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Encyclopedia > Jewish holiday

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Money-grubbing sons of devils! This means you, Woody Allen, you sick fuck. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim)
Talmud · Halakha · Holidays
Passover · Prayer  · Tzedakah
Ethics · 613 Mitzvot · Customs · Midrash Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). In Arabic, charity is sadakah (صدقه) and an obligatory type of it, the Arabic term zakat, is considered to be one of the five pillars of Islam. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: תריג מצוות transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Mitzvah (Hebrew: מצווה, IPA: , commandment; plural, mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah, command) is a word used in Judaism to refer to (a) the commandments, of which there are 613, given in the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) or (b) any Jewish law at all. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi
Lost tribes See related article Judaism by country. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... {{Ethnic group| |image= |group=Sephardi |poptime=>1,700,000 |popplace=Israel: 950,000[1] United States: 150,000 [2] Turkey: 20,000[3] The Netherlands: 270 families Northern Africa: nn Europe (mostly in France): 600,000 Southern Africa: nn Oceania: nn |langs=*Liturgical:,[[Arabic],Sephardic Hebrew *Traditional: Ladino, Judæo... Mizrahi Jews, or Mizrahim (מזרחי Easterner, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; plural מזרחים Easterners, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) sometimes also called Edot HaMizrah (Congregations of the East) are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East. ... It has been suggested that Israelite Diaspora be merged into this article or section. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · Iran · USA · Russia/USSR · Poland
Canada · Germany · France · England
India · Spain · Portugal · Latin America
Under Muslim rule · Turkey · Iraq · Syria
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... This page is a list of Jews. ... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform
Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite
Alternative · Renewal Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbÄ« is derived from a recent (18th... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest stream of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian
Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic
Juhuri · Krymchak · Karaim · Knaanic
Yevanic  · Zarphatic · Dzhidi · Bukhori The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελ&#955... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism
Religious Zionism · General Zionism
The Bund · World Agudath Israel
Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Labor Zionism (or Labour Zionism) is the traditional left-wing of the Zionist ideology. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... Kippot Sruggot: Modern Orthodox Jewish students carry the flag of Israel at a public parade in Manhattan, NY, USA Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, also called Mizrachi, is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile
Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline)
Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms
Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars
Relationship with Christianity; with Islam
Diaspora · Middle Ages · Kabbalah
Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation
Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History)
Arab conflict  · Land of Israel Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... The city of Jerusalem is significant in a number of religious traditions, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 13,000? Casualties Unknown 600,000–1,300,000 (mass civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that are in some ways parallel to each other and in other ways fundamentally divergent in theology and practice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... This article is about traditional Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism). ... It has been suggested that Hasidic philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... This article describes the history of the modern State of Israel, from its Independence Proclamation in 1948 to the present. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003, including portions of the State of Israel, Jordan, Egypt, and Lebanon. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
The Holocaust
History of antisemitism
New antisemitism Persecution of Jews includes various persecutions that the Jewish people and Judaism have experienced throughout Jewish history. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling Hate speech · Hate crime Lynching · Gay bashing Genocide · Holocaust Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing Pogrom · Race war Religious persecution Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism White/Black supremacy Hate groups · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism Womens/Universal suffrage Civil rights · Gay rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Policies Discriminatory... This article is becoming very long. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ...

v  d  e

A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. In Hebrew, Jewish holidays and festivals, depending on their nature, may be called Yom Tov ("good day") or chag ("festival") or ta'anit ("fast"). Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... Taanit is a fast in the Jewish religion. ...

Contents

Introduction

Outside of a Jewish context, all Jewish holidays appear to be "religious holidays" but that is not actually the case. Judaism is old enough that it is simultaneously a religion, a system of ethics, a social ideology, and a trans-national quasi-citizenship. (To be a Jew is, first, to claim ancestral citizenship – by birth or "naturalization," i.e., conversion – in the ancient tribal nations of Israel and Judah.) That is why, within Judaism, there are religious holidays, like Passover and Yom Kippur, which require abstinence from work, school, etc., and may also require fasting; and there are secular holidays, like Hanukkah and Purim which, while they may have a religious aspect or component, are festive occasions that generally reside on the secular side of Jewish history and tradition. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippÅ«r) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Rededication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev, which may be in December, late November, or, while very rare in occasion, early January (as was the case for the Hanukkah of 2005... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm Lots, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of Persian Jews from Hamans plot to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ...


All Jewish holidays occur according to the Jewish Calendar. This is a luni-solar calendar in which the first day of each month correlates exactly (more or less) to the new moon, so that the middle of the month coincides with the height of the full moon. Because of its usefulness in marking the passage of time, most holidays and festivals in most traditions are traceable to cycles of the moon – especially the full moon. In Jewish as in other traditions, the oldest holidays are the ones associated with the full moon – because they are so old, they pre-date the establishment of the new moon as the key date of the month on the Jewish Calendar. The other key time markers commemorated by holidays are solstices and equinoxes, but as Jewish holidays have long been codified to the strictly lunar months of the Jewish Calendar, these other markers have had little effect on Jewish festivals and holy days. The one important exception is the insertion of an extra lunar month in leap years, to ensure Passover happens on the first full moon following the first crescent moon of the vernal equinox. This figure, in a detail of a medieval Hebrew calendar, reminded Jews of the palm branches ( Lulav) and the citron ( Etrog) to be brought to the synagogue at the end of sukkot, closing the solemn convocations of the calendar in autumn. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ...


International time measurement is per standard time zones and the Gregorian Calendar of western Europe, on which the day begins at midnight and the year is 365/366 days long. But the Jewish day begins at sunset – or for business purposes in Israel, at 6:00 PM; and the Jewish calendar is shorter or longer than the Gregorian, depending whether it is an ordinary or leap year. So, Jewish holidays straddle two (or more) dates on the Gregorian calendar, beginning the evening of the first and finishing at the evening of the last; and the dates are different every year. As they are listed on most Gregorian calendars, Jewish holidays begin at sunset on the day before the date given – much in the way that Christmas Eve (which is short for "Christmas Evening") precedes the Christian festival of Christmas Day instead of following it.


The holiest of the religious Jewish holidays are enumerated in the Torah, in Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Some holidays were established by the Rabbis at the close of the ancient period of Jewish history. Modern holidays commonly observed by Jews internationally were established by the State of Israel after its establishment in 1948, though some of these – such as the Fast of the Tenth of Tevet were popularly observed by Jews for centuries before they became formal holidays. Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbÄ« is derived from a recent (18th... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ...


There are also holidays associated with Jewish mysticism. The best known of these is Tu B'Shevat, the "New Year for Trees," which harkens to the days, in prehistoric and pre-Judaism, of tree magic and tree calendars. This may, in fact, be the oldest holiday celebrated by Jews. The fact it is calendared according to the full moon instead of the new moon certainly indicates it is one of the three oldest holidays on the Jewish Calendar, the other two being Passover and Sukkot. Tu Bishvat (or Tu BiShevat) (טו בשבט) is a minor Jewish holiday (meaning there are no restrictions on working) and one of the four Rosh Hashanahs (New Years) mentioned in the Mishnah, the basis of the Talmud. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ...


Below is a list of major Jewish holidays. There are also many minor holidays in Judaism. Some holidays are actually combinations of holidays and festivals – such as Passover, which combines the holy day of Passover (one day) with the Festival of Unleavened Cakes (six days). Most single holidays are one day long, but some holy days, like Rosh Hashanah, are observed by some Jews for two days. Most festivals (including combinations) are seven days long, but Hanukkah is eight days. This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Rededication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev, which may be in December, late November, or, while very rare in occasion, early January (as was the case for the Hanukkah of 2005...


There are a number of stories about the reasons some Jews observe Passover and Rosh Hashanah for two days when the Torah commands they are only one day. The most commonly accepted view is that Jews living in the Diaspora (i.e., outside of Israel) could not be certain they were celebrating a holy day on the same day it was observed at Jerusalem. At the time, a month began when the new moon was spotted and the Sanhedrin declared Rosh Chodesh. As it was impossible to inform all Jews in the Diaspora that a new month had begun in one day, they developed the tradition of celebrating the holy day for two consecutive days, knowing that one of the days was the correct one. After Hillel II codified the Jewish calendar into a precise mathematical system, it was decided by the Talmudic sages that due to the prevalence and age of the two-day tradition it was to continue regardless.[1] For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and... Hillel II, also known simply as Hillel was a Jewish communal and religious authority, circa 330 - 365 CE. He was the son and successor of Judah III. He is sometimes confused with Hillel the Elder, as the Talmud sometimes simply uses the name Hillel. He is regarded as the creator...


A mistaken explanation is that the two-day celebrations arose as a form of evasive action, in reaction to the persecution of Jews in central and eastern Europe, and possibly under the Spanish Inquisition. According to this explanation since the holidays affected by the convention are among the holiest days on the Jewish Calendar – Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, and Sukkot – so they are days on which Jews could be counted upon to congregate in large numbers in synagogues or large private homes these days were the easiest times of the year to persecute Jews. But if the celebrations of the holy days were divided between two days, and the authorities did not know which Jews would be celebrating the holy day on which night, capturing Jews on those nights became a harder task. Some Jews may have celebrated the holy days on differing of the two nights in different years, or on both nights, just to further the confusion among civil non-Jewish authorities about the true date. Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ...


However, this explanation is erroneous since two-day celebrations is already documented among Babylonian Jewry in the first Century CE, and the subsequent practice of two days in various diaspora communities always follows the migration of Babylonian Jews or their descendants.


In Israel all of the holy days noted are officially one day except for Rosh Hashanah, though Orthodox and Conservative Jews visiting from abroad often observe two days.


Rosh Hashanah – The Jewish New Year

Main article: Rosh Hashanah
  • For the week before Rosh Hashana among Ashkenazim, and the entire month of Elul among Sephardim, special additional morning prayers are added known as Selichot.
  • Erev Rosh Hashanah (evening of the first day) – 29 Elul
  • Rosh Hashanah (ראש השנה‎) – 1–2 Tishrei

Rosh Hashanah is set aside by the Mishna as the new year for calculating calendar years, sabbatical and jubilee years, vegetable tithes, and tree-planting (determining the age of a tree). According to Jewish legend, the creation of the world was completed on Tishrei 1. This holiday is characterized by the blowing of the shofar, a trumpet made from a ram's horn. The practice of Tashlikh, the symbolic casting away of sins by throwing either stones or bread crumbs into the waters, occurs during the afternoon of the first day. Rosh Hashanah is always observed as a two-day holiday, both inside and outside the boundaries of Israel. The two days are considered together to be a yoma arichta, a single "long day". This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... Selichot (Heb. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... Tishrei or Tishri (תִּשְׁרִי, תִּשְׁרֵי, Standard Hebrew Tišri, Tišre, Tiberian Hebrew Tišrî, Tišrê: from Akkadian tašrītu Beginning, from šurrû To begin... A shofar in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... Tashlikh (Hebrew, meaning casting off) is a long-standing practice on Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish new year according to the Hebrew calendar) to go to a large, natural body of flowing water (such as a river, lake, sea or ocean) and throw some bread, or a similar food item, into...


Aseret Yemei Teshuva – Ten Days of Repentance

Between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are ten days, known as Aseret Yemei Teshuva. During this time it is "exceedingly appropriate" for Jews to practice "Teshuvah" which is, examining one's ways, and engaging in Repentance and the improvement of their ways in anticipation of Yom Kippur. This repentance can take the form of early morning prayers, which capture the penitential spirit appropriate to the occasion, fasting, or self-reflection. Between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are ten days, known as Aseret Yemei Teshuva. ...


Yom Kippur – Day of Atonement

Main article: Yom Kippur
  • Erev Yom Kippur – 9 Tishrei
  • Yom Kippur (יום כיפור‎) – 10 Tishrei

Yom Kippur is considered by Jews to be the holiest and most solemn day of the year. Its central theme is atonement and reconciliation. Eating, drinking, bathing, and conjugal relations are prohibited. Fasting begins at sundown, and ends after nightfall the following day. Yom Kippur services begin with the prayer known as "Kol Nidrei", which must be recited before sunset. (Kol Nidrei, Aramaic for "all vows," is a public annulment of religious vows made by Jews during the preceding year. It only concerns unfilled vows made between a person and God, and does not cancel or nullify any vows made between people.) Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippūr) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippūr) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippūr) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Look up reconcile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food and/or drink, for a period of time. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ...


A Tallit (four-cornered prayer shawl) is donned for evening prayers— the only evening service of the year in which this is done. The Ne'ilah service is a special service held only on the day of Yom Kippur, and deals with the closing of the holiday. Yom Kippur comes to an end with the blowing of the shofar, which marks the conclusion of the fast. It is always observed as a one-day holiday, both inside and outside the boundaries of the land of Israel. The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ...


Although Ashkenazim (Jews of Eastern and Central Europe) view this day as a fairly "depressing" sort of occasion, Yom Kippur is not a sad day for Sephardic Jews (Jews of Spanish, Portuguese and North African descent), who refer to this holiday as "the White Fast". Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the...


Sukkot – Festival of Booths

Main article: Sukkot

Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt) or Succoth is a 7-day festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or just Tabernacles. It is one of the three pilgrimage festivals mentioned in the Bible. The word sukkot is the plural of the Hebrew word sukkah, meaning booth. Jews are commanded to "dwell" in booths during the holiday. This generally means taking meals, but some sleep in the sukkah as well. There are specific rules for constructing a sukkah. The seventh day of the holiday is called Hoshanah Rabbah. Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ...

  • Erev Sukkot – 14 Tishrei
  • Sukkot (חג הסוכות‎) – 15–21 Tishrei (22 outside Israel)

Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah

Main article: Simchat Torah

Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) means "rejoicing with the Torah". It actually refers to a special ceremony which takes place on the holiday of Shemini Atzeret. This holiday immediately follows the conclusion of the holiday of Sukkot. In Israel, Shemini Atzeret is one day long and includes the celebration of Simchat Torah. Outside Israel, Shemini Atzeret is two days long and Simchat Torah is observed on the second day, which is often referred to by the name of the ceremony. Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ...


The last portion of the Torah is read, completing the annual cycle, followed by the first chapter of Genesis. Services are especially joyous, and all attendees, young and old, are involved. Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ...


Hanukkah – Festival of Lights

Main article: Hanukkah
  • Erev Hanukkah – 24 Kislev
  • Hanukkah (חנוכה‎) – 25 Kislev – 2 or 3 Tevet

The story of Hanukkah is preserved in the books of the First and Second Maccabees. These books are not part of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), they are apocryphal books instead. The miracle of the one-day supply of oil miraculously lasting eight days is first described in the Talmud. Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Rededication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev, which may be in December, late November, or, while very rare in occasion, early January (as was the case for the Hanukkah of 2005... Kislev (or Chisleu) (Hebrew: כִּסְלֵו, Standard Kislev Tiberian  ; from Akkadian kislimu) is the third month of the ecclesiastical year and the ninth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Kislev (or Chisleu) (Hebrew: כִּסְלֵו, Standard Kislev Tiberian  ; from Akkadian kislimu) is the third month of the ecclesiastical year and the ninth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Tevet (טֵבֵת, Standard Hebrew Tevet, Tiberian Hebrew Ṭēḇēṯ: from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year and the tenth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Rededication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev, which may be in December, late November, or, while very rare in occasion, early January (as was the case for the Hanukkah of 2005... Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...


Hanukkah marks the defeat of Seleucid Empire forces that had tried to prevent the people of Israel from practicing Judaism. Judah Maccabee and his brothers destroyed overwhelming forces, and rededicated the Temple in Jerusalem. The eight-day festival is marked by the kindling of lights—one on the first night, two on the second, and so on—using a special candle holder called a Chanukkiyah, or a Hanukkah menorah. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Judas Maccabeus (or Judah the Maccabee from the Hebrew יהודה המכבי transliteration: Yehudah HaMakabi) translation: Judah the Hammer was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Hanukiah, Chănukkiyah (×—Ö·× Ö»×›Ö´Ö¼×™Ö¸Ö¼×”, חנוכייה) is a 9-branched candelabrum for Chanukkah. ...


With the commercialization of Christmas in the twentieth century as a time for exchanging gifts, adding to its position as the biggest holiday in the Western world, as well as the establishment of the modern state of Israel, Hanukkah began to increasingly serve both as a celebration of Israel's struggle for survival and as a December family gift-giving holiday which could function as a Jewish alternative to Christmas. However, there is a long tradition of Hanukkah as an especially joyous holiday for children. Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday that marks the traditional birthdate of Jesus of Nazareth. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Tenth of Tevet

Main article: Tenth of Tevet

This minor fast day marks the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem as outlined in 2 Kings 25:1 Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...

And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it round about.

As a minor fast day, fasting from dawn to dusk is required, but other laws of mourning are not observed. A Torah reading and Haftorah reading, and a special prayer in the Amidah, are added at both Shacharit and Mincha services. The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esreh (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ...


Tu Bishvat – New year of the trees

Main article: Tu Bishvat
  • Tu Bishvat (חג האילנות - ט"ו בשבט‎) – 15 Shevat

Tu Bishvat is the new year for trees. According to the Mishnah, it marks the day from which fruit tithes are counted each year. In modern times, it is celebrated by eating various fruits and nuts associated with the Land of Israel. During the 1600s, Rabbi Yitzchak Luria of Safed and his disciples created a short seder, called Hemdat ha‑Yamim, reminiscent of the seder that Jews observe on Passover, that explores the holiday's Kabbalistic themes. Tu Bishvat (or Tu BiShevat) (טו בשבט) is a minor Jewish holiday (meaning there are no restrictions on working) and one of the four Rosh Hashanahs (New Years) mentioned in the Mishnah, the basis of the Talmud. ... Tu Bishvat (or Tu BiShevat) (טו בשבט) is a minor Jewish holiday (meaning there are no restrictions on working) and one of the four Rosh Hashanahs (New Years) mentioned in the Mishnah, the basis of the Talmud. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003, including portions of the State of Israel, Jordan, Egypt, and Lebanon. ... The Grave of Isaac Luria in Safed Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534–July 25, 1572) was a Jewish scholar and mystic. ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... This article is about traditional Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism). ...


Purim – Festival of Lots

Main article: Purim

Purim commemorates the events that took place in the Book of Esther. It is celebrated by reading or acting out the story of Esther, and by making disparaging noises at every mention of Haman's name. In Purim it is a tradition to masquerade around in costumes and to give Mishloakh Manot (care packages, i.e. gifts of food and drink) to the poor and the needy. In Israel it is also a tradition to arrange festive parades, known as Ad-D'lo-Yada, in the town's main street. Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm Lots, from Akkadian pūru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of Persian Jews from Hamans plot to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ... The Fast of Esther known as Taanit Ester is a Jewish fast from dusk until dawn, commemorating the three day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm Lots, from Akkadian pūru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of Persian Jews from Hamans plot to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ... Shushan Purim is a Jewish holiday which is celebrated on the 15th day of Adar which is the day after Purim by those in Jerusalem and Shushan. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day, week or month in order to keep the calendar year synchronised with the astronomical or seasonal year. ... Adar (אֲדָר, Standard Hebrew Adar, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḏār: from Akkadian adaru) is the sixth month of the religious year and the twelfth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm Lots, from Akkadian pūru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of Persian Jews from Hamans plot to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ... Esther (Hebrew: אֶסְתֵּר, Standard Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Haman is the villain in the Book of Esther. ...


New Year for Kings

  • New Year for Kings – 1 Nisan.

Although Rosh Hashanah marks the change of the Jewish calendar year, Nisan is considered the first month of the Hebrew calendar. The Mishnah indicates that the year of the reign of Jewish kings was counted from Nisan in Biblical times. Nisan is also considered the beginning of the calendar year in terms of the order of the holidays. This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ...


In addition to this New Year, the Mishnah sets up three other legal New Years:

Elul (אֱלוּל, Standard Hebrew Elul, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlûl: from Akkadian elÅ«lu) is the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year and the sixth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Tishrei or Tishri (תִּשְׁרִי, תִּשְׁרֵי, Standard Hebrew Tišri, Tišre, Tiberian Hebrew Tišrî, Tišrê: from Akkadian tašrītu Beginning, from šurrû To begin... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... In the story of Xenogears, Shevat is the name of a country, named after the Hebrew month. ... Tu Bishvat (or Tu BiShevat) (טו בשבט) is a minor Jewish holiday (meaning there are no restrictions on working) and one of the four Rosh Hashanahs (New Years) mentioned in the Mishnah, the basis of the Talmud. ...

Pesach – Passover

Main article: Passover
  • Erev Pesach and Fast of the Firstborn known as "Ta'anit Bechorim" – 14 Nisan
  • Passover/Pesach (פסח) (first two days) – 15 (and 16) Nisan
  • The "Last days of Passover", known as Acharon shel Pesach, are also a holiday commemorating K'riat Yam Suf, the Passage of the Red Sea. – 21 (and 22) Nisan
  • The semi-holiday days between the "first days" and the "last days" of Passover are known as Chol Hamo'ed, referred to as the "Intermediate days".

Pesach (Passover) commemorates the liberation of the Israelite slaves from Egypt. No leavened food is eaten during the week of Pesach, in commemoration of the fact that the Jews left Egypt so quickly that their bread did not have enough time to rise. Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Possible Exodus Routes. ... Chol HaMoed is a Hebrew phrase which means weekdays of the festival and refers to the intermediate days of one of the following Jewish Holidays: Passover, or Sukkot During Chol HaMoed the usual Yom Tov restrictions are relaxed, but not entirely eliminated. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ...


The first seder begins at sundown on the 15th of Nisan, and the second seder is held on the night of the 16th of Nisan. On the second night, Jews start counting the omer. The counting of the omer is a count of the days from the time they left Egypt until the time they arrived at Mount Sinai. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haggadah of Pesach. ... Omer is the common infrastructure project manager for a large, distributed application at a leading financial institution Omer is an ancient unit of measure used in the era of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. ... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Karaites start the omer count on the Sunday of Passover week. Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Sefirah – Counting of the Omer

Main article: Counting of the Omer
  • Sefirah (ספירת העומר, Sefirat Ha'Omer) – Counting the Omer

Sefirah is the 49 day ("seven weeks") period between Pesach and Shavuot; it is defined by the Torah as the period during which special offerings are to be brought to the Temple in Jerusalem. Judaism teaches that this makes physical the spiritual connection between Pesach and Shavuot. Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ...


Lag Ba'omer

Main article: Lag Ba'omer

Lag Ba'omer ( ל"ג בעומר) is the 33rd day in the Omer count (ל"ג is the number 33 in Hebrew). The mourning restrictions on joyous activities during the Omer period are lifted on Lag Ba'Omer and there are often celebrations with picnics, bonfires and bow and arrow play by children. In Israel, youth can be seen gathering materials for bonfires. Construction sites must post guards near this time. setting fire, one of the symbols of the holiday Lag Baomer (Ashkenazi) or Lag laomer (Sephardi) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the thirty-third day of the counting of the Omer which is on the 18th of Iyar. ... PICNIC is an acronym which stands for Problem In Chair, Not In Computer. It is most commonly used by experts to describe to one another that the problem was not in the computer but was instead caused by the user operating it. ...


New Israeli/Jewish national holidays

Since the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel has established four new Jewish holidays.

These four days are national holidays in the State of Israel, and have since been accepted as religious holidays in general by the following groups: The Union of Orthodox Congregations and Rabbinical Council of America; The United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth (United Kingdom); The Chief Rabbinate of the State of Israel; All of Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism; The Union for Traditional Judaism and the Reconstructionist movement. Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day (Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ... Yom Haatzmaut (Hebrew: yom hā-‘aṣmā’ūṯ), Israeli Independence Day, commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948. ... Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim (Hebrew: ) is an annual Israeli national holiday celebrated on Iyar 28 (כח באייר). It is primarily celebrated by secular and national-religious (religious-zionist) Israelis and Jews. ...


These four new days are not accepted as religious holidays by Haredi Judaism, which includes Hasidic Judaism. These groups view these new days as Israeli national holidays, and they do not celebrate these holidays. Haredi or Charedi Judaism, often referred to as Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... It has been suggested that Hasidic philosophy be merged into this article or section. ...


Yom HaShoah – Holocaust Remembrance day

Main article: Yom HaShoah

Yom HaShoah is also known as Holocaust Remembrance Day, and takes place on the 27th day of Nisan. Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ...


Yom Hazikaron – Memorial Day

Main article: Yom Hazikaron
  • Yom Hazikaron (יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל‎) – 4 Iyar

Yom Hazikaron is the day of remembrance in honor of Israeli veterans and fallen soldiers of the Wars of Israel. The Memorial Day also commemorates fallen civilians, slain by acts of hostile terrorism. [1] Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day (Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ... Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day (Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ... Iyar (Standard Hebrew אִייָּר Iyyar, Tiberian Hebrew אִיָּר ʾIyyār: from Akkadian ayyaru Rosette; blossom) is the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year and the second month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day (Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ... Modern soldiers. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Yom Ha'atzma'ut – Israel Independence Day

Main article: Yom Ha'atzmaut

Yom Ha'atzma'ut is Israel's Independence Day. An official ceremony is held annually on the eve of Yom Ha'atzma'ut at Mount Herzl. The ceremony includes speeches by senior Israeli officials, an artistic presentation, a ritual march of flag-carrying soldiers forming elaborate structures (such as a Menorah, a Magen David and the number which represents the age of the State of Israel) and the lighting of twelve beacons (one for each of the Tribes of Israel). Dozens of Israeli citizens, who contributed significantly to the state, are selected to light these beacons. Yom Haatzmaut (Hebrew: yom hā-‘aá¹£mā’ūṯ), Israeli Independence Day, commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948. ... Yom Haatzmaut (Hebrew: yom hā-‘aá¹£mā’ūṯ), Israeli Independence Day, commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948. ... Iyar (Standard Hebrew אִייָּר Iyyar, Tiberian Hebrew אִיָּר ʾIyyār: from Akkadian ayyaru Rosette; blossom) is the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year and the second month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom Haatzmaut (Hebrew: yom hā-‘aá¹£mā’ūṯ), Israeli Independence Day, commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948. ... It has been suggested that Statehood Day be merged into this article or section. ... Tomb of Theodor Herzl at the top of Mount Herzl, Jerusalem, Israel. ... The tricolour flag of France A flag is a piece of cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used symbolically for signalling or identification. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... The Star of David The Star of David (Magen David or Mogen David in Hebrew, Shield of David, Solomons Seal, or Seal of Solomon) is a generally recognized symbol of Judaism and Jewish identity. ... This is a list of the Tribes of Israel. ...


Yom Yerushalayim – Jerusalem Day

Main article: Yom Yerushalayim

Yom Yerushalayim marks the 1967 reunification of Jerusalem and The Temple Mount under Jewish rule during the Six-Day War almost 1900 years after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. Yom Yerushalayim - Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim - Iyar 28 יום ירושלים - כח באייר Yom Yerushalayim 2004 at the Western_Wall Jerusalem was divided during the War of Independence and nineteen years later was reunited as a result of the... Yom Yerushalayim - Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim - Iyar 28 יום ירושלים - כח באייר Yom Yerushalayim 2004 at the Western_Wall Jerusalem was divided during the War of Independence and nineteen years later was reunited as a result of the... Iyar (Standard Hebrew אִייָּר Iyyar, Tiberian Hebrew אִיָּר ʾIyyār: from Akkadian ayyaru Rosette; blossom) is the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year and the second month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ...


Shavuot – Pentecost

Main article: Shavuot

Shavuot, The Feast of Weeks, is sometimes known by the Greek name "Pentecost." One of the three pilgrim festivals (Shalosh regalim) ordained in the Torah, Shavuot marks the end of the counting of the Omer, the period between Passover and Shavuot. According to Rabbinic tradition, the Ten Commandments were given on this day. During this holiday the Torah portion containing the Ten Commandments is read in the synagogue, and the biblical Book of Ruth is read as well. It is traditional to eat dairy meals during Shavuot. Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Sivan In Ayyavazhi mythology Sivan is one among the Three Great Godheads or Trimurti in Ayyavazhi mythology and is the Tamil name for Siva. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Sivan In Ayyavazhi mythology Sivan is one among the Three Great Godheads or Trimurti in Ayyavazhi mythology and is the Tamil name for Siva. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the...


Karaites always celebrate Shavuot on a Sunday. Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Seventeenth of Tammuz

Main article: Seventeenth of Tammuz

The 17th of Tammuz traditionally marks the first breach in the walls of the Second Temple during the Roman occupation. Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... Tammuz or Tamuz Arabic تمّوز Tammūz; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, Dūzu; Sumerian Dumuzi was the name of a Babylonian deity. ... A stone (2. ...


As a minor fast day, fasting from dawn to dusk is required, but other laws of mourning are not observed. A Torah reading and Haftorah reading, and a special prayer in the Amidah, are added at both Shacharit and Mincha services. The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esreh (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ...


The Three Weeks and the Nine Days

Main article: The Three Weeks

The days between the 17th of Tammuz and the 9th of Av are days of mourning, on account of the collapse of Jerusalem during the Roman occupation which occurred during this time framework. Weddings and other joyful occasions are traditionally not held during this period. A further element is added within the three weeks, during the nine days between the 1st and 9th day of Av— the pious refrain from eating meat and drinking wine, except on Shabbat or at a Seudat Mitzvah (a Mitzvah meal, such as a Pidyon Haben— the recognition of a firstborn male child— or the study completion of a religious text.) In addition, one's hair is not cut during this period. The Three Weeks are days of mourning commemorating the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem within Judaism. ... The Three Weeks are days of mourning commemorating the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem within Judaism. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... The Nine Days are the first nine days of the Jewish month of Av. ... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ... Tammuz or Tamuz Arabic تمّوز TammÅ«z; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, DÅ«zu; Sumerian Dumuzi was the name of a Babylonian deity. ... Ab (אָב, Standard Hebrew Av, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĀḇ; from Akkadian abu) is also the eleventh month of the ecclesiastical year and the fifth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... Mortal Kombat character, see Meat (Mortal Kombat). ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... The shabbos table is set: two covered challahs, a kiddush cup, two candles, and flowers. ... Mitzvah (Hebrew: מצווה, IPA: , commandment; plural, mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah, command) is a word used in Judaism to refer to (a) the commandments, of which there are 613, given in the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) or (b) any Jewish law at all. ...


In Conservative Judaism, the Rabbinical Assembly's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards has issued several responsa (legal rulings) which hold that the prohibitions against weddings in this timeframe are deeply held traditions, but should not be construed as binding law. Thus, Conservative Jewish practice would allow weddings during this time, except on the 9th of Av itself. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism hold that halakha (Jewish law) is no longer binding, so weddings may be held on any of these days. Orthodox Judaism maintains the traditional prohibitions. Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Originally set up as the alumni association of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS), the Rabbinical Assembly (RA) is the official, international body of Conservative rabbis, with some 1400 members. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest stream of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


Tisha B'av – Ninth of Av

Main article: Tisha B'Av

Tisha B'Av is a fast day, that commemorates two of the saddest days in Jewish history— the destruction of both the first Temple (587 BC) originally built by King Solomon, (see Solomon's Temple), and the Second Temple in 70 on this same date. Also on this date in 1290, King Edward I signed the edict compelling the Jews to leave England. The Jewish expulsion from Spain in 1492 also occurred on this day. World War I also began on this date (which is seen as connected to World War II and the Holocaust). Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Ab (אָב, Standard Hebrew Av, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĀḇ; from Akkadian abu) is also the eleventh month of the ecclesiastical year and the fifth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shlomo) Standard Tibe88rian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... A stone (2. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1] and the Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who kept Scotland under English domination during his lifetime. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule, before the Jews of Spain were expelled in 1492. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz...


Tithe of animals

  • New Year for Animal Tithes (Taxes) – 1 Elul

This commemoration is no longer observed. This day was set up by the Mishna as the New Year for animal tithes, which is somewhat equivalent to a new year for taxes. (This notion is similar to the tax deadline in the United States of America on April 15.) Elul (אֱלוּל, Standard Hebrew Elul, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlûl: from Akkadian elūlu) is the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year and the sixth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ...


Rosh Chodesh – the New Month

Main article: Rosh Chodesh

The first day of each month and the thirtieth day of the preceding month, if it has thirty days, is (in modern times) a minor holiday known as Rosh Chodesh (head of the month). The one exception is the month of Tishrei, whose beginning is a major holiday, Rosh Hashanah. There are also special prayers said upon observing the new Moon for the first time each month. Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and... Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and...


Shabbat – The Sabbath יום השבת

Main article: Shabbat

Jewish law accords the Sabbath the status of a holiday. Jews celebrate a Shabbat, a day of rest, on the seventh day of each week. Jewish law defines a day as ending at nightfall, which is when the next day then begins. Thus, Shabbat begins at sundown Friday night, and ends at nightfall Saturday night. The shabbos table is set: two covered challahs, a kiddush cup, two candles, and flowers. ...


In many ways halakha (Jewish law) gives Shabbat the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... The shabbos table is set: two covered challahs, a kiddush cup, two candles, and flowers. ...

  • It is the first holiday mentioned in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and God was the first one to observe it.
  • The liturgy treats the Sabbath as a bride and queen.
  • The Torah reading on the Sabbath has more sections of parshiot (Torah readings) than on Yom Kippur, the most of any Jewish holiday.
  • There is a tradition that the Messiah will come if every Jew observes the Sabbath twice in a row.
  • The Biblical penalty for violating Shabbat is greater than that for violating any other holiday.

Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Variances in observances

The denominations of Reconstructionist Judaism and Reform Judaism generally regard Jewish laws (halakha) relating to all these holidays as important, but no longer binding. Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism hold that the halakha relating to these days are still normative (i.e. to be accepted as binding.) Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest stream of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ...


There are a number of differences in religious practices between Orthodox and Conservative Jews, because these denominations have distinct ways of understanding the process of how halakha has historically developed, and thus how it can still develop. Nonetheless, both of these groups have similar teachings about how to observe these holidays.


See also

Holidays Portal

Image File history File links Menora. ... All Jewish holidays begin at sundown on the evening before the date shown. ... Taanit is a fast in the Jewish religion. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

References

Greenberg, Irving. The Jewish Way: Living the Holidays. New York: Touchstone, 1988.


Strassfeld, Michael. The Jewish Holidays: A Guide and Commentary. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.


External links

  • Jewish Holiday Calendar A quick chart listing all the Jewish holidays, their dates in the Jewish calendar, and additional notes.
  • Hebrew Calendar for Outlook An add-on for incorporating Jewish dates and holidays into Outlook.
  • Molad - Freeware Jewish holiday calendar for Mobiles.
  • A more detailed list of Jewish holidays
  • A calculator that figures out the dates of Jewish holidays in any year
  • Guide to all Jewish Holidays

  Results from FactBites:
 
Judaism 101: Jewish Holidays (748 words)
Holidays end at nightfall of the date specified on most calendars; that is, at the time when it becomes dark out, about an hour after sunset.
The "work" prohibited on those holidays is the same as that prohibited on Shabbat, except that cooking, baking, transferring fire and carrying, all of which are forbidden on Shabbat, are permitted on holidays.
This extra day is not celebrated by Israelis, regardless of whether they are in Israel at the time of the holiday, because it is not the custom of their ancestors, but it is celebrated by everybody else, even if they are visiting Israel at the time of the holiday.
B'nai B'rith: 5 Year Jewish Holiday Calendar (945 words)
Thus, all holidays begin at sundown of the day preceding the date shown and end at sundown of the (last) day shown.
Shabbat is the holiest day in the Jewish calendar and it is also a holiday that happens each week, Friday night at sundown to Saturday night at sundown.
The day is marked as an ancient holiday of nature and agriculture in the land of Israel and was a time of meeting and matchmaking among young people in the days of the Temple.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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