languages (edit)
Afro-Asiatic
Hebrew (eras): Biblical | Mishnaic | Medieval | Modern
(dialects): Ashkenazi | Sephardi | Yemenite | Sanaani | Tiberian | Mizrahi | Samaritan
Judæo-Aramaic (Aramaic): Biblical | Barzani | Hulaulá | Lishana Deni | Lishan Didan | Lishanid Noshan
Judeo-Arabic (Arabic): Judæo-Iraqi | Judæo-Moroccan | Judæo-Yemeni | Judæo-Libyan | Judæo-Algerian
Other: Cushitic: | Kayla | Qwara Berber: Judeo-Berber
Indo-European
Yiddish (Germanic): Nat'l Yiddish Book Ctr. | YIVO | Yiddish Theater | Yeshivish | Yinglish | Klezmer-loshn
Judæo-Romance: Catalanic | Italkit | Ladino | La‘az | Shuadit | Zarphatic | Lusitanic | Judeo-Aragonese | Tetuani
Judeo-Persian (Aryan): Bukhori | Juhuri | Dzhidi | Judeo-Hamedani | Judeo-Golpaygani | Judeo-Shirazi
Judæo-Esfahani | Judæo-Kermani | Judæo-Kashani | Judæo-Borujerdi
Judæo-Khunsari | Judæo-Kurdish | Judæo-Yazdi | Judæo-Nehevandi
Other: Yevanic (Hellenic) | Knaanic (Slavic) | Judeo-Marathi (Indic)
Altaic Dravidian Kartvelian
Krymchak | Karaim Judeo-Malayalam Gruzinic

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Ultimate Aramaic language - American History Information Guide and Reference (5582 words)
As the language grew in importance, it came to be spoken throughout the Mediterranean coastal area of the Levant, and spread east of the Tigris.
It is the language of the city-states of Damascus, Hamath and Arpad.
Nabataean Aramaic is the language of the Arab kingdom of Petra.
Jewish languages - definition of Jewish languages in Encyclopedia (712 words)
As time passed, these Jewish dialects often became so different from the parent languages as to constitute new languages, typically with a heavy influx of Hebrew and other loanwords as well as innovations within the language.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Yiddish was the main language of Jews in Eastern Europe, while Ladino was widespread in the Maghreb, Greece, and Turkey; smaller groups in Europe spoke such languages as Italkian, Yevanic, or Karaim.
In addition to the native Jewish language of Hebrew, Jewish communities have frequently adopted the language of the surrounding community, but due to their segregation it often developed and diverged to form a dialect or a separate language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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