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Encyclopedia > Jewish Maastricht

Maastricht (Dutch: Maastricht; Limburgish and city dialect: Mestreech) is a municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg. The city is situated on both sides of the Meuse river (Maas in Dutch) in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands between Belgium and Germany. The name of city is derived from its Latin name Trajectum Ad Mosam (Meuse-crossing), referring to the bridge built by the Romans under the reign of Augustus Caesar. Maastricht (Dutch: Maastricht; Limburgish and city dialect: Mestreech) is a municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg. ... Limburgian (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Selfkant regions, near the common Dutch/Flemish(Belgium)/German border. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ...

Traces of Jewish life in the city of Maastricht trace back to the Middle Ages. Already before 1295, a synagogue with a mikvah was present in the city. However, as a result of severe pogroms, Jews left Limburg en masse. Between the years 1350 and 1650, almost no Jew lived in the current Dutch province. And it was not until the year 1796 that Jews were yet again free to settle in the city of Maastricht, two years after French forces had occupied the city. Until then, only Jews with considerable wealth had been allowed to live within the city borders. Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה; Tiberian Miqwāh, Standard Hebrew Miqva) (plural, mikvaot) is a ritual bath used for immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ...

During the 19th century that followed, the Jewish community grew considerably. In 1809, a new synagogue was put into use. A Jewish school was opened in 1833. In 1839, the construction was started for building an even bigger temple - it was opened in 1840.

At the end of the 19th century, the Jewish community was confronted with a decline in membership, as Jews started to move to bigger cities in the western part of the Netherlands, notably Amsterdam. Still it remained a fairly large community, and it even went through a period of growth in the 1930s, when a large number of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany and other Eastern European countries settled within the city borders. Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 742,951(1 January 2005) Coordinates Website www. ...

When the Nazis took over the Netherlands in 1940, a Zionist youth organisation was brought to life. For some time, local police forces and fellow citizens protected the Jewish community. However, it could not prevent the deportation of large parts of the community between June 1942 and April 1943. The far majority of the deportees were eventually killed in Auschwitz and Sobibor. Some Jews managed to hide, notably on the countryside; others tried to flee the border with Belgium. A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Sobibór was a Nazi extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard. ...

After the war, the Jewish community had severely declined. Nevertheless Jewish life was started again after the liberation of Maastricht in 1944, and the synagogue was again put into use in 1952, after it had been ransacked and used as a storage depot during the war. However, the declining numbers of Jews in the city eventually led to the forced merger of the Jewish communities of Maastricht, Heerlen, Roermond and Venlo in 1986 to ensure the community could continue its existence. In 2001, rabbi Ya'akov Shapiro was inaugurated to serve as rabbi for the community which is now the only existing Jewish community in the province of Limburg. Heerlen is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands and the second biggest city in the province of Limburg. ... Roermond is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ...

Number of Jews in Maastricht and surroundings:

  • 1782 - 2
  • 1794 - 22
  • 1809 - 207
  • 1840 - 375
  • 1869 - 429
  • 1899 - 405
  • 1930 - 247
  • 1951 - 115
  • 1998 - 61 (includes all members affiliated to the Jewish community of Limburg)

External links

  • Jewish Historical Museum (Amsterdam): http://www.jhm.nl/
  • Joods.nl (Jewish.nl): http://www.joods.nl



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