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Encyclopedia > Jewish Autonomous Oblast

Coordinates: 48°28′43″N 132°08′21″E / 48.47861, 132.13917 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Еврейская автономная область
ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט    
Flag of Jewish Autonomous Oblast Coat of arms of Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Flag of Jewish Autonomous Oblast Coat of arms of Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Image:RussiaJewish2007-07.png
Capital Birobidzhan
Area

- total
- % water Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Jewish_Autonomous_Oblast. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Jewish_AO.png‎ Source File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan User:Jewbask User:Joseph Sanderson Obluchye Template:Cities and towns in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast ... Flag of Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia Flag of Jewish Autonomous Oblast is a variation of rainbow flag and is used by Jewish Autonomous Oblast, situated in the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia, by the Chinese border. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Birobidzhan (ru: Биробиджа́н, yi: ביראָבידזשאן) is the capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia; the name is sometimes also used to refer to the entire oblast. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ...

Ranked 61st

- 36,000 km²
- no data Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...

Population

- Total
- Density Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ...

Ranked 80th

- est. 190,915 (2002)
- est. 5.3/km² Here is a list of the 85* federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 Census. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

Political status Autonomous oblast
Federal district Far Eastern
Economic Region Far Eastern
Cadaster # 79
Official language de jure: Russian, Yiddish
de facto: Russian
Chairman of the government Nikolay Mikhaylovich Volkov
First Vice-Chairman Viktor Spiridonovich Gozhy
Legislature
Anthem none

Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Russian: Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; Yiddish: ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia (autonomous oblast) situated in the Far Eastern federal district, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast of Russia and Heilongjiang province of China. The region was created in 1934 as the Jewish National District. It was the result of Stalin's nationality policy, which allowed for the Jewish population of Russia to receive a territory in which to pursue a Yiddish cultural autonomy in a socialist framework. The Russian Federation is divided into 86 federal subjects, one of which is an autonomous oblast (autonomous province), the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Far Eastern Federal District (Russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... Far Eastern economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... Russia has one official language; Russian. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Yiddish (Yid. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... An oblast (Russian, Ukrainian: о́бласть) is a name for the subnational entity of Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union. ... Far Eastern Federal District (Russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: ) (1995 pop. ... Administrative center Blagoveshchensk Area - total - % water Ranked 14th - 363,700 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 59th - est. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Top 50 countries with the most Jews. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts: first, normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious or sexual minorities, and second, collective rights accorded to minority groups. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...

Contents

Time zone

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast is located in the Vladivostok Time Zone (VLAT/VLAST). UTC offset is +1000 (VLAT)/+1100 (VLAST). Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ...


Climate

The climate in the territory is monsoonal/anti-cyclonic, with warm, wet, humid, mosquito-infested summers due to the influence of the East Asian monsoon; and very harsh, cold, dry, windy conditions prevailing in the winter months courtesy of the vast Siberian high-pressure system. Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric high pressure. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of air above any area in the Earths atmosphere. ...


Administrative divisions

Cities and towns under autonomous oblasts jurisdiction: Birobidzhan (Биробиджан) (administrative center) Districts: Birobidzhansky (Биробиджанский) with 6 rural okrugs under the districts jurisdiction. ...

Demographics

Population (2002 Census): 190,915. Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ...


Ethnic groups: As per the 2002 census, ethnic Russians at 171,697 (89.93%), constituted by far the largest part of the population, followed by ethnic Ukrainians at 8,483 (4.44%), Jews (the oblast's titular nation) at 2,327 (1.22%, although this figure is disputed as there is some speculation that the percentage of Jews is currently 16% as some residents are now less afraid to announce their Jewish background [1]), Tatars at 1,196 (0.63%), and Belarusians 1,182 (0.62%). There were also reported to be 672 Moldavians (0.35%), 594 Azeris (0.31%), 453 Germans (0.24%), 402 Koreans (0.21%), 401 Mordovians (0.21%), 320 Chuvash (0.17%), 282 Armenians (0.15%), 188 Bashkirs (0.10%), 156 Uzbeks (0.08%), 148 Poles (0.08%), 132 Roma (0.07%), 128 Tajiks (0.07%), 103 Mari (0.05%) and 102 Chinese (0.05%). All in all, residents identified themselves as belonging to no less than 95 different ethnic groups. 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Titular nation (титульная нация) was a term introduced in the Soviet Union to denote nations that give rise to titles of autonomous entities within the union: Soviet republics, autonomous republics, autonomous regions, etc. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Moldovan or Moldovans can refer to: Moldovans a name for the people living in the area of the former principality of Moldavia, now divided between the Romania and the Moldovan Republic. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Volgaic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash , Russian: Чуваши, Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlarЧуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Languages Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajik) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Other Iranian peoples TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... Mari may refer to: Ethnic Mari El, a republic of Russian Federation Mari language, Finno-Ugric language Mari people, a Volga-Finnic people People Mari (composer), a video game music composer Mari (singer), a female vocalist Saint Mari, a Christian saint Other Mari (goddess), the main divinity of pre-Christian...


The birth rate is comparatively high at 11.95 (2004), compared to 10 for Russia as a whole, and 9 for predominantly Russian inhabited regions.


History

Military colonization and the advent of the Trans-Siberian Railway

In December 1858 the Russian government authorized formation of the Amur Cossacks for protection of the southeast boundary of Siberia and communication on the rivers of Amur and Ussuri. This military colonization included settlers from Transbaikalia. In 1858-1882, sixty three settlements were founded, including, in 1857, Radde settlement; in 1858, Pashkovo, Pompeyevka, Puzino, Yekaterino-Nikolskoye, Mikhailo-Semyonovskoye, Voskresenovka, Petrovskoye, and Ventzelevo; in 1860, Storozhevoye, Soyuznoye, and Golovino; later in the decade, Babstovo, Bidzhan, and Bashurovo settlements. Expeditions of scientists - including such geographers, ethnographers, naturalists, and botanists as Venyukov, Schrenck, Maksimovich, Radde, and Komarov - promoted the development of the new territories. Their achievements produced the first detailed "map of the Amur land". 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Amur Cossack Host (Амурское казачье войско in Russian), a Cossack host created in the Amur region and Primorye in the 1850s on the basis of the Cossacks relocated from the Transbaikal region and freed miners of Nerchinsk region. ... The Ussuri River (Chinese: Wūsūlǐ Jīang 乌苏里江, Russian: река Уссури) is a river in south east Russia, flowing north, forming part of the Chinese border, to the Amur River. ... Transbaikal (Забайкалье in Russian) is a mountainous region to the east of the Lake Baikal in Russia. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold Ivanovich von Schrenck (1826 - January 8, 1894) was a Russo-German zoologist, geographer and ethnographer. ... Gustav Ferdinand Richard Radde (November 27, 1831 - March 2, 1903) was a German naturalist and explorer. ... Komarov may be: Vladimir Komarov, a Soviet cosmonaut Komarov (crater) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Construction began in 1898 on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway connecting Chita and Vladivostok, starting at each end and meeting halfway. The project produced a large influx of new settlers and the foundation of new settlements. In 1908 Volochayevka, Obluchye, and Bira stations appeared; in 1910, Birakan, Londoko, and In stations; in 1912, Tikhonkaya station. The railroad was completed in October 1916, with the opening of the 2590 m (8500 ft) Khabarovsk Bridge across the Amur at Khabarovsk. In the pre-revolutionary period most local inhabitants were farmers. The only industrial enterprise was the Tungusskiy timber mill, although gold was mined in the Sutara River, and there were some small railway workshops. During the civil war, the territory of the future Jewish Autonomous Oblast was the scene of terrible battles. The economy declined, though it was recovering in 1926 and 1927. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... Chita may refer to one of the following. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Khabarovsk Railway Bridge is the longest bridge on the Trans-Siberian Railway. ... Government Country District Krai Russia Far Eastern Federal District Khabarovsk Krai Established 1858 Mayor Alexandr Sokolov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 372 km² Population  - City (2005) 579,000 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 680xxx Dialing Code +7 4212 Website: www. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Jewish Autonomous Oblast map
Jewish Autonomous Oblast map

Image File history File links Yevrey03. ... Image File history File links Yevrey03. ...

Jewish settlement in the region

The Jewish administrative division was founded with the help of Komzet in 1928 as the Jewish National District. It was the result of Stalin's nationality policy, by which each of the national groups that formed the Soviet Union would receive a territory in which to pursue cultural autonomy in a socialist framework. In that sense, it was also a response to two supposed threats to the Soviet state: Judaism, which ran counter to official state policy of atheism; and Zionism, and the creation of the modern State of Israel, which countered Soviet views of nationalism. The idea was to create a new "Soviet Zion", where a proletarian Jewish culture could be developed. Yiddish, rather than Hebrew, would be the national language, and a new socialist literature and arts would replace religion as the primary expression of culture. Komzet (Russian: ) was the Committee for the Settlement of Toiling Jews on the Land in the Soviet Union aiming to help impoverished and persecuted Jewish population of the former Pale of Settlement to adopt agricultural labor. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts: first, normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious or sexual minorities, and second, collective rights accorded to minority groups. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Stalin's theory on the National Question held that a group could only be a nation if they had a territory, and since there was no Jewish territory, per se, the Jews were not a nation and did not have national rights. Jewish Communists argued that the way to solve this ideological dilemma was by creating a Jewish territory, hence the ideological motivation for the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Politically, it was also considered desirable to create a Soviet Jewish homeland as an ideological alternative to Zionism and the theory put forward by Socialist Zionists such as Ber Borochov that the Jewish Question could be resolved by creating a Jewish territory in Palestine. Thus Birobidzhan was important for propaganda purposes as an argument against Zionism which was a rival ideology to Marxism among left-wing Jews. The propaganda impact was so effective that several thousand Jews immigrated to Birobidzhan from outside of the Soviet Union, including several hundred from Palestine who had become disillusioned with the Zionist experience.[verification needed] A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Ber Borochov, c. ... The Jewish question, in general usage, usually refers to questions about the essential nature of Jews, often in reference to the nature of their relationship to non-Jews. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Another important goal of the Birobidzhan project was to increase settlement in the remote Soviet Far East, especially along the vulnerable border with China. In 1928, there was virtually no settlement in the area, while Jews had deep roots in the western half of the Soviet Union, in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia proper. In fact, there had initially been proposals to create a Jewish Soviet Republic in the Crimea or in part of Ukraine but these were rejected because of fears of antagonizing non-Jews in those regions. Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...


The geography and climate of Birobidzhan were harsh, the landscape largely swampland, and any new settlers would have to build their lives from scratch. Some have even claimed that Stalin was also motivated by anti-Semitism in selecting Birobidzhan: he wanted to keep the Jews as far away from the centers of power as possible. On the other hand, it must be said that the Ukrainians and Crimeans were reluctant to have a Jewish national home carved out of their territory, even though most Soviet Jews lived there, and there were very few alternative territories without rival national claims to them. (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...


By the 1930s the Jewish National District was promoted to the status of an Autonomous Region and a massive propaganda campaign was underway to induce more Jewish settlers to move there. Some of these incorporated the standard Soviet propaganda tools of the era, and included posters and Yiddish-language novels describing a socialist utopia there. Other methods bordered on the bizarre. In one instance, leaflets promoting Birobidzhan were dropped from an airplane over a Jewish neighborhood in Belarus. In another instance, a government-produced Yiddish film called Seekers of Happiness told the story of a Jewish family that fled the Depression in the United States to make a new life for itself in Birobidzhan. An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ...


As the Jewish population grew, so did the impact of Yiddish culture on the region. A Yiddish newspaper, the Birobidzhaner Shtern (Биробиджанер Штерн / ביראָבידזשאַנער שטערן, "Star of Birobidzhan"), was established; a theater troupe was created; and streets being built in the new city were named after prominent Yiddish authors such as Sholom Aleichem and Y. L. Peretz. The Yiddish language was deliberately bolstered as a basis for efforts to secularize the Jewish population and, despite the general curtailment of this action as described immediately below, the Birobidzhaner Shtern continues to publish a section in Yiddish. Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... The Birobidzhaner Shtern (Yiddish:  ;Russian: ) is a newspaper published in both Yiddish and Russian in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast of Russia. ... Sholem Aleichem ‎, Russian: ; March 2 [O.S. February 18] 1859 – May 13, 1916) was a popular humorist and Russian (geographically, Ukrainian) Jewish author of Yiddish literature, including novels, short stories, and plays. ... Isaac Leib Peretz (May 18, 1852–1915), a. ...


Stalin and Doctor's Plot

The Birobidzhan experiment ground to a halt in the mid-1930s, during Stalin's first campaign of purges. Jewish leaders were arrested and executed, and Yiddish schools were shut down. Shortly after this, World War II brought concerted efforts to bring Jews east to an abrupt end. Curiously, around these decades, some Japanese officials were pushing a plan to attract Jews to the Japanese vassal state of Manchukuo in the former Chinese part of Manchuria. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945...


There was a slight revival in the Birobidzhan idea after the war as a potential home for Jewish refugees. During that time, the Jewish population of the region peaked at almost one-third of the total. Efforts in this direction ended, however, with the Doctors' plot, the establishment of Israel as a Jewish state, and Stalin's second wave of purges shortly before his death. Once again, the Jewish leadership was arrested and efforts were made to stamp out Yiddish culture—even the Judaica collection in the local library was burned. In the ensuing years the idea of an autonomous Jewish region in the Soviet Union was all but forgotten. The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ...


Some scholars such as Louis Rapoport, Jonathan Brent and Vladimir Naumov assert that Stalin had devised a plan to deport all of the Jews of the Soviet Union to Birobidzhan much as he had internally deported other national minorities such as the Crimean Tatars and Volga Germans, forcing them to move thousands of miles from their homes. The Doctors' Plot may have been the first element of this plan. If so, the plan was aborted by Stalin's death on March 5, 1953. The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


With the collapse of the Soviet Union and new liberal emigration policies, most of the remaining Jewish population left for Germany and Israel. In 1991, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast was transferred from under the jurisdiction of Khabarovsk Krai to the jurisdiction of the Federation, but by that time most of the Jews had gone and the remaining Jews now constituted less than two percent of the local population. Nevertheless, Yiddish is once again taught in the schools, a Yiddish radio station is in operation, and as noted above, the Birobidzhaner Shtern includes a section in Yiddish. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: ) (1995 pop. ...


L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin!, a documentary on Stalin's creation of the Jewish Autonomous Region and its settlement was released in 2003. In addition to being a history of the creation of the proposed Jewish homeland, the film features scenes of contemporary Birobidzhan and interviews with Jewish residents.


Education

The Birobidzhan Jewish National University works in cooperation with the local jewish community of Birobidzhan. The university is unique in the Russian Far East. The basis of the training course is study of the Hebrew language, history and classic Jewish texts. [2] The Birobidzhan Jewish National University works in cooperation with the local Jewish community of Birobidzhan and the Birobidzhan Synagogue. ... Birobidzhan (ru: Биробиджа́н, yi: ביראָבידזשאן) is the capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia; the name is sometimes also used to refer to the entire oblast. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


In recent years, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast has grown interested in its Jewish roots. Students study Hebrew and Yiddish at a Jewish school and Birobidzhan Jewish National University. In 1989, the Jewish center founded its Sunday school, where children study Yiddish, learn Jewish folk dances, and memorize dates from the history of Israel. The Israeli government helps fund the program. [3] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Within Birobidzhan, there are several state-run schools that teach Yiddish, a Yiddish school for religious instruction and a kindergarten. The five to seven year-olds spend two lessons a week learning to speak Yiddish, as well as being taught Jewish songs, dance and traditions. [4] Today, the city’s 14 public schools must teach Yiddish and Jewish tradition. The school Menora was created in 1991. It is a public school that offers a half-day Yiddish and Jewish curriculum for those parents who choose it. About half the school’s 120 pupils are enrolled in the Yiddish course. Many of them continue on to Public School No. 2, which offers the same half-day Yiddish/Jewish curriculum from first through 12th grade. Yiddish also is offered at Birobidzhan’s Pedagogical Institute, one of the only university-level Yiddish courses in the country. [5] Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Judaism in the 21st century

In 2004 the Regional Government announced that Chief Rabbi of Russia Berel Lazar has agreed to take part in the 70th anniversery celebration for the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Rabbi Lazar and Avraham Berkowitz, the Executive Director of the Federation of Jewish Communities CIS will lead a delegation to Birobidjan for the event. Rabbi Mordechai Scheiner, the Chief Rabbi of Birobidjan and Chabad Lubavitch representative to the region, said "Today one can enjoy the benefits of the Yiddish culture and not be afraid to return to their Jewish traditions. Its safe without any Anti-Semitism and we plan to open the first Jewish day school here". It is estimated that at least 3,000 Jews live today in the city. Mordechai Scheiner, an Israeli father of six, has been the rabbi in Birobidzhan for the last five years. The Birobidzhan Synagogue opened in 2004.[6] The Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia estimates the number of Jews in Russia at about 1 million, or 0.7 percent of the country's 143 million population. Sheiner says there are 4,000 Jews in Birobidzhan -- just over 5 percent of the town's 75,000 population. [7] Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... Rabbi Berel Lazar is the Chief Rabbi of Russia, and is the chairman of the rabbinical alliance of the CIS. Education A native of Milan, Italy, Rabbi Lazar was born in 1964 to parents who were among the first emissaries of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbÄ« is derived from a... The main square Birobidzhan (Russian: ; Yiddish: ) is a town and the administrative center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia, located on the Trans-Siberian railway and close to the Chinese border and is home of the Birobidzhan Synagogue and the Jewish religious community of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbÄ« is derived from a... Mordechai Sheiner is Chief Rabbi of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast since 2002. ... It has been suggested that Hasidic philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Birobidzhan Synagogue was established in 2004. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Economy

The economy is based on mining (gold, tin, iron, and graphite), lumber, limited agriculture, and light manufacturing (mainly textiles and food processing). General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Greek γραφειν (graphein): to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ...


Amur Bridge Project

Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, government vice-chairman of Russia’s Jewish Autonomous Oblast said that China and Russia will start construction of the Amur Bridge Project at the end of 2007. [8] The bridge will link Nizhneleninskoye in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast with Tongjiang in Heilongjiang Province. [9] The 2,197-meter-long bridge, with an estimated investment of nearly US$230 million, is expected to be finished by the end of 2010, Gurevich said. [10] Gurevich said that the proposal to construct a bridge across the river was actually made by Russia, in view of growing cargo transportation demands. "The bridge, in the bold estimate, will be finished in three years," Gurevich said. [11] Valery Solomonovich Gurevich is vice-chairman of Russias Jewish Autonomous Oblast. ... The Amur Bridge Project was announced in 2007 by Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, the vice-chairman of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Nizhneleninskoye is a town in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. ... Tongjiang in a city in Heilongjiang province in China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; pinyin: Hēilóngjiāng; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...


See also

Historical background As waves of anti-Jewish pogroms and expulsions from the countries of Western Europe marked the last centuries of the Middle Ages, a sizable portion of the Jewish populations there moved to the more tolerant countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the Middle East. ... Yevsektsiya (alternative spelling: Yevsektsia), Russian: ЕвСекция, the abbreviation of the phrase Еврейская секция (Yevreyskaya sektsiya) was the Jewish section of the Soviet Communist party created to challenge and eventually destroy... White Army propaganda poster depicting Leon Trotsky. ... In Search of Happiness is a 2005 documentary film that poetically follows the lives of Boris and Masha Rak, Soviet Jews who in 1934 moved to the Jewish Autonomous Oblast (JAO) created by the order of Joseph Stalin in Russian Far East. ...

References

  • Shternis, Anna, Soviet and Kosher; Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 2006, ISBN 0-253-34726-2.
  • Weinberg, Robert, Stalin's Forgotten Zion; Birobidzhan and the Making of a Soviet Jewish Homeland, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1998, ISBN 0-520-20989-3.
  • [12]
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Films

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

External links

  • (English) Official government site.
  • (English) Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Travel East Russia)
  • (English) Birobidizhan: Stalin's Forgotten Zion
  • (Russian) Birobidzhan: Dream of a Jewish Homeland That Never Came True by Eve-Maria Stolberg (Russian Archipelago)
Autonomous Oblasts of the Soviet Union
Coat of arms of the Soviet Union Adyghe AO | Gorno-Altai AO | Gorno-Badakhshan AO | Jewish AO | Karachay-Cherkess AO |
Khakas AO | Nagorno-Karabakh AO | South Ossetian AO | Tuvan AO

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