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Encyclopedia > Jewish

The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  Semitic   Central    ... Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). In general, it refers to human activity; different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or criteria for valuing, human activity. Culture is traditionally the oldest human... culture or This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. Ethnicity is sometimes used as a euphemism for race, or as a synonym for minority group. While ethnicity and race are related concepts... ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. This article discusses the term as describing an This article or section should be merged with ethnicity An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. This boundary may take any of a number of forms... ethnic group; for a consideration of the religion, please refer to For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Judaism.

Main article: Jew
For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Jewish religion
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Etymology of "Jew"  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Who is a Jew?
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish leadership  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish culture
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish ethnic divisions
This article is about the Ashkenazi Jews. For the Russian pianist, see Vladimir Davidovich Ashkenazy (sometimes transliterated Ashkenazi) (Russian: Влади́мир А́шкенази) (born July 6, 1937), is a conductor and pianist. He was born in... Ashkenazi  · Sephardi Total population: nn Significant populations in: United States: nn Israel: nn Europe: nn South Africa: nn Australia and New Zealand: nn Language Sephardic Hebrew as a liturgical language. Also, traditionally, (Ladino); now typically the language of whatever country they live in (including Modern Hebrew in Israel). Religion Judaism Related... Sephardi  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Mizrahi
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Temani  · Bene Israel Total population: 65,000 (est.) Significant populations in: Israel 60,000 (est.) Bombay area 4000 (est.) Kolkata < 200 (est.) Delhi < 200 (est.) Ahmadabad < 200 (est.) Other English-speaking countries 2,000 (est.) Language Traditionally, Marathi; those in Israel, mostly Hebrew. Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups... Bene Israel  · Beta Israel Total population: over 65,000 (est.) Significant populations in: Israel: 60,000 (est.) Ethiopia: 5,000 (est.) Language Traditionally, (Kayla), more recently Amharic; Geez as a liturgical language and now (in Israel) Hebrew as a liturgical and common language. Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups • Jews... Beta Israel
The number of Jews in the world is difficult to calculate, especially given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. All numbers given in this article will be estimates, from sources noted below. Contents // 1 Historical Populations 1.1 Ancient and medieval times 1.2 The modern world 2... Jewish populations
For other uses, see Israel (disambiguation). The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the... Israel · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... United States · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Russia/USSR
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Germany  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... France  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Latin America
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... England  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Famous Jews by country
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish languages
Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  Semitic   Central    ... Hebrew  · Yiddish (ייִדיש) Spoken in: United States, Israel, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Canada, Argentina and in many other places. Region: Total speakers: 4 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Yiddish Official status Official language... Yiddish  · This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. For the article on the various peoples by this name, please see Ladinos. Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. Speakers are currently almost exclusively Sephardic Jews, but historically there have also been Ashkenazi speakers —... Ladino  · Dzhidi
Judæo-Aramaic · Judæo-Arabic
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish denominations
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Orthodox · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Conservative  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Reform
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Reconstructionist  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Karaite
Jewish political movements
A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. The first line reads Toward a New Life in Romanian, the second line reads The Promised Land in Hungarian. Zionism is a political movement among Jews (although supported by some non-Jews) which maintains... Zionism: ( Labor Zionism (or Labour Zionism) is the traditional left-wing of the Zionist ideology. Unlike the political Zionist tendency founded by Theodor Herzl and advocated by Chaim Weizmann, Labor Zionists did not believe that a Jewish state would be created simply by appealing to the international community or to a... Labor /  General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. The term was used to describe members of the Zionist Organization who were not members of any particular faction at a time when the Zionist movement was becoming polarized between Labour Zionists and Revisionist Zionism. In 1922, various non-aligned groups and... General /  Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency of the Zionist movement. The ideology was developed by Zeev Jabotinsky who advocated a revision of the mainstream political Zionism of Theodor Herzl and Chaim Weizmann. In 1925, Jabotinsky formed the Revisionist Zionist Alliance to advocate his views which included the tactic of... Revisionist)
A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אלגמײנער ײדישער ארבײטרסבונ... Jewish Labor Union (The Bund)
Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. Since Jewish history encompasses four thousand years and hundreds of different populations, any treatment can only be provided in broad strokes. Additional information can be found in the main articles listed below, and in the specific country... Jewish history
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish history timeline  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Schisms
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Ancient Israel and Judah
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Temples in Jerusalem
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew   Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership   Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)   Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel  United States  Russia/USSR Germany   France  ... Babylonian captivity
The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) (http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/audio.pl?hasmon01.wav=Hasmonean) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165... Hasmoneans and Greece
This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. The Great Jewish Revolt (66–73... Jewish-Roman wars
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Era of Pharisees  · The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. The core text of the Mishna and Talmud is in the center; commentaries and notes on either side surround it. The Talmud (התלמוד) is considered an authoritative record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law... The Talmudic Era
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. Please feel free to update like any other article. Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and... Middle Ages  · Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Muslim Lands
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Enlightenment/Haskalah  · Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. It is also known as Hasidism, and the adjective Chasidic/Hasidic (or in Yiddish Chasidish חסידיש meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving... Hasidism
This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. For other meanings of the word Holocaust see Holocaust (disambiguation) Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through... The Holocaust  · Main article: State of Israel. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. This article discusses the history of the State of Israel, from 1948 A.D. to the present. See also History of Palestine for history of the region from approximately... Modern Israel
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Persecution of the Jews
Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by... Anti-Semitism: ( This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. See main article Anti-Semitism for etymology, roots, traits and disputes on what is sometimes called the worlds longest hatred (http://www.richardwebster.net/antisemitismthelongesthatred.html). Here we note... History /  The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Main article: Anti-Semitism The term The New anti-Semitism was coined at the outset of the 21st century to describe waves of attacks around the globe directed at Jews, Jewish organizations, Israel, and... "New")

Most Jews regard themselves as a people, members of a A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. Added to this is usually the idea that a national (a person of the national ideology) should speak a certain language. The language itself might however be a... nation, descended from the ancient An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. There are modern historical... Israelites and those who joined their religion at various times and places. The term Jew came into being when the Kingdom of Israel was split between the northern The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Israel and the southern The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Judah. Hence, the Israelites (who were later largely destroyed by the This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. For the modern-day peoples in northern Iraq and neighboring areas, see Assyrian. Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa Assyria: Assur –... Assyrians) were those of the northern kingdom and the Jews (who survived) were those of the southern kingdom. Over time, the word Jew has come to refer to those of the Jewish faith rather than those from Judah. In modern usage, Jews include both those Jews actively practicing Judaism, and those Jews who, while not practicing Judaism as a religion, still identify themselves as Jews by virtue of their family's Jewish heritage and their own cultural identification.


Usage note: The word "Jew" is a noun. Its use as an adjective (e.g. "Jew lawyer") is widely considered offensive; "Jewish" is strongly preferred. Its use as a verb (e.g. "to Jew someone") is also considered offensive. Some sources, such as the The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. Its creation was spurred by the controversy over the Websters Third New International Dictionary. James Parton, the owner of the... American Heritage Dictionary, suggest that phrases like "Jewish person" may be offensive if pointedly used to avoid the word "Jew".

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Etymology of the word Jew

There are different views as to the origin of the The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English language word Jew. The most common view is that the Middle English is the name given to an early form of the English language that was in common use from roughly the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to around the introduction of the printing press by William Caxton... Middle English word Jew is from the Old French giu, earlier juieu, from the Latin iudeus from the Greek Ioudaios (Ιουδαίος). The Latin simply means Judaean, from the land of Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... Judaea. The Hebrew for Jew, יהודי , is pronounced ye-hoo-DEE. The Hebrew letter Yud (or Yod), י, becomes a 'j' in languages using the Latin-based alphabet when the Yud is used as a consonant rather than as a vowel.


Who is a Jew?

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Who is a Jew?

For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. Added to this is usually the idea that a national (a person of the national ideology) should speak a certain language. The language itself might however be a... nation, an This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. Ethnicity is sometimes used as a euphemism for race, or as a synonym for minority group. While ethnicity and race are related concepts... ethnicity, a Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religion, and a For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). In general, it refers to human activity; different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or criteria for valuing, human activity. Culture is traditionally the oldest human... culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used. For discussions of the religious views on who is a Jew and how these views differ from each other, please see Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Who is a Jew?. Generally, in modern secular usage, Jews include three groups: people who practice Judaism and have a Jewish ethnic background (sometimes including those who do not have strictly matrilineal descent), people without Jewish parents who have converted to Judaism; and those Jews who, while not practicing Judaism as a religion, still identify themselves as Jews by virtue of their family's Jewish descent and their own cultural and historical identification with the Jewish people.


Jewish culture

Main articles: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Secular Jewish culture, For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Judaism

For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, and has been called not only a religion, but also a "way of life," which has made the job of drawing a clear distinction between Judaism, Jewish culture, and Jewish nationality rather difficult. In many times and places, such as in the ancient For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. It has land... Hellenic world, in This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe before and after the For the period in European history, The Age of Enlightenment For the corresponding movement in the European Jewish community, see Haskalah. For the Hindu religious concept of enlightenment, see moksha For the Buddhist religious concept, see enlightenment (Buddhism) For analysis of the philosphical concept, see Enlightenment (concept) For the 1990... Enlightenment (see Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... haskalah), and in contemporary United States and Israel, cultural phenomena have developed that are in some sense characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious. Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the interaction of Jews with others around them, others from the inner social and cultural dynamics of the community, as opposed to religion itself.


Ethnic divisions

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish ethnic divisions

The most commonly used terms to describe ethnic divisions among Jews presently are: This article is about the Ashkenazi Jews. For the Russian pianist, see Vladimir Davidovich Ashkenazy (sometimes transliterated Ashkenazi) (Russian: Влади́мир А́шкенази) (born July 6, 1937), is a conductor and pianist. He was born in... Ashkenazi (meaning " The word German can mean: From or related to Germany or its predecessor states - see also the German language Germanic tribes Holy Roman Empire (843-1806) German Confederation (1815-1866) North German Confederation (1867 - 1871) German Empire (1871-1918) Weimar Republic (1919-1933) Nazi Germany (1933-1945) West Germany (1949... German" in Hebrew, denoting the Central European base of Jewry); and Sephardi Total population: nn Significant populations in: United States: nn Israel: nn Europe: nn South Africa: nn Australia and New Zealand: nn Language Sephardic Hebrew as a liturgical language. Also, traditionally, (Ladino); now typically the language of whatever country they live in (including Modern Hebrew in Israel). Religion Judaism Related... Sephardi (meaning " The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish (espa ol or castellano) Spoken in: Mexico, Colombia, Spain, Argentina, Nicaragua, Chile, USA, Venezuela, Costa Rica , Cuba, Peru, and 34 other countries. Region: Total speakers: 417 million (including second language speakers) Ranking: 2 (first language speakers, may vary based on metric) Genetic classification... Spanish" or " Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. Caucasian Iberia of eastern Georgia in the 4th century BC-5th century AD; Iberia Airlines, the Spanish national airline. Three Imperial Roman provinces comprising Hispania, roughly corresponding to modern... Iberia" in Hebrew, denoting their Spanish, Portuguese and Regions of the World Antarctica | East Asia | Central Asia | Southeast Asia | South Asia | North Asia | Middle East | Levant | Arabia | North Africa | Central Africa | Great Lakes | Congo | Guinea | Sahel | Sudan | West Africa | East Africa | Southern Africa | Great Plains | Central America | Caribbean | Andean States | Eastern South America | Northern South America | Western Europe... North African location). They refer to both religious and ethnic divisions.


Other Jewish ethnic groups include Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Mizrahi Jews (a term overlapping Sephardi, but emphasizing North African and Middle Eastern rather than Spanish history, and including the Maghrebim Total population: nn Significant populations in: countries of the Maghreb: nn Israel: nn elsewhere: nn Language  ? Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Jews   Maghrebim The Maghrebim are the Jews who traditionally lived in the Maghreb of North Africa. The term Maghrebim is formed analogously to Ashkenazim and... Maghrebim); Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Teimanim ( This article needs to be wikified. Please format this article according to the guidelines laid out at Wikipedia:How to edit a page, then remove this notice. The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering... Yemenite and The Sultanate of Oman is a country in the southwestern part of Asia, on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It borders the United Arab Emirates in the northwest, Saudi Arabia in the west, and Yemen in the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea in the... Omani Jews); and such smaller groups as the Main article: The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  Semitic  ... Gruzim and Mountain Jews (Juhurim) Total population: 1926: 26,000 (est.) 1959: 25,000 (est.) Significant populations in: Dagestan, Azerbaijan; no good numbers available Language Tati, Azeri Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Related by traditions: Jews   Mountain Jews Possibly ethno-biologically related to: Tats Mountain Jews, or Juhurim, are Jews... Juhurim from the The Caucasus is a region in A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. Geographers that were annoyed with the ambiguity of the... Caucasus, the Bene Israel Total population: 65,000 (est.) Significant populations in: Israel 60,000 (est.) Bombay area 4000 (est.) Kolkata < 200 (est.) Delhi < 200 (est.) Ahmadabad < 200 (est.) Other English-speaking countries 2,000 (est.) Language Traditionally, Marathi; those in Israel, mostly Hebrew. Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups... Bene Israel, Bnei Menashe, Categories: Judaism-related stubs | Jews | Indian people ... Cochin and Telugu Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  Â· Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  Â· Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  Â· Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel Â· United States Â· Russia/USSR Germany  ... Jews of India, the Categories: Judaism-related stubs | Ethnic groups | Jews ... Romaniotes of For other uses, see Greece may be: Ancient Greece Greece, country in southeast Europe, also known as Hellas or Ellas Greece (CDP), New York Greece (town), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an... Greece, the Categories: Italy-related stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Jewish Italian history | Italian culture | Jews ... Italkim (Bené Roma) of For other uses, see Italy is the name of: a European country: Italy places in the United States Italy, New York - a town in Yates County Italy, Texas - a town in Ellis County, Texas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Italy, various Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by... African Jews (most notably the Beta Israel Total population: over 65,000 (est.) Significant populations in: Israel: 60,000 (est.) Ethiopia: 5,000 (est.) Language Traditionally, (Kayla), more recently Amharic; Geez as a liturgical language and now (in Israel) Hebrew as a liturgical and common language. Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups • Jews... Beta Israel or This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in an area known as the Horn of Africa. It has one of the most... Ethiopian Jews), and the Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by... Bukharan Jews of Central Asia.


Some Jewish communities have lost religious culture or have assimilated, such as the Kaifeng Jews of China.


Population

Main article: The number of Jews in the world is difficult to calculate, especially given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. All numbers given in this article will be estimates, from sources noted below. Contents // 1 Historical Populations 1.1 Ancient and medieval times 1.2 The modern world 2... Jewish population, Jews by country, see also Expulsion of the Jews in the Reign of the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 135): How Heraclius turned the Jews out of Jerusalem.--Fac-simile of a Miniature in the Histoire des Empereurs, Manuscript of the Fifteenth Century, in the Library of the Arsenal, Paris. Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, or Galut... Jewish diaspora

Prior to Download high resolution version (800x1094, 114 KB)Picture taken of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The picture was taken from one of the B-29 Superfortresses used in the attack. Picture taken from http://www.archives.gov/research_room/research_topics/world_war_2_photos/images/ww2_1623.jpg Page: http://www... World War II the world population of Jews was around 18 million. This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. For other meanings of the word Holocaust see Holocaust (disambiguation) Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through... The Holocaust reduced this number to around 12 million. Today, there are an estimated 13 million 3 to 14.6 million5 Jews worldwide in over 134 countries.


Significant geographic populations

Please note that these populations represent low-end estimates of the worldwide Jewish population. Higher estimates place the worldwide Jewish population at over 14.5 million.

Country Jewish population
This article is on the country in North America. For other uses, see United States may refer to: The United States of America, a country in North America. The SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. The USS United States, a never-built aircraft carrier. The United Mexican... United States 5,671,000 (est.) 3
For other uses, see Israel (disambiguation). The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the... Israel 5,200,000 (est.) 4
This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe Fewer than 2 million (est.)
•   The French Republic or France ( French (Français) Spoken in: The French Republic or France ( French (Fran ais) Spoken in: France and 53 other countries Region: Europe Total speakers: 128 million Ranking: 11 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Italic   Romance    Italo-Western   ... France 600,000 (est.) 3
•   The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a This article describes a type of political entity. Country is also a short form for the Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. Such areas are distinct from more intensively settled... United Kingdom 267,000 (2001 census)
•   The Federal Republic of Germany ( German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern... Germany 100,000 (2004 est.) or 60,000 (est.) 3
•  The Former Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many... Soviet Union 400,000 (some estimates much higher) 1
Canada is an independent This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. For other meanings, see state (disambiguation). In international law and international relations, a state is a geographic political entity possessing politicial sovereignty, i.e. not being subject to any higher political authority. In casual language, the idea of... Canada 371,000 (est.) 3
Argentina is a country in southern South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. South America is situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. It became attached to North America only recently, geologically speaking, with the... Argentina 250,000 (est.) 2
For other uses, see Brazil - a country in South America. Brazil R/S - The Brazil Rendering System, a photorealistic rendering engine. Brazil, Indiana - a town in the United States. Brazil - a movie directed by Terry Gilliam. Brazil (mythical island). a former name of Terceira Island. a neighbourhood or refugee camp... Brazil 130,000 (est.) 2
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of... Australia 100,000 (est.) 2
The Republic of South Africa (listen) is a republic at the southern tip of the African continent. It is bordered to the north by Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe and to the north-east by Mozambique and Swaziland. Lesotho is contained entirely inside the borders of South Africa. South Africa is... South Africa 106,000 (est.) 2
For other uses, see Mexico (disambiguation). The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States, to the... Mexico 40,700 (est.) 2
For other uses, see Asia may have the following meanings: Asia is one of the continents. Asia is a beach district in Peru. Asia was in Greek mythology one of the female Titans. Asia is a band. Asia was a province of the Roman Empire, in modern-day western Turkey... Asia (excluding Israel) 50,000 (est.)
•   Iran ( Persian ( Parsi پارسی ) Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan Region: Middle east Total speakers: 61.7 million Ranking: 29 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Indo-Iranian   Iranian    Western     Southwestern   ... Iran 11,000 (est.) 2
Total 13,900,000 (est.)

State of Israel

Caption: David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. Tel Aviv, Israel, beneath a large portrait of Theodore Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism. Source: jpg of Image:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948.bmp Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or...  (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the (He is between the two banners)
David Ben-Gurion David Ben-Gurion (October 16, 1886—December 1, 1973; Hebrew: דוד בן גוריון) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. Contents // 1 Early life 2 Zionist leadership 3 Prime Ministership 4 Quotes 5 External links Early life Paula... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. Tel Aviv, Israel, beneath a large portrait of Theodore Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism. The full... Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 (He is between the two banners)

For other uses, see Israel (disambiguation). The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the... Israel, the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews make up a majority of the citizens, although the United States has a larger number of Jews. It was established as an independent This article is part of the series on Politics Politics Political philosophy Systems: aristocracy, autocracy, democracy, despotism, monarchy, oligarchy, plutocracy, theocracy and tyranny. Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. Under such a system... democratic state on May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). There are 231 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 14, 1948 is a This is a calendar for any leap year starting on Thursday (dominical letter DC), e.g. 2004. January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 1 2 3... 1948. Of the 120 members in its parliament, the The Knesset (כנסת, Hebrew for assembly) is the Parliament of Israel. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset enacts laws, supervises the work of the government, and has the power to vote to remove the President of the State and the State Comptroller from... Knesset, about ten members are Israeli For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). There are three factors which may assist to varying degrees in determining whether someone is considered Arab or not: Political: whether they live in a country which is a member of the Arab League (or, more vaguely, the Arab World); this definition covers more... Arabs who are not Jews. At the time of its independence, approximately 600,000 Jews lived there. Since then, its Jewish population has increased by about one million over each decade as more immigrants arrive, and more Israelis are born, in one of the most significant global Jewish population shifts in over 2,000 years.


All the The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the Israel and the Arab League states The Arab-Israeli conflict is a long-running conflict in the Middle East regarding the existence of the state of Israel and its relations with non-Jews... Arab Israeli Wars have not slowed Israel's growth. Israel opened its doors to the This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. For other meanings of the word Holocaust see Holocaust (disambiguation) Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through... Holocaust survivors. It has absorbed a majority of the Sephardi Total population: nn Significant populations in: United States: nn Israel: nn Europe: nn South Africa: nn Australia and New Zealand: nn Language Sephardic Hebrew as a liturgical language. Also, traditionally, (Ladino); now typically the language of whatever country they live in (including Modern Hebrew in Israel). Religion Judaism Related... Sephardic and Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Mizrahi Jews from the This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Islamic countries. It has taken in hundreds of thousands of Jews from the former Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many... USSR, and has airlifted tens of thousands of Ethiopian Jews (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/ejhist.html#operation1/) to Israel. In the past decade nearly a million immigrants came to Israel from the former Soviet Union. Many Jews who emigrated to Israel have moved elsewhere, known as yerida ("descent" [from the Holy Land]), due to its economic problems or due to disillusionment with political conditions and the continuing Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a part of the greater Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing conflict between Israel and Palestinians. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is by no means a simple two-sided... Israeli-Palestinian conflict


Diaspora (outside of Israel)

The waves of immigration to the United States at the turn of the 19th century, massacre of European Jewry during This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. For other meanings of the word Holocaust see Holocaust (disambiguation) Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through... the Holocaust, and the foundation of the state of Israel (and subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands) all resulted in substantial shifts in the population centers of world Jewry during the 20th century.


Currently, the largest Jewish community in the world is located in the United States, with around 5.6 million Jews. In the Americas, there are also large Jewish populations in Canada and Argentina, and smaller populations in For other uses, see Brazil - a country in South America. Brazil R/S - The Brazil Rendering System, a photorealistic rendering engine. Brazil, Indiana - a town in the United States. Brazil - a movie directed by Terry Gilliam. Brazil (mythical island). a former name of Terceira Island. a neighbourhood or refugee camp... Brazil, For other uses, see Mexico (disambiguation). The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States, to the... Mexico , The Republic Eastern of the Uruguay (Spanish: República Oriental del Uruguay), is a Spanish speaking country located in southern South America. The nation is triangular in shape and is bordered by Brazil to the north, the Uruguay River to the west, the estuary of the Rio de la Plata... Uruguay, The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela)1 is a country in northern South America.2 It borders the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the west. Off the Venezuelan coast are... Venezuela, This article is about the country in South America; the word chile may also refer to Chilli pepper The Republic of Chile is a republic located on the southwestern coast of South America. It is a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean... Chile, and several other countries (see Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in Latin America).


Western Europe's largest Jewish community can be found in France, home to 600,000 Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or refugees from North African Arab countries such as Algeria is a country in northern Africa with a coast on the Mediterranean Sea along the north and bordered by Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mali and Mauritania in the southwest, and Morocco and Western Sahara in the west (the Moroccan border is... Algeria, For other uses, see Morocco (disambiguation). The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. It has a long coastline on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has annexed Western Sahara, but this is not universally recognized. الم... Morocco, and The Tunisian Republic, or Tunisia, is a Muslim Arab country situated on the North African Mediterranean coast. It borders on Algeria to the west and Libya to the south and east. الجمهرية التونسية El-joumhouriyya et... Tunisia (or their descendants). There are over 265,000 Jews in the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a This article describes a type of political entity. Country is also a short form for the Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. Such areas are distinct from more intensively settled... United Kingdom. In Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. Generally this means that it lies between the Ural and Caucasus mountains and the western border of Russia, or alternatively also includes those countries adjacent to Russias western... Eastern Europe, there are anywhere from 500,000 to over two million Jews living in The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russia, Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region... Ukraine, The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. There are 42 landlocked countries in the world. A landlocked sea is a sea that is not connected to the oceans: the... Hungary, Belarus ( Belarusian (Беларуская мова in Cyrillic) Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}} Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, and 14 other countries Region: Total speakers: 7-8 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic  ... Belarus and the other areas once dominated by the Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many... Soviet Union. Exact figures are difficult to establish. The fastest-growing Jewish community in the world, outside of Israel, is the one in The Federal Republic of Germany ( German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern... Germany, especially in For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). State of Berlin State and Service Flags State and Service Flags of Berlin Coat of arms Map of Germany showing Berlin Basic Information Area: 891.69 km² Population: 3,388,477 (December 2003) Population density: 3800 residents/km² Elevation: 34 m above... Berlin, its capital. Tens of thousands of Jews from the former This article is part of the Communism series. Schools of Communism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism Stalinism Maoism Left communism Council communism Anarcho-Communism Eurocommunism Juche Communist states Afghanistan (1978-1992) Albania (1945-1991) Angola (1975-1991) Benin (1975-1990) Bulgaria (1946-1989) Burma (1974-1988) Cambodia (1975-1991) Congo (1969-1991... Eastern Bloc have settled in Germany since the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 16, 1989 The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a long barrier separating West Berlin from East Berlin and the surrounding territory of East Germany. Its intent was to restrict access between West Berlin and East Germany. It existed from 1961 until 1989. Contents // 1 Background... Berlin Wall.


The Arab countries of North Africa and the Middle East were home to around 900,000 Jews in 1945. Systematic persecution after the founding of Israel caused almost all of these Jews to flee to Israel, North America, and Europe in the 1950s. Today, around 8,000 Jews remain in Arab nations.


Iran ( Persian ( Parsi پارسی ) Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan Region: Middle east Total speakers: 61.7 million Ranking: 29 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Indo-Iranian   Iranian    Western     Southwestern   ... Iran, despite its enmity to Israel since 1979, is home to around 25,000 Jews. Before the Islamic revolution and the rise of the ayatollahs to power, around 100,000 Jews were living in Iran ( Persian ( Parsi پارسی ) Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan Region: Middle east Total speakers: 61.7 million Ranking: 29 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Indo-Iranian   Iranian    Western     Southwestern   ... Iran. After the revolution some of the Iranian Jews emigrated to Israel or Europe but most of them emigrated (with their non-Jewish Iranian compatriots) to the This article is on the country in North America. For other uses, see United States may refer to: The United States of America, a country in North America. The SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. The USS United States, a never-built aircraft carrier. The United Mexican... United States (especially This article is about the largest city in California. For other uses of Los Angeles, see Los Angeles (disambiguation) Downtown Los Angeles skyline facing northeast toward the San Gabriel Mountains on a clear winter day. Missing from the center foreground of the photo is the Staples Center arena, completed in... Los Angeles.


Outside of Europe and the Americas, significant Jewish populations exist in Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of... Australia and The Republic of South Africa (listen) is a republic at the southern tip of the African continent. It is bordered to the north by Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe and to the north-east by Mozambique and Swaziland. Lesotho is contained entirely inside the borders of South Africa. South Africa is... South Africa.


Population changes: Wars against the Jews

Throughout history, many rulers, empires and nations have oppressed their Jewish populations, or sought to eliminate them entirely. Methods employed have ranged from expulsion to outright genocide; within nations, often the threat of these extreme methods was sufficient to silence dissent. Some examples in the This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. See main article Anti-Semitism for etymology, roots, traits and disputes on what is sometimes called the worlds longest hatred (http://www.richardwebster.net/antisemitismthelongesthatred.html). Here we note... history of anti-Semitism are: the Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Great Jewish Revolt against the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire as described by Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. 37–c. 100) was a 1st century Jewish historian of priestly and royal ancestry who survived and recorded the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 and settled in Rome. He was originally known as Yosef Ben-Matityahu (Matthias in Greek). Josephus wrote an... Josephus; the Pedro Berruguete. Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe (1475). The Spanish Inquisition was the Inquisition acting in Spain under the control of the Kings of Spain. This Inquisition was the result of the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims and the policy of converting Spanish Jews and Muslims... Spanish Inquisition led by Grand Inquisitor Torquemada Tomás de Torquemada (1420 - September 16, 1498) was a fifteenth century Spanish Dominican, and an Inquisitor General. Famously described by the Spanish chronicler, Sebastian de Olmedo, as the hammer of heretics, the light of Spain, the saviour of his country, the honour of his order. Torquemada... Torquamada and the Pedro Berruguete. Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe (1475). Medieval Spanish for act of faith, the auto de fe was the ritual of public penance or humiliation of condemned heretics and apostates that took place when the Spanish Inquisition had decided their punishment. Punishments for those convicted ranged... Auto de fe against the The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. Many Marranos maintained their ancestral... Marrano Jews; the Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as... Bohdan Chmielnicki This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891. Cossack (Polish Kozak; plural, Kozacy, Russian Kazak (Казак); plural, Kazaki (К... Cossack massacres in Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region... Ukraine; the The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). Historically the term has been used to denote massive acts of violence, either spontaneous or premeditated, against Jews and other ethnic minorities... Pogroms backed by the Russian Tsar, (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917... Tsars Ivan Kramskoi (1837-1887) oil on canvas painting Portrait of Alexander III (1845-1894), the Russian Tsar. 1886, public domain, 272x388. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend... Alexander III and Nicholas II of Russia This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as soon... Nicholas II; Blood libels are allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. The alleged victims are often children. Many different groups have been accused, including Canaanites, Jews, Christians, Cathars, Knights Templar, Witches, Christian heretics, Roman Catholics, Roma, Wiccans, Druids... Blood libels. The persecution culminated in For other people with the surname Hitler, see There have been several persons named Hitler: Adolf Hitler, (April 20, 1889 - April 30, 1945) was the Führer of the National Socialist German Workers Party and was the dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. Some of his family members... Adolf Hitler's The Final Solution (German Endlösung) refers to the German Nazis plan to address the Jewish problem through systematic relocation and later extermination through genocide during World War II. The term was coined by Adolf Eichmann, a top Nazi official who supervised the genocidal campaign. Heinrich Himmler was the main... Final Solution which led to This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. For other meanings of the word Holocaust see Holocaust (disambiguation) Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through... the Holocaust of the European Jewry. Modern wars such as the The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Israel and the Arab League states The Arab-Israeli conflict is a long-running conflict in the Middle East regarding the existence of the state of Israel and its relations with... Arab-Israeli conflict have resulted in major loss of life.


While Jewish communities throughout the Islamic world were often treated well by their This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Muslim rulers, depending on the regime in power, Jewish communities in Spain, North Africa, and the Middle East were at times subject to persecutions, expulsions, and forced conversion.


Population changes: Assimilation

Since the Jewish Enlightenment (see Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Haskalah) of the 1700s and the subsequent emancipation of the Jewish populations of Europe and America in the 1800s, Jews have increasingly participated in, and become part of, secular society. The result has been a growing trend of assimilation, as Jews marry non-Jewish spouses and stop participating in the Jewish community. Rates of interreligious marriage vary widely: In the United States they are just under 50%[1] (http://www.ujc.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=83910), in England around 50%, and in Australia and Mexico as low as 10%[2] (http://www.worldjewishcongress.org/communities/world/asia-oceania/australia.cfm)[3] (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Mexico.html), and in France they may be as high as 75%. In the United States, only about a third of children from intermarriages affiliate themselves with Jewish practice. Additionally, since non-religious Jews generally tend to marry later and have fewer children than the general population, the Jewish community in many countries is aging. The result is that most countries in the This article is about dispersion of peoples. For the novel by Greg Egan, see Diaspora (novel). The term diaspora (Greek διασπορά, a scattering or sowing of seeds) is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to... Diaspora have steady or slightly declining Jewish populations as Jews continue to assimilate into the countries in which they live.


Population changes: Growth

Israel is the only country with a consistently growing Jewish population due to natural population increase, though the Jewish populations of other countries in Europe and North America have recently increased due to immigration. In the Diaspora, in almost every country the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, but Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Orthodox and Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. The term ultra-Orthodox is controversial, as it is often considered to be pejorative, and is rarely used by the people to whom it is applied; they generally prefer Haredi ח ר ד... Haredi Jewish communities, whose members often shun Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. The term family planning is sometimes used as well, especially for thoughtful and premeditated selection... birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth, with rates near 4% per year for Haredi Jews in Israel, and similar rates in other countires.


Orthodox and Conservative Judaism forbid proselytization to non-Jews, but many Jewish groups have tried to reach out to the assimilated Jewish communities of the Diaspora in order to increase the number of Jews. Additionally, while in principle Reform Judaism favors seeking new members for the faith, this position has not translated into active proselytism, instead taking the form of an effort to reach out to non-Jewish spouses of intermarried couples. As a result of the efforts by these and other Jewish groups over the past twenty-five years, there has been a trend of secular Jews becoming more religiously observant, known as the The term Baal Teshuva, or Chozer BeTeshuva, refers to a return of a Jew to a Jewishly observant lifestyle. It is sometimes colloquially referred to as Born-Again Judaism, because of its revivalistic aspects. Within Orthodox Judaism the term baal teshuva refers only to those Jews who choose to affiliate... Baal Teshuva movement, though the demographic implications of the trend are unknown. Additionally, there is also a growing movement of A Jew by Choice is an individual not born of a Jewish parent who chooses to either formally convert to Judaism or chooses not to undergo formal conversion to Judaism at all, yet claims to be identified with the Jewish people. While many Jews by birth choose to abandon the... Jews by Choice by A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. Christian translators of the Bible use this word to collectively designate the peoples and nations distinct from the Israelite people... gentiles who make the decision to head in the direction of becoming Jews.


Jewish languages

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish languages

Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  Semitic   Central    ... Hebrew is the A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. In particular, a liturgical language is a sacred language. The traditions involved in religious ritual and liturgy quite frequently provide a place where archaic... liturgical language of Judaism (termed lashon ha-kodesh, "the holy tongue"), and is the language of the State of Israel. Diaspora Jews (outside of Israel) today speak the local languages of their respective countries. Yiddish (ייִדיש) Spoken in: United States, Israel, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Canada, Argentina and in many other places. Region: Total speakers: 4 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Yiddish Official status Official language... Yiddish is the historic language of many This article is about the Ashkenazi Jews. For the Russian pianist, see Vladimir Davidovich Ashkenazy (sometimes transliterated Ashkenazi) (Russian: Влади́мир А́шкенази) (born July 6, 1937), is a conductor and pianist. He was born in... Ashkenazi Jews, and This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. For the article on the various peoples by this name, please see Ladinos. Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. Speakers are currently almost exclusively Sephardic Jews, but historically there have also been Ashkenazi speakers —... Ladino of many Sephardi Total population: nn Significant populations in: United States: nn Israel: nn Europe: nn South Africa: nn Australia and New Zealand: nn Language Sephardic Hebrew as a liturgical language. Also, traditionally, (Ladino); now typically the language of whatever country they live in (including Modern Hebrew in Israel). Religion Judaism Related... Sephardic Jews.


History of the Jews

Main articles: Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. Since Jewish history encompasses four thousand years and hundreds of different populations, any treatment can only be provided in broad strokes. Additional information can be found in the main articles listed below, and in the specific country... Jewish history, Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Timeline of Jewish history
See also: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Historical Schisms among the Jews

Jews and migrations

Throughout Jewish history, Jews have repeatedly been directly or indirectly expelled from both their original homeland, and the areas in which they have resided. This experience as both Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. An immigrant is usually someone who intends to reside permanently, and not a casual visitor or traveler. Immigration means in-migration into a country, and is the reverse of emigration, or out-migration... immigrants and Emigration is the action and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. There are many reasons why people might choose to emigrate. Some for political or economic reasons. Some might have found a spouse while visiting another country and emigrate to be with them. Many older... emigrants (see: In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. The article History of anti-Semitism contains more detailed chronology of anti-Jewish hostilities, while Jewish history and Timeline of Jewish history outline the broader... Jewish refugees) have shaped Jewish identity and religious practice in many ways. An incomplete list of such migrations includes:

  • The patriarch Abraham was a migrant to the land of Download high resolution version (568x950, 76 KB)Map of Canaan http://www.cts.edu/ImageLibrary/Public_domain.cfm This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Canaan from For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa Assyria: Assur – Nineveh Nuzi – Nimrud Babylonia – Chaldea – Elam – Amorites Hurrians – Mitanni... Ur of the Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa Assyria: Assur – Nineveh Nuzi – Nimrud Babylonia – Chaldea – Elam – Amorites Hurrians – Mitanni – Kassites Chronology Kings of Sumer... Chaldees.
  • The The Children of Israel (Hebrew: בני ישראל Bnai Yisrael or Bnei Yisrael or Bnei Yisroel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. It is also an alternate way of referring to the people know as Hebrew, Jewish, Pashtun or Bnai Israel. It means Sons... Children of Israel experienced the This article is about the second book in the Torah. For other uses of the name, see Exodus (disambiguation) Books of the Torah Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Books_of_Torah&action=edit) The name Exodus refers to the book... Exodus (meaning "departure" or "going forth" in Greek) from Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. Contents // 1 History 2 Language 3... ancient Egypt, as recorded in the This article is about the second book in the Torah. For other uses of the name, see Exodus (disambiguation) Books of the Torah Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Books_of_Torah&action=edit) The name Exodus refers to the book... Book of Exodus.
  • The The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Israel was sent into permanent exile and scattered all over the world by This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. For the modern-day peoples in northern Iraq and neighboring areas, see Assyrian. Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa Assyria: Assur –... Assyria.
  • The The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Judah was exiled first by For other uses, see Babylon can refer to: Babylon, the capital city of Babylonia in ancient Mesopotamia. In Judeo-Christian tradition: Several references to Babel occur in the Bible, but it is not clear that they refer to the city. In the historical books of the Old Testament, the reference... Babylonia and then by The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Rome.
  • The 2,000 year dispersion of the Expulsion of the Jews in the Reign of the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 135): How Heraclius turned the Jews out of Jerusalem.--Fac-simile of a Miniature in the Histoire des Empereurs, Manuscript of the Fifteenth Century, in the Library of the Arsenal, Paris. Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, or Galut... Jewish diaspora beginning under the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire, as Jews were spread throughout the Roman world and, driven from land to land, and settled wherever they could live freely enough to practice their religion.
  • Many expulsions during the Middle Ages and Enlightenment in Europe, including: Years: 1287 1288 1289 - 1290 - 1291 1292 1293 Decades: 1260s 1270s 1280s - 1290s - 1300s 1310s 1320s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1290 state leaders Events King Edward I of England banishes all Jews from Britain. University of Lisbon founded. Births John Parricida, son of Duke Rudolph II of... 1290, 16,000 Jews were expelled from England (In detail) (In detail) Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001... England; in Years: 1393 1394 1395 - 1396 - 1397 1398 1399 Decades: 1360s 1370s 1380s - 1390s - 1400s 1410s 1420s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events September 25 - Bayezid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. The Ottomans capture Vidin, the only remaining Bulgarian state... 1396, 100,000 from The French Republic or France ( French (Français) Spoken in: The French Republic or France ( French (Fran ais) Spoken in: France and 53 other countries Region: Europe Total speakers: 128 million Ranking: 11 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Italic   Romance    Italo-Western   ... France; in Years: 1418 1419 1420 - 1421 - 1422 1423 1424 Decades: 1390s 1400s 1410s - 1420s - 1430s 1440s 1450s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of... 1421 thousands were expelled from The Republic of Austria ( German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern German... Austria. Many of these Jews settled in Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word... Eastern Europe, especially For other uses, see Poland is a country in Central Europe. Poland is also the name of some places in the United States of America: Poland, Maine Poland, New York Poland, Ohio This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Poland.
  • Forced migrations during the period of The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e. the monotheists or the Unitarians, the name being corrupted through the Spanish), a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, and conquered all northern Africa as... Almohades in Islamic Spain.
  • Following the Pedro Berruguete. Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe (1475). The Spanish Inquisition was the Inquisition acting in Spain under the control of the Kings of Spain. This Inquisition was the result of the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims and the policy of converting Spanish Jews and Muslims... Spanish Inquisition in 1492, the Spanish population of around 200,000 Sephardi Total population: nn Significant populations in: United States: nn Israel: nn Europe: nn South Africa: nn Australia and New Zealand: nn Language Sephardic Hebrew as a liturgical language. Also, traditionally, (Ladino); now typically the language of whatever country they live in (including Modern Hebrew in Israel). Religion Judaism Related... Sephardic Jews were expelled by the Spanish crown and Catholic church, followed by expulsions in 1493 in Siciliy (37,000 Jews) and Portugal in 1496. The expelled Jews fled mainly to the Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye Ottoman Coat of Arms Small This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with... Ottoman Empire, This article is about the region in the Netherlands. For other uses, see Holland (disambiguation). Holland is the name of a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. Holland is a former county of the Holy Roman Empire and later the leading member of the Republic of the... Holland, and Regions of the World Antarctica | East Asia | Central Asia | Southeast Asia | South Asia | North Asia | Middle East | Levant | Arabia | North Africa | Central Africa | Great Lakes | Congo | Guinea | Sahel | Sudan | West Africa | East Africa | Southern Africa | Great Plains | Central America | Caribbean | Andean States | Eastern South America | Northern South America | Western Europe... North Africa, others migrating to Southern Europe Map Structure Subregions Iberia, Italian peninsula Demographics Area 899,248 km² Population 109,358,542 Population density 121.61/km² Life expectancy xx.xx Major cities Madrid, Rome, Barcelona, Milan, Naples Major languages Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Basque Economy Total GDP (PPP) $2626.6 billion GDP (PPP) per... Southern Europe and the A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Middle East is a... Middle East.
  • During the 19th century, The French Republic or France ( French (Français) Spoken in: The French Republic or France ( French (Fran ais) Spoken in: France and 53 other countries Region: Europe Total speakers: 128 million Ranking: 11 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Italic   Romance    Italo-Western   ... France's policies of equal citizenship regardless of religion led to the immigration of Jews (especially from Eastern and Central Europe), which was encouraged by For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). Portrait of Napoléon Bonaparte Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general and ruler of France. He was a general of the French Revolution and became the effective ruler of France in 1799: he was First Consul (Premier... Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • The arrival of millions of Jews in the The New World is one of the names used for the continents of North and South America and adjacent islands collectively, in use since the 16th century. The continents were new to the Europeans, who knew the world consisting only of Europe, Asia, and Africa (the Old World). Carte d... New World, including immigration of over 1,000,000 Eastern European Jews to the United States from 1890-1925, see Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in the United States.
  • The The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). Historically the term has been used to denote massive acts of violence, either spontaneous or premeditated, against Jews and other ethnic minorities... Pogroms in Eastern Europe, the rise of modern Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by... Anti-Semitism, This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. For other meanings of the word Holocaust see Holocaust (disambiguation) Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through... the Holocaust and the rise of Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology in Arab world. It is defined by a belief that all Arabs are united by a shared history, culture, and language. Closely related is Pan-Arabism which calls for the creation of a single Arab state, but not all Arab nationalist are also Pan... Arab nationalism all served to fuel the movements and migrations of huge segments of Jewry from land to land and continent to continent, until they have now arrived back in large numbers at their original historical homeland in Israel.
  • The Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. The Iranian Revolution was the 1979 revolution that transformed Iran from an autocratic pro-west monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic theocracy under the rule of Ayatollah Khomeini. The revolution is divided into two stages: the first... Islamic Revolution of Iran, forced many Persian Jews to flee Iran. Most found refuge in the US (particularly Los Angeles, CA) and Israel. Smaller communities of Persian Jews exist in Canada and Western Europe.

Kingdoms of Israel and Judah

See related article Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of ancient Israel and Judah.

Jews descend mostly from the ancient An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. There are modern historical... Israelites (also known as The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. This article is about the Hebrew people. For the book of the Bible, see Epistle to the Hebrews. Hebrews (syns. Heberites, Eberites, Hebreians, descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber; עברים, Standard... Hebrews), who settled in the The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. The term has been used by Jews and Christians throughout history. Many Israelis see Eretz Yisrael symbolically represented in the Israeli national flag, with the blue stripes representing the... Land of Israel. The Israelites traced their common lineage to the A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 AD, for reading aloud in a monastery. The Bible (From Greek (Ελληνικά) Spoken in: Greece, Cyprus, Albania and surrounding countries Region: The Balkans... biblical patriarch Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. His story... Abraham through Isaac or Yitzhak (יִצְחָק He will laugh., Standard Hebrew Yiẓḥaq, Tiberian Hebrew Yiṣḥāq; Arabic اسحاق ʾIsḥāq) is a biblical patriarch, the son and heir of Abraham and the father... Isaac and This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (יַעֲקֹב Holder of the heel, Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿ... Jacob. A For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. The distinguishing characteristic of monarchies is that the Head of State holds his office for life, unlike in republics, where... kingdom was established under Saul or Shaul (שָׁאוּל Demanded, Standard Hebrew Šaʾul, Tiberian Hebrew Šāʾûl) was the first king of Israel according to the Old Testament of the Bible, as taught in Judaism. His story is found in the first of... Saul and continued under This page is about the Biblical king David. For other uses see: David (disambiguation) David (דָּוִד Beloved, Standard Hebrew Dávid, Tiberian Hebrew Dāwiḏ; Arabic داود Dāʾūd Beloved) was one of the most well known... King David and Solomon or Shlomo (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה; Standard Hebrew: Šəlomo; Tiberian Hebrew: Šəlōmōh, meaning peace) in the Tanakh (Old Testament), is the third king of Israel (including Judah), builder of the temple in Jerusalem, renowned for his... Solomon. King David conquered For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). Jerusalem (Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. Sephardi Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, Arabic: القدس al-Quds, see... Jerusalem (first a Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. Categories: Disambiguation ... Canaanite, then a Jebus redirects here. For other uses of the word, see Jebus (disambiguation). According to the Hebrew Bible the Jebusites (Hebrew יבוסי Yəbhûsî, Yevusi, Yvusi) were a Canaänite tribe who inhabited the region around Jerusalem in pre-biblical times (second millennium BC... Jebusite town) and made it his capital. After Solomon's reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Israel (in the north) and the The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Judah (in the south). The The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. For the modern-day peoples in northern Iraq and neighboring areas, see Assyrian. Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa Assyria: Assur –... Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser V first appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia in the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III and is supposed by H. Winckler to have been the son of the latter king. At all events, on the death of Tiglath-Pileser, he succeeded to the throne the 25th of Tebet... Shalmaneser V in the (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Golden age in Armenia Assyria... 8th century BC and spread all over the Assyrian empire, where they were assimilated into other cultures and become known as the See also Israelite article. Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to ten of the tribes of the ancient Jewish Kingdom of Israel that were lost after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by... Ten Lost Tribes. The The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation... Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early (7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Cyrus the Great conquered many... 6th century BC, destroying the Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. Before his death, King David had provided materials in great abundance for the building of the temple on the summit of... First Temple that was at the centre of Jewish worship. The Judean elite was exiled to Babylonia, but later at least a part of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew   Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership   Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)   Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel  United States  Russia/USSR Germany   France  ... Babylonian Captivity. A new Artists impression of the Second Temple Destroyed The Second Temple was the reconstructed Temple in Jerusalem which stood between 515 BC and 70 CE. During this time, it was the center of Jewish worship, which focused on the sacrifices known as the korbanot. The first Temple was destroyed when... Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed.


Persian, Greek, and Roman rule

See related article This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. The Great Jewish Revolt (66–73... Jewish-Roman wars.

The The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. There were over 30 kings of the Seleucid dynasty from 323 to 60 BC. Contents // 1 The partition of Alexanders empire (323... Seleucid Kingdom, which arose after the Persians were defeated by Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. For other Alexanders, see Alexander (disambiguation) Alexander III, in Greek ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ (late July, 356 BC–June 10, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336 BC-323 BC... Alexander the Great, sought to introduce Greek culture into the Persian world. When the Seleucid king Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (reigned 175 - 163 BC). Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Επιφανής, Greek: Glorious), originally named Mithradates, but renamed Antiochus either upon his ascension or after the death of his elder brother Antiochus (c. 215 - 163 BC, reigned 175 - 163 BC) was... Antiochus IV Epiphanes, supported by The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Hellenized Jews (those who had adopted Greek culture), attempted to convert the Jewish Temple to a temple of Alternate meanings: See Zeus Web Server is a web server for UNIX platforms (including Linux) that has dominated web benchmarks (http://www.spec.org/benchmarks.html#web) over the last 10 years. It was developed by Zeus Technology (http://www.zeus.com/) a software company in Cambridge, England... Zeus, the non-Hellenized Jews revolted under the leadership of the The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. The Maccabees founded the Hasmonean royal line and established Jewish independence in the land of Israel for about 100 years... Maccabees and rededicated the Temple to the Jewish God (hence the origins of Chanukah Holiday of: Judaism and Jews Name: Hebrew: חנכה or חנוכה Translation: Renewal/Rededication (of the Beit Hamikdash, the Temple in Jerusalem) Begins: 25th day of Kislev Ends: 2nd/3rd day of Tevet Occasion: One of two Rabbinical Festivals (the other is Purim... Hanukkah) and created an independent Jewish kingdom known as the The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) (http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/audio.pl?hasmon01.wav=Hasmonean) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165... Hasmonaean Kingdom which lasted from Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC - 165 BC - 164 BC 163 BC 162... 165 BC to Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... 63 BC, when the kingdom was annexed by the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire. During the early part of Roman rule, the Hasmonaeans remained in power, and the last Hasmonaean king, Herod I, also known as Herod the Great was an ancient king of Judaea. (c. 74 BC - 4 BC March in Jerusalem). Contents // 1 Biography 2 30s BC 3 20s BC 4 10s BC 5 0s BC 6 Date of His Death 7 Achievements 8 Herods cruelty 9 Marriages... Herod the Great significantly expanded the Temple in Jerusalem.


By 6 CE, the Romans directly ruled Judea, and there were frequent changes of policies by conflicting and empire-building Caesar, originally a cognomen in ancient Rome, may mean: Julius Caesar (100 BC - 44 BC) was the most famous individual with the name. Augustus Caesar The Caesar cipher used by him. Caesar (title) was a title used in the Roman Empire. Caesar, duc de Choiseul (1602 - 1675) was a French... Caesars, generals, governors, and consuls who often acted cruelly or to maximize their own wealth and power. Rome's attitudes swung from tolerance to hostility against its Jewish subjects, who had since moved throughout the Empire. The Romans, worshipping a Ancient Roman religion was a combination of several different practices and sets of beliefs. The Romans originally followed an animistic rural tradition, in which many spirits (gods) were each responsible for specific, limited aspects of the universe. For example, there were different gods for ploughing, for horses, and for cattle... large pantheon, could not readily accommodate the exclusive Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. Various forms of monotheism exist, including: Theism, a term that usually refers to the belief in a personal god, that is, a single god with a distinctive personality, rather than just a... monotheism of Judaism, and the religious Jews could not accept Roman Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. The word comes from the Greek words poly+theoi, literally many gods. Most ancient religions were polytheistic, holding to pantheons of traditional deities, often accumulated over centuries of cultural interchange and experience. The belief in many gods does not... polytheism. After a famine and riots in AD For other uses, see number 66. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s _ 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 61 62 63 64 65 - 66 - 67 68 69 70 71 Events September 22 – Emperor Nero creates the legion I Italica... 66, the Judeans began to revolt against their Roman rulers. The revolt was smashed by the Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to the ruler of the Roman Empire. It was not actually used, and there was never actually any single office corresponding to it. Rather, the title Roman Emperor is a convenient shorthand for a complicated collection of offices and powers. In... Roman emperors Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 – June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. He was founder of the Flavian dynasty and acceded the throne in the end of the Year... Vespasian and This is about the emperor of ancient Rome. For other things named Titus, please see Titus (disambiguation). Titus Titus Flavius Vespasianus (December 30, CE 39–September 13, 81) ruled the Roman Empire from 79 to 81. Titus was the elder son of the emperor Vespasian and Domitilla. In 61... Titus Flavius. In Rome the Detail from the Arch of Titus showing spoils from the Sack of Jerusalem The Arch of Titus is a triumphal arch with a single arched opening, located on the Summa Sacra Via to the west of the Forum in Rome. It was constructed shortly after the death of the emperor... Arch of Titus still stands, depicting the enslaved Judeans and a Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S. Truman collection A menorah (sometimes capitalized) is a branched candelabrum with seven candle-holders. It is displayed in Jewish synagogues. The menorah was the ancient representation of the Hebrews and is one of the oldest symbols of the Jewish people. It symbolises the... menorah being brought to Rome (illustration, right).

sack of jerusalem on inside wall ot arch of titus in rome, italy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete...
sack of jerusalem on inside wall ot arch of titus in rome, italy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Enlarge
In Rome the Detail from the Arch of Titus showing spoils from the Sack of Jerusalem The Arch of Titus is a triumphal arch with a single arched opening, located on the Summa Sacra Via to the west of the Forum in Rome. It was constructed shortly after the death of the emperor... Arch of This is about the emperor of ancient Rome. For other things named Titus, please see Titus (disambiguation). Titus Titus Flavius Vespasianus (December 30, CE 39–September 13, 81) ruled the Roman Empire from 79 to 81. Titus was the elder son of the emperor Vespasian and Domitilla. In 61... Titus still stands, depicting the enslaved Judeans and objects from the Temple being brought to Rome.

The Romans all but destroyed For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). Jerusalem (Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. Sephardi Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, Arabic: القدس al-Quds, see... Jerusalem; only a single " Western Wall by night The Western Wall, known as the Kotel HaMaaravi (or simply Kotel)הכותל המערבי in Hebrew , also called the Wailing Wall (or Al-Buraq Wall, in a mix of English and Arabic) is a retaining wall from... Western Wall" of the Artists impression of the Second Temple Destroyed The Second Temple was the reconstructed Temple in Jerusalem which stood between 515 BC and 70 CE. During this time, it was the center of Jewish worship, which focused on the sacrifices known as the korbanot. The first Temple was destroyed when... Second Temple remained. After the end of this first revolt, the Judeans continued to live in their land in significant numbers, and were allowed to practice their religion. In the second century the Roman Emperor Emperor Hadrian Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 - July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was a Roman emperor from 117 - 138. Hadrian was born in Italica, Hispania, to a well-established settler family. He was a distant relative of his predecessor Trajan. Trajan never officially designated a... Hadrian began to rebuilt Jerusalem as a pagan city while restricting some Jewish practices. Angry at this affront, the Judeans again revolted led by Simon Bar Kokhba. Emperor Hadrian Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 - July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was a Roman emperor from 117 - 138. Hadrian was born in Italica, Hispania, to a well-established settler family. He was a distant relative of his predecessor Trajan. Trajan never officially designated a... Hadrian responded with overwhelming force, putting down the revolution and killing as many as half a million Jews. After the Roman Legions prevailed in For other uses, see number 135. Years: 131 132 133 134 - 135 - 136 137 138 139 Decades: 100s 110s 120s - 130s - 140s 150s 160s Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Events Epictetus writes the Enchiridion (approximate date) Last (4th) year of Yangjia era of the Chinese Han Dynasty The... 135, Jews were not allowed to enter the city of Jerusalem and most Jewish worship was forbidden by Rome. Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, and instead was rebuilt around rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities. No new books were added to the Jewish Bible after the Roman period, instead major efforts went into interpreting and developing the Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. The name Halakha derives from the Hebrew הלכ, halach meaning going or the [correct] way; thus a literal translation does not yield... Halakhah, or oral law, and writing down these traditions in the The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. The core text of the Mishna and Talmud is in the center; commentaries and notes on either side surround it. The Talmud (התלמוד) is considered an authoritative record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law... Talmud, the key work on the interepretation of Jewish law, written during the first to fifth centuries CE.


Beginning of the Diaspora

Though Jews had settled outside of Israel since the time of the Babylonians, the results of the Roman response to the Jewish revolt shifted the center of Jewish life from its ancient home to the diaspora. While some Jews remained in Judea, renamed Palestine by the Romans, some Jews were sold into Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. It almost always occurs for the purpose of securing the labour of the person or people concerned. A specific form, chattel slavery... slavery, while others became citizens of other parts of the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire. This is the traditional explanation to the This article is about dispersion of peoples. For the novel by Greg Egan, see Diaspora (novel). The term diaspora (Greek διασπορά, a scattering or sowing of seeds) is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to... diaspora, almost universally accepted by past and present rabbinical or Talmudical scholars, who believe that Jews are almost exclusively biological descendants of the Judean exiles, a belief backed up at least partially by DNA evidence. Some secular historians speculate that a majority of the Jews in Antiquity were most likely descendants of converts in the cities of the Graeco-Roman world, especially in Alexandria and Asia Minor. They were only affected by the diaspora in its spiritual sense and by the sense of loss and homelessness which became a cornerstone of the Jewish creed, much supported by persecutions in various parts of the world. Any such policy of conversion, which spread the Jewish religion throughout Hellenistic civilization, seems to have ended with the wars against the Romans and the following reconstruction of Jewish values for the post-Temple era.


During the first few hundred years of the Diaspora, the most important Jewish communities were in Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa Assyria: Assur – Nineveh Nuzi – Nimrud Babylonia – Chaldea – Elam – Amorites Hurrians – Mitanni – Kassites Chronology Kings of Sumer... Babylonia, where the Talmud was written, and where relatively tolerant regimes allowed the Jews freedom. The situation was worse in the Byzantine Empire which treated the Jews much more harshly, refusing to allow them to hold office or build places of worship. The conquest of much of the Byzantine Empire and Babylonia by the armies of the newly emerged Islam generally improved the life of the Jews, though they were still considered second-class citizens. In response to these Islamic conquests, the Crusade Series First Crusade Peoples Crusade German Crusade, 1096 Crusade of 1101 Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Albigensian Crusade Childrens Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade Shepherds Crusade Eighth Crusade Ninth Crusade Northern Crusades The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to... First Crusade of 1096 attempted to reconquer Jerusalem, resulting in the destruction of many of the remaining Jewish communities in the area.


Middle Ages: Europe

Main article: This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. Please feel free to update like any other article. Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and... Jews in the Middle Ages

Jews settled in This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe during the time of the Roman Empire, but the rise of the Catholic means universal or whole. Early Christians used the term to refer to the whole undivided Church. Accordingly, all Christians lay claim to the term, including Protestants, who often do not capitalize it. The Church fathers and the historic creeds used it to distinguish the mainstream body of orthodox Christian... Catholic Church, resulted in frequent expulsions and persecutions. The Crusades routinely attacked Jewish communities, and increasingly harsh laws restricted them from most economic activity and land ownership, leaving open only moneylending and a few other trades. Jews were subject to explusions from England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire throughout the Middle Ages, with most of the population moving to Eastern Europe and Poland. The final expulsion of the Jews, and the largest, occurred after the Christian conquest of Spain in 1492. Even after the end of the expulsions in the 17th century, individual conditions varied from country to country and time to time, but, as rule, Jews generally were forced, by decree or by informal pressure, to live in highly segregated ghettos and villages.


Middle Ages: Islamic Europe and North Africa

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Islam and Judaism

During the Middle Ages, Jews in Islamic lands generally had more rights than under Christian rule, with a Golden Age of coexistence in Islamic Spain from about 900 to 1200, when Spain became the center of the richest, most populous, and most influential Jewish community of the time. The rise of more radical regimes, such as that of the The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e. the monotheists or the Unitarians, the name being corrupted through the Spanish), a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, and conquered all northern Africa as... Almohades, and the continuing Christian reconquest ended this period, however.


Renaissance and Enlightenment

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Haskalah

During the This article is a part of the History of Philosophy series. History of Western philosophy Pre-Socratic philosophy Ancient philosophy Medieval philosophy Renaissance philosophy 17th-century philosophy 18th-century philosophy 19th-century philosophy 20th-century philosophy Postmodern philosophy Contemporary philosophy Eastern philosophy The Age of Enlightenment (or The Enlightenment for... Age of Enlightenment, significant changes occurred within the Jewish community. The Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Haskalah movement paralelled the wider Enlightenment, as Jews began in the 1700s to campaign for emancipation from restrictive laws and integration into the wider European society. Secular and scientific education was added to the traditional religious instruction received by students, and interest in a national Jewish identity, including a revival in the study of Jewish history and Hebrew, started to grow.


The Haskalah movement influenced the birth of all the modern Jewish denominations, and planted the seeds of A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. The first line reads Toward a New Life in Romanian, the second line reads The Promised Land in Hungarian. Zionism is a political movement among Jews (although supported by some non-Jews) which maintains... Zionism. At the same time, it contributed to encouraging cultural assimilation into the countries in which Jews resided. At around the same time another movement was born, one preaching almost the opposite of Haskalah, Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. It is also known as Hasidism, and the adjective Chasidic/Hasidic (or in Yiddish Chasidish חסידיש meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving... Hasidic Judaism. Hasidic Judiasm began in the 1700s by Israel ben Eliezer, the This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. Please feel free to update like any other article. Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi... Baal Shem Tov, and quickly gained a following with its exuberant, mystical approach to religion. These two movements, and the traditional orthodox approach to Judaism from which they spring, formed the basis for the modern divisions within Jewish observance.


At the same time, the outside world was changing. Though persecution still existed in some European countries (hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed in The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). Historically the term has been used to denote massive acts of violence, either spontaneous or premeditated, against Jews and other ethnic minorities... pogroms in the 18th and 19th centuries), For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). Portrait of Napoléon Bonaparte Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general and ruler of France. He was a general of the French Revolution and became the effective ruler of France in 1799: he was First Consul (Premier... Napoleon invited Jews to leave the The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. The word historically referred to restricted housing zones for Jews; however, it now commonly labels any... Jewish ghettos in Europe and seek refuge in the newly created tolerant political regimes that offered equality under Napoleonic Law (see Napoleon and the Jews. The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte proved an important event in the emancipation of the Jews of Europe from old laws restricting them to Jewish ghettos, as well as limiting rights to property, worship, and careers. Contents // 1 Napoleons Law and the Jews 2 Napoleon and... Napoleon and the Jews).


Modern times

During the late 19th century, Jews began to flee the persecutions of Eastern Europe in large numbers, mostly by heading to the United States. By 1924, almost two million Jews had immigrated to the US, creating a large community in a nation relatively free of the persecutions of rising European Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by... anti-Semitism (see Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in the United States). This anti-Semitism reached its most virulent form in the killing of approximately six million Jews during This article deals with the Nazi Holocaust. For other meanings of the word Holocaust see Holocaust (disambiguation) Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through... the Holocaust, almost completely obliterating the two-thousand year history of the Jews in Europe. In 1948, the Jewish state of For other uses, see Israel (disambiguation). The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the... Israel was founded, creating the first Jewish nation since the Roman destruction of Jerusalem. Also significant were the subsequent wars between Israel and its Arab neighbors, and the flight in the face of persecution of almost all of the 900,000 Jews previously living in Arab countries. By the end of the 20th century, Jewish population centers had shifted dramatically, with the United States and Israel being the centers of Jewish secular and religious life.


Persecution

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Persecution of the Jews
Related articles: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by... Anti-Semitism, This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. See main article Anti-Semitism for etymology, roots, traits and disputes on what is sometimes called the worlds longest hatred (http://www.richardwebster.net/antisemitismthelongesthatred.html). Here we note... History of anti-Semitism, The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Main article: Anti-Semitism The term The New anti-Semitism was coined at the outset of the 21st century to describe waves of attacks around the globe directed at Jews, Jewish organizations, Israel, and... Modern anti-Semitism

Jewish leadership

Main article: Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish leadership

There is no single governing body for the Jewish community, nor a single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine. Instead, a variety of secular and religious institutions at the local, national, and international levels lead various parts of the Jewish community on a variety of issues.


Famous Jews

Main articles: This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. This page is a list of people identified as Jews, either by themselves or by others. Jewishness has the meanings both of adherence to the religion of Judaism and membership in the ethnic... List of Jews, Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... List of Jews by country

Despite the relatively small number of Jews worldwide, many influential thinkers and leaders from all times have been ethnically Jewish. The following is only a sampling of famous ethnic Jews from all kinds of backgrounds, a number even having abandoned For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Judaism:



This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus Christ and the Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... apostles; Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher... Moses Maimonides (1135–1204) (rabbi and philosopher); Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 _ February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. Along with René Descartes and Gottfried Wilhelm Freiherr von Leibniz, he was... Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) (philosopher); Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 - February 17, 1856) was one of the most significant German romantic poets. Heine was born into an assimilated Jewish family in Düsseldorf, Germany. His father was a tradesman, who, during the French occupation, found new prospects opening up for Jews. When his... Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) (German romantic poet); The Earl of Beaconsfield Periods in Office: February, 1868 - December, 1868 February, 1874 - April, 1880 PM Predecessors: The Earl of Derby William Ewart Gladstone PM Successor: William Ewart Gladstone Date of Birth: 21 December 1804 Place of Birth: London Political Party: Conservative Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21... Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) (British Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers or the Executive... Prime Minister, was a baptized Christian); Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was an influential German philosopher, political economist, and a revolutionary. Marx was not only a social and political theorist, but was also active as an organizer of the revolutionary International Workingmens Association. Although Marx addressed a wide... Karl Marx (1818–1883) (founder of This article is part of the Communism series. Schools of Communism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism Stalinism Maoism Left communism Council communism Anarcho-Communism Eurocommunism Juche Communist states Afghanistan (1978-1992) Albania (1945-1991) Angola (1975-1991) Benin (1975-1990) Bulgaria (1946-1989) Burma (1974-1988) Cambodia (1975-1991) Congo (1969-1991... Marxism); Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic place of psychology, a movement that damaged the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. He became interested in hypnotism and how it could be used to... Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) (father of modern Psychology Areas Cognition Development Disorder Emotion Perception Personality Self Social Approaches Behavioral Biological Cognitive Evolutionary Humanistic Psychodynamic Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. The fundamental subject matter of psychoanalysis is the unconscious patterns of life revealed through the analysands (the... psychoanalysis); Theodor Herzl Theodor Herzl (May 2, 1860–July 3, 1904) was an Austrian Jewish journalist who became the founder of modern political Zionism. His Hebrew personal names were Benjamin Zeev (בנימין זאב). Herzl was born in Budapest. He settled in Vienna... Theodor Herzl (1860–1904) (founder of modern secular A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. The first line reads Toward a New Life in Romanian, the second line reads The Promised Land in Hungarian. Zionism is a political movement among Jews (although supported by some non-Jews) which maintains... Zionism); For other uses of the name Einstein, please see Einstein (disambiguation) Download high resolution version (640x625, 61 KB)Yousef Karsh, Albert Einstein, gelatin silver print, 11 February 1948. From: http://data2.collectionscanada.ca/ap/a/a212510.jpg - The Yousuf Karsh collection of the Library and Archives Canada. License: http://data4... Albert Einstein (1879–1955) (physicist who proposed the Albert Einsteins theory of relativity is a set of two theories in physics: special relativity and general relativity. These theories were conceived in order to explain the fact that electromagnetic waves do not conform to the Newtonian laws for motion. Electromagnetic waves were shown to move at a constant... theory of relativity); David Ben-Gurion David Ben-Gurion (October 16, 1886—December 1, 1973; Hebrew: דוד בן גוריון) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. Contents // 1 Early life 2 Zionist leadership 3 Prime Ministership 4 Quotes 5 External links Early life Paula... David BenGurion (1886–1973) (founding The Prime Minister of Israel is the elected head of the Israeli government. He is usually the leader of the largest political party or coalition of parties in the Knesset (the Israeli parliament). At its founding, the State of Israel adopted the parliamentary political system, with a Prime Minister at... Prime Minister of Israel); Marc Chagall as photographed in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten Marc Chagall (July 7, 1887 - March 28, 1985) was a Belarusian painter of Jewish origin. Contents // 1 Biography 2 Marc Chagall Quotes 3 Well-known works 4 External links Biography He was born Moishe Zakharovich Shagalov (Moishe Segal) in Vitebsk... Marc Chagall (1887–1985) ( Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. Originated in early-twentieth century European avant-garde art and literary circles, many early Surrealists were associated with the earlier Dada movement. Surrealism... surrealist artist); Karl Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 - September 17, 1994), was an Austrian-born, British philosopher of science. He is counted among the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century, and also wrote extensively on social and political philosophy. Popper is perhaps best known for repudiating... Karl Popper (1902–1994) (philosopher); Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize winner who played an important part in foreign affairs through the positions he held in several Republican administrations between 1969 and 1977. Kissinger is a controversial figure because of many of... Henry Kissinger (1923–) ( The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. Contents // 1 History 2 Functions 3 Lists of Secretaries of State 3.1 Secretaries of State 3.2 Acting Secretaries... U.S. Secretary of State); Martin Buber (8 February 1878 - 13 June 1965) was a renowned Jewish philosopher, story-teller, and pedagogue. Martin (Hebrew name: Mordechai) Buber was born on February 8, 1878 in Vienna into a Jewish family. His grandfather, Salomon Buber, in whose house in Lemberg (Lviv, now Ukraine) Buber spent much... Martin Buber (1878–1965) (philosopher); Woody Allen (b. December 1, American film directors and comedians of the second half of the 20th century Contents // 1 Introduction 2 Life and work 3 Filmography 4 Bibliography 5 External links Introduction Following the example of Charlie Chaplin, Orson Welles and other auteurs he usually writes, directs, and acts... Woody Allen (comedian, actor, and film director); Cover of the diarys Definitive Edition, 1995. The photograph used is cropped from a school portrait of Anne Frank taken at the Montessori School in 1941. Annelies Marie Anne Frank (June 12, 1929–February/March 1945) was a Jewish girl who wrote a diary while in hiding with... Anne Frank (1929–1945) (diarist); Michael Howard The Rt Hon. Michael Howard QC (born Michael Hecht, July 7, 1941) is MP for Folkestone and Hythe and the current Leader of the Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. He became leader of the Conservative Party on November 6, 2003, having been the only candidate... Michael Howard (1941–) (Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition)


See also

  • Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jewish history timeline
    • Contents // 1 Jewish history in Poland 2 The Chmielnicki Massacres 3 Jews in Poland within Russian Empire 4 Holocaust 5 Jews in Poland after WWII 6 Anti-semitic incidents in modern Poland 7 Related articles Jewish history in Poland 960 Jewish merchant from Spain, Ibrahim Ibn Jaqub (Abraham ben Jakov... History of the Jews in Poland
    • Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in the United States
    • Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in Russia and Soviet Union
    • Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in France
    • Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in Germany
    • Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... History of the Jews in England
  • For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Judaism, for information on the Jewish religion
    • The position of a Kohens hands when he raises them to bless a Jewish congregation A Kohen (or Cohen, Hebrew priest, pl. Kohanim or Cohanim) is a direct male descendent of the biblical Aaron, brother of Moses, and has a distinct personal status in Judaism. Contents // 1 The priesthood... Kohen
    • Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised ancestor of the Kohanim, a patrilineal priestly caste in Judaism. In Scripture, this ancestor is identified as Aaron, the brother of Moses. This has come about since the appearance in the 1990s of some relevant publications, relevant to the patrilineal... Cohen Modal Haplotype
    • In Judaism, a ger (Hebrew: stranger or convert) or ger tzedek (righteous convert or convert of righteousness) is a gentile who has undergone religious conversion (giur) to Judaism by fulfilling the ritual requirements for such conversion accepting the obligations of Jewish religious observance. Contents // 1 History 1.1 Motivations for... Giur - conversion to Judaism
  • Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Secular Jewish culture

External links

Photos

  • Zion Ozeri's site (http://www.ZionOzeri.com). This Macromedia Flash or Flash is a graphics animation program, written and marketed by Macromedia, that uses vector graphics. The resulting files, called SWF (said like swiff) files, may appear in a web page to view in a web browser, or standalone Flash players may play them. Flash files occur most... Flash-intensive site of photographer Zion Ozeri contains photos of a wide variety of Jewish communities around the world.
  • Photos of Ethiopian Jews (http://www.pbase.com/yalop/sigd)

General

  • Encarta Encyclopedia entry on Jews (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567959/Jews.html#s1)
  • Jewish Virtual Library (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/). A collection of many articles on many topics, including Jewish history.
  • 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com)
  • Jewish Telegraphic Agency (http://www.jta.org/). News bureau reporting on contemporary Jewish news and issues.

Major Jewish secular organizations

Global Jewish communities

  • Jewish Communities of the World (http://www.haruth.com/JewsoftheWorld.html). An exhaustive list of Jewish communities in many countries.
  • List of international Jewish organizations (http://www.ujc.org/ir_category_listing.html?nt=0&id=200).
  • Board of Deputies of British Jews (http://uk-org-bod.supplehost.org/bod/index.jsp)
  • Canadian Jewish Congress (http://www.cjc.ca). Jewish advocacy organisation representing Canadian Jewry.
  • Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS (Russia) (http://www.fjc.ru/default.asp)
  • Communaute Online: France (http://www.col.fr/)
  • Jewish Argentina (http://www.haruth.com/JewsArgentina.html)
  • African Jews (http://www.mindspring.com/~jaypsand/index.htm). Also contains information about various small Jewish communities elsewhere.

Zionist institutions

  • World Zionist Organization (http://www.wzo.org.il/en/default.asp)
  • Zionist Organization of America (http://www.zoa.org/)
  • Hadassah (http://www.hadassah.org). Women's Zionist Organization, also operates a number of prominent hospitals.
  • Habonim Dror (http://www.habonimdror.org). Union of Progressive Zionists.

Israeli institutions

  • The Jewish Agency (http://www.jafi.org.il/)
  • Yad VaShem (http://www.yad-vashem.org.il/). The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
  • Israel Museum (http://www.imj.org.il/)

Lists of Jews

Religious Links

For more links about Judaism and Jewish religious organizations please see: For a discussion of The word Jew ( Hebrew (עברית [‘Ivrit]) Spoken in: Israel Region: Israel and other countries Total speakers: Over 6 million (as all Israeli Jewish citizens as well as its Arabs speak it) Ranking: not in top 100 Genetic classification: Afro-Asiatic  ... Links in the Judaism article

  • Orthodox: The Orthodox Union (http://ou.org/)
  • Conservative: United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism (http://www.uscj.org/)
  • Karaite:The Karaite Korner (http://www.karaite-korner.org/)
  • Reform: Union for Reform Judaism (http://urj.org/)
  • Reconstructionist: Jewish Reconstructionist Federation (http://www.jrf.org/)

Notes

1 1993 Russian census. Some estimates are much higher, the US State Department Religious Freedom Report [4] (http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35480.htm) estimates the number of Jews in Russia alone at 600,000 to 1 million.
2 Jewish Virtual Library (http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/Judaism/jewpop.html), JewFAQ (http://www.jewfaq.org/populatn.htm)
3 Data based on a study by Jewish People Policy Institute (JPPI). See Jewish people near zero growth (http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost/JPArticle/Printer&cid=1088046787193&p=1008596975996) by Tovah Lazaroff, The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. Until 1950 it was called The Palestine Post, which was founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron. During its time as The Palestine Post, the publication supported the struggle for a Jewish homeland... Jerusalem Post, June 24, 2004.
4 Data based on a study by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. See Israel’s population is 6.8 million (http://www.globes.co.il/serveen/globes/docview.asp?did=836883&fid=942) by Zeev Klein, Globes online September 13, 2004. Includes (about 370,000) Israeli citizens living in the West Bank and Gaza.
5 See, for example Jews by country page for higher estimates.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jew - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4942 words)
The advent of the Jewish Enlightenment (see Haskalah) of the 1700s and the subsequent emancipation of the Jewish populations of Europe and America in the 1800s, changed the situation, allowing Jews to increasingly participate in, and become part of, secular society.
The patriarch Abraham was a migrant to the land of Canaan from Ur of the Chaldees.
The 2,000 year dispersion of the Jewish diaspora beginning under the Roman Empire, as Jews were spread throughout the Roman world and, driven from land to land, and settled wherever they could live freely enough to practice their religion.
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