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Encyclopedia > Jewellery
Amber jewellery in the form of pendants
Amber jewellery in the form of pendants

Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from gemstones, precious metals or other materials. Jewelry(쥬얼리) is a popular Korean girl group that has recorded songs in both Korean and Japanese. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Handmade jewelry is that which is crafted by hand, just as jewelry has been since it was very first created by humans. ... Amber pendants. ... Amber pendants. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Spelling differences redirects here. ... Ornament is frequently used to denote: An element of decoration. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ...


The word jewellery is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French "jouel" around the 13th century.[1] Further tracing leads back to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. Jewellery is one of the oldest forms of body adornment; recently found 100,000 year-old beads made from Nassarius shells are thought to be the oldest known jewellery.[2] To anglicise (or in North American English anglicize) is to adapt a foreign word into the English language, often modifying its form to correspond to standard English French demoiselle, meaning little lady. Another common type of anglicisation is the inclusion of a foreign article as part of a noun (eg. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Nassarius is a genus of marine molluscs. ...


Although during earlier times jewellery was created for practical uses such as wealth, storage and pinning clothes together, in recent times it has been used almost exclusively for decoration. The first pieces of jewellery were made from natural materials, such as bone, animal teeth, shell, wood, and carved stone. Jewellery was often made for people of high importance to show their status and, in many cases, they were buried with it. A natural material is any product or physical matter that comes from plants and animals used to make other objects or products. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... A mans visible teeth. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Rock redirects here. ...


Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewellery. While high-quality is made with gemstones and precious metals, there is also a growing demand for Art jewelry where design and creativity is prized above material value. In addition, there is the less-costly costume jewellery, made from less-valuable materials and mass-produced. New variations include wire sculpture (wrap) jewellery, using anything from base metal wire with rock tumbled stone to precious metals and precious gemstones. Hairpin may also refer to a stem-loop in biochemistry Hairpins (around 600 b. ... Sketch of female foot with toe ring A toe ring is a ring made out of various metals and non-metals worn on any of the toes. ... This list of jewellery types is a listing of most types of jewellery made. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... See also wearable art. ... Costume jewelry is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems. ... Wire sculpture jewelry Wire sculpture refers to the creation of sculpture or jewellery (sometimes called wire wrap jewellery) out of wire. ...

Contents

Form and function

Kenyan man wearing tribal beads.
Kenyan man wearing tribal beads.

Jewellery has been used for a number of reasons: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 64 KB) Kenyan man. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 64 KB) Kenyan man. ...

  • Currency, wealth display and storage,
  • Functional use (such as clasps, pins, and buckles)
  • Symbolism (to show membership or status)
  • Protection (in the form of amulets and magical wards),[3]
  • Artistic display

Most cultures have at some point had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures move wedding dowries in the form of jewellery, or create jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.[citation needed] An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Slave beads (often called Trade beads) were otherwise decorative glass beads used between the 16th and 20th century as a currency to exchange for goods, services and slaves (hence the name). ...


Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.[4] Aquamarine, platinum and diamond brooch/pendant worn by Mrs. ... Archeological bronze buckles from southern Sweden A buckle (from Latin buccula) is a clasp used for fastening two things together, such as the ends of a belt, or for retaining the end of a strap. ...


Jewellery can also be symbolic of group membership, as in the case of the Christian crucifix or Jewish Star of David, or of status, as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of married people wearing a wedding ring. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about a Jewish symbol. ... Sir Thomas More wearing the Collar of Esses as Lord Chancellor, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527). ... Matrimony redirects here. ... A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a precious metal ring, in certain countries (UK, USA, Brazil) worn on the base of the left ring finger – the fourth finger (counting from the thumb) of the left hand. ...


Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures; these may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals, body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylized versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art).[5] An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... A devotional medal is a medal issued for religious devotion. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... For other uses, see Ankh (disambiguation). ... Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: ‎, literally five, Hebrew: ). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... The Throne Verse (Arabic: آية الكرسى ), is ayah 255 of the second sura, Al-Baqara, and is widely memorized and displayed in the Islamic world. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ...


Although artistic display has clearly been a function of jewellery from the very beginning, the other roles described above tended to take primacy.[citation needed] It was only in the late 19th century, with the work of such masters as Peter Carl Fabergé and René Lalique, that art began to take primacy over function and wealth.[citation needed] This trend has continued into modern times, expanded upon by artists such as Robert Lee Morris and Ed Levin. Bouquet of Lilies or Madonna Lily Egg by Fabergé Peter Carl Fabergé original name Carl Gustavovich Fabergé(May 30, 1846–September 24, 1920) was a Russian jeweller, best known for the fabulous Fabergé eggs, made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than... Illuminated automobile hood ornament in the form of a rooster by René Jules Lalique René Jules Lalique was born in Ay, Marne, France on April 6, 1860, and died May 5, 1945. ... Robert Lee Morris is a jewelry designer who attributes much of his inspiration to forms he admires in nature. ...


Materials and methods

Anticlastic forged sterling bracelet.
Anticlastic forged sterling bracelet.

In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery -- bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, or silver. Most American and European gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity (41.7% pure gold), (though in England the number is 9K (37.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to 18K (75% pure gold). Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.6% pure gold), and 24 K (99.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.[citation needed] Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewelry, stainless steel findings are sometimes used. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Jewellery making, or jewelry making, is the art of creating jewelry (see jewellery). ... Image File history File links Bracelet_modern_anticlastic. ... Image File history File links Bracelet_modern_anticlastic. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... This article is about monetary coins. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... White gold is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, such as silver or palladium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Carat is a measure of the purity of gold and platinum alloys. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ... Costume jewelry (also called fashion jewelry, junk jewelry or fake jewelry) is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ...


Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; and even plastics. Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewelry that has more of a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will cause an English Assay office (the building which gives English jewellery its stamp of approval, the Hallmark) to destroy the piece.[citation needed] This article is about the material. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Polymer clay is a sculptable material based on the polymer polyvinyl chloride. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Assay offices are institutions setup to test the purity of precious metal items, to protect consumers. ... A hallmark is an official marking made by a trusted party, guardians of the craft or nowadays by an assay office, on items made of precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) that guarantees a certain purity of the metal. ...

Contemporary bead embroidery design.
Contemporary bead embroidery design.

Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts, and rings. Beads may be large or small, the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African cultures. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Bead (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Beadwork is the art or craft of attaching beads to one another or to cloth using a needle and thread. ... For other senses of this word, see necklace (disambiguation). ... Bead and wire styled Bracelet. ... An earring with an intricate design An earring is a piece of jewelry that is worn on the ear. ... Belt can refer to the following objects: Look up belt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up ring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seed beads are uniformly shaped, spheroidal beads ranging in size from under a millimetre to several millimetres. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Advanced glass and glass beadmaking techniques by Murano and Venetian glassmasters developed crystalline glass, enameled glass (smalto), glass with threads of gold (goldstone), multicoloured glass (millefiori), milk-glass (lattimo) and imitation gemstones made of glass.[citation needed] As early as the 13th century, Murano glass and Murano beads were popular.[citation needed] This article is about the material. ... Lampwork glass beads. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... Murano Millefiori Pendant Millefiori is a glasswork technique which produces distinctive decorative patterns on glassware. ... Murano glass has been a famous product of the Venetian island of Murano for centuries. ... Murano beads are intricate glass beads influenced by Venetian glass artists Green and Blue Murano Silver Foil Leaves // Complexities of glass and the making of beads There are many different methods a Murano glass-master can employ in the creation of beads depending upon the desired result. ...


Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving, and "cold-joining" (using adhesives, staples, and rivets to assemble parts).[6] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ... This article is about smithing. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Carving can mean Rock carving Wood carving Meat carving See also: Sculpture, Lapidary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... A packet of staples commonly used in the home or office Staples in use, showing the front and the back side. ... Solid rivets Metal wheel with riveted spokes and tyre. ...


Diamonds

A selection of diamonds.
A selection of diamonds.
Main article: Diamond

Diamonds were first mined in India.[7] Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas;[8] In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production.[9][10] Description: Diamonds Info: Photographed by Mario Sarto on February 4, 2004 License: GNU Free Documentation License File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Description: Diamonds Info: Photographed by Mario Sarto on February 4, 2004 License: GNU Free Documentation License File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). The Crown Jewels or Honours of Scotland are treated separately. ... This article is about the diamond called the Star of Africa. ... The carat is a unit of mass used for measuring gems and pearls, and is exactly 200 milligrams. ...


Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.[citation needed] A yellow gold wedding ring and a single-diamond, gold-banded engagement ring. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Mary of Burgundy. ...


Other gemstones

Main article: Gemstone

Many precious stones are used for jewellery. Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, an example is the cubic zirconia, used in place of the diamond.[11] For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... A round brilliant-cut cubic zirconia Cubic zirconia (or CZ), the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), is a mineral that is widely synthesized for use as a diamond simulant. ...


Metal finishes

For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery there are many different techniques to create different finishes. The most common however are: high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is by far the most common and gives the metal the highly-reflective and shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery and is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look, and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving 'brush strokes'. Hammered finishes are typically created by using a soft, rounded hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.
General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Impact on society

Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, for instance, only certain ranks could wear rings;[12] Later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery; again based on rank. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role; for example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered "effeminate" in the 19th and early 20th centuries. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups, but is completely rejected in others. Likewise, the hip-hop culture has popularized the slang term bling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women. Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) were laws that regulated and reinforced social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury expenditures. ... Body piercing usually refers to the piercing of a part of the human body for the purpose of wearing jewelry in the opening created. ... For other uses, see Hip hop (disambiguation). ... Bling Bling is a 1999 hit hip-hop song by The B.G., featuring his Cash Money labelmates Juvenile, Lil Wayne, Turk, Baby, and Mannie Fresh. ...


Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularize wedding rings for men — which caught on — as well as engagement rings for men - which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had Medieval roots. By the mid 1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s.[13] Religion has also played a role: Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo,[14] and many religions have edicts against excessive display.[15] A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a precious metal ring, usually worn on the base of the left ring finger – the fourth finger (with the thumb counted as the first finger) of the left hand. ... A yellow gold wedding ring and a single-diamond, gold-banded engagement ring. ... harām (Arabic: حرام Ḥarām, Turkish: Haram, Malay: Haram) is an Arabic word, used in Islam to refer to anything that is prohibited by the faith. ...


History

The history of jewellery is a long one, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Early history

The Nassarius beads thought to be the oldest form of jewellery.

The first signs of jewellery came from the Cro-Magnons, ancestors of Homo sapiens, around 40,000 years ago. The Cro-Magnons originally migrated from the Middle East to settle in Europe and replace the Neanderthals as the dominant species. The jewellery pieces they made were crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces. In southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found. Most commonly, these have been found as grave-goods. Around 7,000 years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen.[4] Image File history File links Nassarius_shellbeads_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Nassarius_shellbeads_South_Africa. ... Nassarius is a genus of marine molluscs. ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see necklace (disambiguation). ... Bead and wire styled Bracelet. ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... A piece of nacre Nacre, also known as mother of pearl, is an organic mixture of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of platy crystals of aragonite and conchiolin (a scleroprotein). ... This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ... For other uses, see Tusk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


Egypt

Amulet pendant, 254 BCE. Gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise, carnelian, 14 cm wide.
Amulet pendant, 254 BCE. Gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise, carnelian, 14 cm wide.

The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000-5,000 years ago.[16] The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. Predynastic Egypt had ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1732x984, 598 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Horus ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1732x984, 598 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Horus ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ...


Jewellery in Egypt soon began to symbolize power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods. In archaeology and anthropology grave goods are the items interred along with the body. ...


In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass in place of precious gems. Although the Egyptians had access to gemstones, they preferred the colours they could create in glass over the natural colours of stones. For nearly each gemstone, there was a glass formulation used by the Egyptians to mimic it. The colour of the jewellery was very important, as different colours meant different things; the Book of the Dead dictated that the necklace of Isis around a mummy’s neck must be red to satisfy Isis’s need for blood, while green jewellery meant new growth for crops and fertility. Although lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country’s borders, most other materials for jewellery were found in or near Egypt, for example in the Red Sea, where the Egyptians mined Cleopatra's favourite gem, the emerald. Egyptian jewellery was predominantly made in large workshops attached to temples or palaces. This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Book of the Dead (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ...


Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.[16] Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Europe and the Middle East

Mesopotamia

By approximately 4,000 years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Sumer and Akkad. The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, where hundreds of burials dating 2900–2300 BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artefacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins. In Assyria, men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets, ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals.[17] Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... Pu-Abi (Akkadian Word of my Father) was an important personage in the Sumerian city of Ur who lived about 2600-2500 BCE, during the First Dynasty of Ur. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ...


Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly-coloured stones (chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper). Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols; they employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonne, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.[18] Cloisonn is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ...


Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 34 flat speckled chalcedony bead, [and] 35 gold fluted beads, in groups of five.

1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 39 flat speckled chalcedony beads, [with] 41 fluted beads in a group that make up the hanging device.


1 necklace with rounded lapis lazuli beads including: 28 rounded lapis lazuli beads, [and] 29 fluted beads for its clasp.[19]

Greece

Gold earring from Mycenae, 16th century BCE.
Gold earring from Mycenae, 16th century BCE.

The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1,400 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed the designs grew in complexity different materials were soon utilized. Image File history File linksMetadata Earring_Mycenae_Louvre_Bj135. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Earring_Mycenae_Louvre_Bj135. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2002 Lincoln cent, obverse, proof with cameo Cameo is a method of carving, or an item of jewelry made in this manner. ... Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ... For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ...

Pendant with naked woman. Electrum, Rhodes, ca. 630-620 BCE.
Pendant with naked woman. Electrum, Rhodes, ca. 630-620 BCE.

Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by woman to show their wealth, social status and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the “Evil Eye” or endowed the owner with supernatural powers, while others had a religious symbolism. Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods. The largest production of jewellery in these times came from Northern Greece and Macedon. However, although much of the jewellery in Greece was made of gold and silver with ivory and gems, bronze and clay copies were made also. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1510, 1092 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1510, 1092 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... John Phillip, The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye The evil eye is a folklore belief that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate people may result in their misfortune, whether it... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...

Ancient Greek jewellery from 300 BCE.
Ancient Greek jewellery from 300 BCE.

Jewellery makers in Ancient Greece were largely anonymous. They worked the types of jewellery into two different styles of pieces; cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered; it was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. Then the two halves were joined together and wax and then molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been in practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to the right thickness & then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1776x1526, 567 KB) Description Ancient Greek jewlry from Pontika (now Ukraina) 300 bC. It is formed in a Heracles knot. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1776x1526, 567 KB) Description Ancient Greek jewlry from Pontika (now Ukraina) 300 bC. It is formed in a Heracles knot. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive; numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.[20] For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. ... A foxtail (or fox tail) can be: A decorative ornament commonly flown from the tip of automobile radio aerials, popular in the 1950s and 1960s. ... For Pontic Olbia, the Greek colony on the Black Sea coast, see Olbia, Ukraine. ...


Rome

Roman Amethyst intaglio pendant, c. 212 CE; later converted to St. Peter medallion.
Roman Amethyst intaglio pendant, c. 212 CE; later converted to St. Peter medallion.

Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilized wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants which could be filled with perfume. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (664x908, 256 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (664x908, 256 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... Intaglio refers to incised (negative) image-making, and is the opposite of cameo. ... This article is about the European people. ... Aquamarine, platinum and diamond brooch/pendant worn by Mrs. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ... A pendant (from Old French) is a hanging object, generally attached to a necklace or an earring. ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ...


Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the “Evil Eye” given by other people. Although woman wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring. Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with a carved stone on it that was used with wax to seal documents, an act that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes.[16] Finger rings worn by Mary Nevill, Baroness Dacre, 1559. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ...


Middle Ages

Merovingian fibulae, Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
Merovingian fibulae, Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
Eagle-shaped Visigothic cloisonné fibula from Guadalajara, Spain. Bronze. 6th century.
Eagle-shaped Visigothic cloisonné fibula from Guadalajara, Spain. Bronze. 6th century.

Post-Roman Europe continued to develop jewellery making skills; the Celts and Merovingians in particular are noted for their jewellery, which in terms of quality matched or exceeded that of Byzantium. Clothing fasteners, amulets, and to a lesser extent signet rings are the most common artefacts known to us; a particularly striking celtic example is the Tara Brooch. The Torc was common throughout Europe as a symbol of status and power. By the 8th century, jewelled weaponry was common for men, while other jewellery (with the exception of signet rings) seems to become the domain of women. Grave goods found in a 6th-7th century burial near Chalon-sur-Saône are illustrative; the young girl was buried with: 2 silver fibulae, a necklace (with coins), bracelet, gold earings, a pair of hair-pins, comb, and buckle.[21] The Celts specialized in continuous patterns and designs; while Merovingian designs are best known for stylized animal figures.[22] They were not the only groups known for high quality work; note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England, are a particularly well-known example.[16] On the continent, cloisonné and garnet were perhaps the quintessential method and gemstone of the period. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1091x856, 405 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1091x856, 405 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery ... The new buildings of the library. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (772x1274, 201 KB) Description / Descripción Taken by/Tomada por Zaqarbal, 14–I–2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (772x1274, 201 KB) Description / Descripción Taken by/Tomada por Zaqarbal, 14–I–2006. ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Castile-La Mancha Province Guadalajara Tows 5 (Guadalajara, Iriépal, Taracena, Usanos & Valdenoches) Founded 8th century, probably, by moors Government  - Mayor Jesús Alique (PSOE) Area  - Land 236 km² (91. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Seal as impression A seal is an impression, usually in wax or embossed on the paper itself, or other item attached to a legal instrument used to authenticate it in place of, or in addition to, a signature. ... The Tara Brooch. ... A torc, also spelled torq or torque (from Latin torqueo, to twist, because of the twisted shape of the collar) is a rigid circular necklace that is open-ended at the front. ... Chalon-sur-Saône is a town, former bishopric and commune in central France, in the Saône-et-Loire département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Aquamarine, platinum, and diamond brooch/pendant worn by Mrs. ... Muiredacha Cross. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ... Sutton Hoo ceremonial helmet (British Museum, restored). ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ...

The Eastern successor of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, continued many of the methods of the Romans, though religious themes came to predominate. Unlike the Romans, the Franks, and the Celts, however; Byzantium used light-weight gold leaf rather than solid gold, and more emphasis was placed on stones and gems. As in the West, Byzantine jewellery was worn by wealthier females, with male jewellery apparently restricted to signet rings. Like other contemporary cultures, jewellery was commonly buried with its owner.[23]
Image File history File linksMetadata Wedding_ring_Louvre_AC924. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wedding_ring_Louvre_AC924. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a precious metal ring, in certain countries (UK, USA, Brazil) worn on the base of the left ring finger – the fourth finger (counting from the thumb) of the left hand. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Renaissance

The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade lead to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. A fascinating example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London England during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghani lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings.[24] Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who in the 1660s brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1271x1843, 691 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1271x1843, 691 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jewellery ... Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ... 2002 Lincoln cent, obverse, proof with cameo Cameo is a method of carving, or an item of jewelry made in this manner. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the mineral or gemstone. ... Microcline feldspar variety Amazonite with Smoky Quartz from Two Point Claim, Teller County, Colorado Amazonite (sometimes called Amazon stone) is a green variety of microcline feldspar. ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ... Cordierite is a cyclosilicate of magnesium and aluminium. ... The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl, not to be confused with beryl, is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4. ... This article is about the mineral. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Opal (disambiguation). ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... Jean-Baptiste Tavernier. ... French Blue redirects here. ...


When Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as Emperor of the French in 1804, he revived the style and grandeur of jewellery and fashion in France. Under Napoleon’s rule, jewellers introduced parures, suites of matching jewellery, such as a diamond tiara, diamond earrings, diamond rings, a diamond brooch and a diamond necklace. Both of Napoleon’s wives had beautiful sets such as these and wore them regularly. Another fashion trend resurrected by Napoleon was the cameo. Soon after his cameo decorated crown was seen, cameos were highly sought after. The period also saw the early stages of costume jewellery, with fish scale covered glass beads in place of pearls or conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts: jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked with expensive materials were called joailliers; a practice which continues to this day.
Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... A parure is a set of various items of matching jewellery, which rose to popularity in the 17th century. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An earring with an intricate design An earring is a piece of jewelry that is worn on the ear. ... 2002 Lincoln cent, obverse, proof with cameo Cameo is a method of carving, or an item of jewelry made in this manner. ... Costume jewelry is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... Species Strombus gigas Strombus luhuanus Strombus pugilis Strombus tricornis Strombus canarium Strombus dolomena Strombus gibberulus Strombus conomurex Strombus lentigo Strombus doxander Strombus urceus Strombus fragilis Strombus gallus Strombus dentatus Strombus marginatus Strombus raninus Strombus buvonius A conch (pronounced in the U.S.A. as konk or conch, IPA: or ) [1...


Romanticism

Mourning jewellery: Jet Brooch, 19th century.
Mourning jewellery: Jet Brooch, 19th century.

Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology, and the fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the industrial revolution also lead to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes, lead to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work; one such artist was the French goldsmith Françoise Désire Fromment Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert; and allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one.[25] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (845x1181, 163 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (845x1181, 163 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Aquamarine, platinum and diamond brooch/pendant worn by Mrs. ... Romantics redirects here. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Costume jewelry is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in full Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel) (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


In the United states, this period saw the founding in 1837 of Tiffany & Co. by Charles Lewis Tiffany. Tiffany's put the United States on the world map in terms of jewellery, and gained fame creating dazzling commissions for people such as the wife of Abraham Lincoln; later it would gain popular notoriety as the setting of the film Breakfast at Tiffany's. In France, Pierre Cartier founded Cartier SA in 1847, while 1884 saw the founding of Bulgari in Italy. The modern production studio had been born; a step away from the former dominance of individual craftsmen and patronage. Tiffany Blue seen here on a Tiffany gift box. ... Charles Lewis Tiffany (b. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1961 film starring Audrey Hepburn. ... Ring-Design > Cartier 1969. ... Italian jeweler and luxury goods retailer Bulgari (usually written BVLGARI in ancient Roman style) is named after its founder, Greek Sotirio Bulgari (Σωτήριος Βούλγαρης). The company was founded in 1884 in Rome, Italy. ... ...


This period also saw the first major collaboration between East and West; collaboration in Pforzheim between German and Japanese artists lead to Shakudo plaques set into Filigree frames being created by the Stoeffler firm in 1885).[26] Perhaps the grand finalé – and an appropriate transition to the following period – were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl Fabergé, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Fabergé eggs and jewellery pieces are still considered as the epitome of the goldsmith’s art. Pforzheim is a town of 119,000 inhabitants in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-west Germany at the gate to the Black Forest. ... Shakudo (赤銅) is an alloy of gold and copper (typically 4% Gold, 96% Copper), mostly designed for its beautiful dark blue-purple patina. ... Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ... Bouquet of Lilies or Madonna Lily Egg by Fabergé Peter Carl Fabergé original name Carl Gustavovich Fabergé(May 30, 1846–September 24, 1920) was a Russian jeweller, best known for the fabulous Fabergé eggs, made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than... Fabergés Moscow Kremlin Egg, 1906 A Fabergé egg is one of fifty-seven jewelry Easter eggs made by Peter Carl Fabergé of the Fabergé company for the Russian Tsars between 1885 and 1917. ...


Art Nouveau

In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Art Nouveau style. Very closely related were the German Jugendstil, British (and to some extent American) Arts and Crafts movement. Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonne and plique a jour. Motifs included orchids, irises, pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures and the female silhouette. Rene Lalique, working for the Paris shop of Samuel Bing, was recognized by contemporaries as a leading figure in this trend. The Darmstadt Artists' Colony and Wiener Werkstaette provided perhaps the most significant German input to the trend, while in Denmark Georg Jensen, though best known for his Silverware, also contributed significant pieces. In England, Liberty & Co and the British arts & crafts movement of Charles Robert Ashbee contributed slightly more linear but still characteristic designs. The new style moved the focus of the jeweller's art from the setting of stones to the artistic design of the piece itself; Lalique's dragonfly design is one of the best examples of this. Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the most recognizable design feature. The end of World War One once again changed public attitudes; and a more sober style came in.[27] Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Jugendstil is defined as a style of architecture or decorative art similar to Art Nouveau, popular in German-speaking areas of Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries [1]. Jugendstil was also popular in the Nordic countries, where it became integrated with the National Romantic Style. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... René Jules Lalique was born in Ay, Marne, France on April 6, 1860, and died May 5, 1945. ... Poster for the 2005 exhibition Siegfried Samuel Bing (1838 – September 1905) was a German art dealer in Paris, who was prominent in the introduction of Japanese art and artworks to the West and the development of the Art Nouveau style in the late nineteenth century. ... Wedding tower in Mathildenhöhe in Darmstadt The Darmstadt Artists’ Colony refers both to a group of artists as well as to the buildings in Mathildenhöhe in Darmstadt in which these artists lived and worked. ... Wiener Werkstaette Wiener Werkstätte Vienna Workshop Wiener Werkstatte 1903 - 1932 The famous enterprise, sometimes also named incorrect: Wiener or Weiner Werkstatte, Wiener Werkstaetten, evolved from the Vienna Secession, founded in 1897 as a progressive alliance of artists and designers. ... Georg Jensen is an important Danish silversmith and designer. ... Starch-polyester disposable cutlery Cutlery refers to any hand utensil used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food. ... Liberty is a well known department store in Regent Street in central London, England at the heart of the West End shopping district. ... Charles Robert Ashbee ( London, May 17, 1863–Sevenoaks, Kent, May 23, 1942 ) was a designer and entrepreneur who was a prime mover of the English Arts and Crafts movement that took its craft ethic from the works of John Ruskin and its co-operative structure from the socialism of William... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ...


Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of "no barriers between artists and craftsmen" lead to some interesting and stylistically simplified forms. Modern materials were also introduced: plastics and aluminum were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of Russian born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Technical mastery became as valued as the material itself; in the west, this period saw the reinvention of granulation by the German Elizabeth Treskow (although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s). Asheville City Hall. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... For the British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Naum Slutzky was an Ukrainan designer (born in 1894 in Kiev, died in 1965). ...


Jewish jewellery

In the Jewish culture jewellery have played an important role since biblical times. There are references in the bible to the custom of wearing jewellery both as a decoration and as a symbol. Now, Jewish jewellery is worn to show affiliation with the religion, and as talismans and amulets.


The Star of David ("Magen David" in Hebrew) is the symbol most recognized with Judaism. It was used in Israel in Roman times, but it seems to have become associated with Judaism in particular only in later centuries. In the 17th century it became a practice to put the Star of David on the outside of synagogues, to identify them as Jewish houses of worship; however, it is not clear why this symbol was selected for this. Today the Star of David is a universally recognized symbol of Jews. It appears on the flag of the state of Israel, and the Israeli equivalent of the Red Cross is known as "the Magen David Adom" ("Adom" is red in Hebrew). One of the most common symbols in Jewish jewellery is the Star of David, equivalent to wearing a cross by Christians. This article is about a Jewish symbol. ...


Another popular symbol used in Jewish jewellery is the Hamsa, also known as the "Hamesh hand". The Hamsa appears often in a stylized form, as a hand with three fingers raised, and sometimes with two thumbs arranged symmetrically. Its five fingers are said to symbolize the five books if the Torah. The symbol is used for protection and as a mean to ward of the Evil eye in amulets and charms and can also be found in various places such as home entrances and cars. It is also common to place other symbols in the middle of the Hamsa that are believed to help against the evil eye such as fish, eyes and the Star of David. The colour blue, or more specifically light blue, is also considered protective against the evil eye and many Hamsas are in that colour or with embedded gemstones in different shades of blue. Hamsas are often decorated with Jewish prayers of a protective fashion such as the Sh'ma Prayer, the Birkat HaBayit (Blessing for the Home), or the Tefilat HaDerech (Traveler's Prayer). Hamsa can mean:in Arabic it means Whisper Khamsa, a Near Eastern symbol Hamsa bird, an Indian sacred goose or swan Hamsa (musical group) (חמסה), an Israeli musical quintet A subsidiary Purana in hinduism This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... John Phillip, The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye The evil eye is a folklore belief that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate people may result in their misfortune, whether it...


The Chai symbol, popularly worn on necklaces, is the Hebrew word "Chai" (means 'living'), consisting of the two Hebrew letters Chet and Yod. This word refers to God. According to the gematrian system, the letters of Chai add up to 18. There have been many mystical numerological speculations about this fact and the custom to give donations and monetary gifts in multiples of 18 as a blessing for long life is very common in Jewish circles.


Other motives found in Jewish jewellery are symbols from the Kabbalah (also known as kabala, cabala) such as the Merkaba, a three-dimensional Star of David, and the Tree of life. Pieces of jewellery are decorated with parts or initials of known Jewish prayers and with 3-letters combinations, believed to represent different names of the Jewish God. This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ...


Asia

Jewellery making in Asia started in China 5,000 years ago and in the Indus Valley region later on. The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


China

The earliest culture to begin making jewellery in Asia was the Chinese around 5,000 years ago. Chinese jewellery designs were very religion-orientated and contained Buddhist symbols, a fact which remains to this day. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...

Jade coiled serpent, Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD)
Jade coiled serpent, Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD)

The Chinese used silver in their jewellery more often than gold, and decorated it with their favourite colour, blue. Blue kingfisher feathers were tied onto early Chinese jewellery and later, blue gems and glass were incorporated into designs. However, Chinese preferred jade over any other stone. They fashioned it using diamonds. The Chinese revered jade because of the human-like qualities they assigned to it, such as its hardness, durability and beauty.[4] The first jade pieces were very simple, but as time progressed, more complex designs evolved. Jade rings from between the 4th and 7th centuries BCE show evidence of having been worked with a compound milling machine; hundreds of years before the first mention of such equipment in the west.[28] Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ...


In China, jewellery was worn frequently by both sexes to show their nobility and wealth. However, in later years, it was used to accentuate beauty. Woman wore highly detailed gold and silver head dresses and other items, while men wore decorative hat buttons which showed rank and gold or silver rings. Woman also wore strips of gold on their foreheads, much like women in the Indus Valley. The band was an early form of tiara and was often decorated with precious gems. The most common piece of jewellery worn by Chinese was the earring, which was worn by both men and women. Amulets were also common too, often with a Chinese symbol or dragon. In fact, dragons, Chinese symbols and also phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other mythic firebirds, see Fire bird (mythology). ...


The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves; most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.[29] Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


India

The Indian sub-continent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere. While Western traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5000 years.[30] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization. By 1,500 BC the peoples of the Indus Valley were creating gold earrings and necklaces, bead necklaces and metallic bangles. Before 2,100 BC, prior to the period when metals were widely used, the largest jewellery trade in the Indus Valley region was the bead trade. Beads in the Indus Valley were made using simple techniques. First, a bead maker would need a rough stone, which would be bought from an eastern stone trader. The stone would then be placed into a hot oven where it would be heated until it turned deep red, a colour highly prized by people of the Indus Valley. The red stone would then be chipped to the right size and a hole drilled through it with primitive drills. The beads were then polished. Some beads were also painted with designs. This art form was often passed down through family; children of bead makers often learnt how to work beads from a young age. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Bangles in Laad Bazaar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. ... For other uses, see Bead (disambiguation). ...


Jewellery in the Indus Valley was worn predominantly by females, who wore numerous clay or shell bracelets on their wrists. They were often shaped like doughnuts and painted black. Over time, clay bangles were discarded for more durable ones. In India today, bangles are made out of metal or glass. Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers and gold rings. Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women’s hair. The beads were about one millimetre long. This article is about metallic materials. ... A choker is a tight fitting necklace, worn high on the neck. ...


A female skeleton (presently on display at the National Museum, New Delhi, India) wears a carlinean bangle on her left hand.


India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. However, axes dating to 4,000 BC found in China, contain traces of diamond dust used to sharpen the blades. While China used the diamonds they found mainly for carving jade, India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. This trade almost vanished 1,000 years after Christianity grew as a religion, as Christians rejected the diamonds which were used in Indian religious amulets. Along with Arabians from the Middle East restricting the trade, India’s diamond jewellery trade lulled. This article is about the mineral. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are still used and jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.[29]


Americas

Jewellery played a major role in the fate of the Americas when the Spanish established an empire to seize South American gold. Jewellery making developed in the Americas 5,000 years ago in Central and South America. Large amounts of gold was easily accessible, and the Aztecs and Mayans created numerous works in the metal. Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power and wealth. Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers from birds. The main purpose of Aztec jewellery was to draw attention, with richer and more powerful Aztecs wearing brighter, more expensive jewellery and clothes. Although gold was the most common and popular material used in Aztec jewellery, silver was also readily available throughout the American empires. In addition to adornment and status, the Aztecs also used jewellery in sacrifices to appease the gods. Priests also used gem encrusted daggers to perform animal and human sacrifices.[16][25] World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making was the Maya. At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish head dresses and jewellery. The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya Empire, much the same as with the Aztecs.[29] This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


In North America, Native Americans used shells, wood, turquoise, and soapstone, almost unavailable in South and Central America. The turquoise was used in necklaces and to be placed in earrings. Native Americans with access to oyster shells, often located in only one location in America, traded the shells with other tribes, showing the great importance of the body adornment trade in Northern America.[31] North American redirects here. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ...


Pacific

Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood and other natural materials, and thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces. 19th Century sketch of a New Zealand Māori hei-tiki. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power. Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headresses once they have killed an enemy. Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses.


Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures; some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western nations. However, the island nations which were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer's devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.[32]

A modern opal bracelet from Australia.
A modern opal bracelet from Australia.

Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 1800s, the Australian opal market became predominant. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one the most profitable stones in the Pacific.[33] Image File history File links Opal_Armband_800pix. ... Image File history File links Opal_Armband_800pix. ... For other uses, see Opal (disambiguation). ... Bead and wire styled Bracelet. ... For other uses, see Opal (disambiguation). ...


One of the few cultures to today still create their jewellery as they did many centuries prior is the New Zealand Māori, who create Hei-tiki. The reason the hei-tiki is worn is not apparent; it may either relate to ancestral connections, as Tiki was the first Māori, or fertility, as there is a strong connection between this and Tiki. Another suggestion from historians is that the Tiki is a product of the ancient belief of a god named Tiki, perhaps dating back to before the Māoris settled in New Zealand. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone (commonly whale), nephrite or bowenite; a lengthy and spiritual process. The Hei-tiki is now popular amongst tourists who can buy it from souvenir or jeweller shops. This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Maori), Tiki is the first man, created by either Tu Matauenga or Tane. ... There is also a community named Actinolite,_Ontario in Canada. ... Polished slab of bowenite serpentine, a variety of antigorite. ...


Other than jewellery created through Māori influence, jewellery in New Zealand remains similar to other western civilizations; multi cultural and varied. This is more noticeable in New Zealand because of its high levels of non-European citizens.[32]


Modern

Reversible pendant mimics the constellations representing a star map of the zodiac signs.

The modern jewellery movement began in the late 1940s at the end of World War II with a renewed interest in artistic and leisurely pursuits. The movement is most noted with works by Georg Jensen and other jewellery designers who advanced the concept of wearable art. The advent of new materials, such as plastics, Precious Metal Clay (PMC) and colouring techniques, has led to increased variety in styles. Other advances, such as the development of improved pearl harvesting by people such as Kokichi Mikimoto and the development of improved quality artificial gemstones such as moissanite (a diamond simulant), has placed jewellery within the economic grasp of a much larger segment of the population. Georg Jensen is an important Danish silversmith and designer. ... Precious Metal Clay or PMC is a plasticene-like precious metal compound developed in the early 1990s in Japan by metallurgist Dr. A. Morikawa. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... Kokichi Mikimoto (御木本 幸吉 Mikimoto Kōkichi, March 10, 1858 – September 21, 1954) is the Japanese inventor of the cultured pearl. ... Moissanite is a trade name given to silicon carbide (chemical formula SiC) for use in the gem business. ... Due to its low cost and close visual likeness to diamond, cubic zirconia has remained the most gemologically and economically important diamond simulant since 1976. ...


The "jewellery as art" movement was spearheaded by artisans such as Robert Lee Morris and continued by designers such as Anoush Waddington in the UK. Influence from other cultural forms is also evident; one example of this is bling-bling style jewellery, popularized by hip-hop and rap artists in the early 21st century. Robert Lee Morris is a jewelry designer who attributes much of his inspiration to forms he admires in nature. ... Anoush Waddington is a leading designer in Art jewelry. ... A bling bling-heavy album cover from The B.G. For the Marvel Comics character, see Bling (comics). ...


The late 20th century saw the blending of European design with oriental techniques such as Mokume-gane. The following are innovations in the decades stradling the year 2000: "Mokume-gane, hydraulic die forming, anti-clastic raising, fold-forming, reactive metal anodizing, shell forms, PMC, photoetching, and [use of] CAD/CAM."[34] Mokume-gane ring Mokume is a mixed-metal laminate with distinctive layered patterns. ... Anticlastic forged sterling bracelet. ... Fold-forming is a technique of metalworking whereby metal is folded, repeatedly forged and annealed, and unfloded; at which stage it generally has a dramatic new three-dimensional form. ... Precious Metal Clay or PMC is a plasticene-like precious metal compound developed in the early 1990s in Japan by metallurgist Dr. A. Morikawa. ... Photolithography or optical lithography is a process used in semiconductor device fabrication to transfer a pattern from a photomask (also called reticle) to the surface of a substrate. ... CAD/CAM is an abbrieviation of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. ...


Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Some fine examples of artisan jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum.[35] See also wearable art. ...


Body modification

Young girl from the Padaung tribe.
Young girl from the Padaung tribe.

Jewellery used in body modification is usualy plain; the use of simple silver studs, rings and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as earrings, are themselves a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x2856, 2074 KB) Summary This is an image I photographed at a refugee camp in Northern Thailand of a young Padaung hilltribe girl from Myanmar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x2856, 2074 KB) Summary This is an image I photographed at a refugee camp in Northern Thailand of a young Padaung hilltribe girl from Myanmar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ...


Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as 5 years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves too. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach 10-15 inches long; the practice has obvious health impacts, however, and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity.[36] Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes, or enlarge ear piercings. In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and first nations peoples of the northwest coast.[37] Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... Labret studs. ... First contact is a term used to describe a first meeting of two previously unknown cultures. ... Innu flag Innu communities of Québec and Labrador The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of what Canadians refer to as eastern Québec and Labrador, Canada. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... A woman from the Sara tribe with two large lip plates (about 1900). ... Mursi woman. ... a Sara woman about 1900 The Sara are an ethnic group in Central Africa. ...


In the late 20th century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects; thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred. Modern Primitives are people in developed nations who engage in body modification rituals and practices derived in part from rite of passage practicies in primitive cultures. ...


In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier, with in some cases, hooks or even objects as large as bike bars being placed into the recipient's skin. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practise has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practise is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whist being suspended by hooks.[36]


Jewellery Market

According to a recent KPMG study[38] the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India and China and the Middle East each with 8 - 9% and finally Italy with 5%. They predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe's and Japan's marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries: Italy and the UK.


See also

Gemology and Jewelry Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... See also wearable art. ... This article refers to the jewelry of the Etruscan civilization and its differences in various eras. ... This list of jewellery types is a listing of most types of jewellery made. ... Costume jewelry is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems. ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... // Methods and risks Maintaining a clean diamond can sometimes be difficult, as jewelry settings can obstruct cleaning efforts, and oils, grease, and other hydrophobic materials adhere well to a diamonds surface. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Murano glass has been a famous product of the Venetian island of Murano for centuries. ... Murano beads are intricate glass beads influenced by Venetian glass artists Green and Blue Murano Silver Foil Leaves // Complexities of glass and the making of beads There are many different methods a Murano glass-master can employ in the creation of beads depending upon the desired result. ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ... For other uses, see Watch (disambiguation). ... Wire sculpture jewelry Wire sculpture refers to the creation of sculpture or jewellery (sometimes called wire wrap jewellery) out of wire. ... Handmade jewelry is that which is crafted by hand, just as jewelry has been since it was very first created by humans. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ jewel. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Dictionary.com website.
  2. ^ 22 June 2006. Study reveals 'oldest jewellery'. BBC News.
  3. ^ Kunz, PhD, DSc, George Frederick (1917). Magic of Jewels and Charms. John Lippincott Co..  URL: Magic Of jewels: Chapter VII Amulets George Frederick Kunz was gemmologist for Tiffany's built the collections of banker J.P. Morgan and the American Natural History Museum in NY City. This chapter deals entirely with using jewels and gemstones in jewellery for talismanic purposes in Western Cultures. The next chapter deals with other, indigenous cultures.
  4. ^ a b c Holland, J. 1999. The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher books.
  5. ^ Morris, Desmond. Body Guards: Protective Amulets and Charms. Element, 1999 ISBN 1-86204-572-0
  6. ^ McCreight, Tim. Jewelry: Fundamentals of Metalsmithing. Design Books International, 1997 ISBN 1-880140-29-2
  7. ^ http://lgdl.gia.edu/pdfs/janse-table1.pdf
  8. ^ Pliny. Natural History XXXVI, 15
  9. ^ http://www.mineralsuk.com/britmin/wmp_2001_2005.pdf
  10. ^ Natural Diamond: World Production, By Country And Type
  11. ^ Nassau, K. (1980).Gems made by man. ISBN 0801967732
  12. ^ Pliny the Elder. The Natural History. ed. John Bostock, H.T. Riley, Book XXXIII The Natural History of Metals Online at the Perseus Project Chapter 4. Accessed July 2006
  13. ^ Howard, Vicky. "A real Man's Ring: Gender and the Invention of Tradition." Journal of Social History, Summer 2003, pp 837-856.
  14. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi. The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam (online)
  15. ^ Greenbaum, Toni. "SILVER SPEAKS: TRADITIONAL JEWELRY FROM THE MIDDLE EAST". Metalsmith, Winter2004, Vol. 24, Issue 1, p.56. Greenbaum provides the explanation for the lack of historical examples; the majority of Islamic jewellery was in the form of bridal dowries, and traditionally was not handed down from generation to generation; instead, on a woman's death it was sold at the souk and recycled or sold to passers-by. Islamic jewellery from before the 19th century is thus exceedingly rare.
  16. ^ a b c d e Reader's Digest Association. 1986. The last 2 million years. Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-86438-007-0
  17. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 155–157.
  18. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 295–297.
  19. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 297.
  20. ^ Treister, Mikhail YU. "Polychrome Necklaces from the Late Hellenistic Period." Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 2004, Vol. 10 Issue 3/4, p199-257, 59p.
  21. ^ Duby Georges and Philippe Ariès, eds. A History of Private Life Vol 1 - From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Harvard, 1987. p 506
  22. ^ Duby, throughout.
  23. ^ Sherrard, P. 1972. Great Ages of Man: Byzantium. Time-Life International.
  24. ^ Scarisbrick, Diana. Rings: Symbols of Wealth, Power, and Affection. New York: Abrams, 1993. ISBN 0-8109-3775-1 p77.
  25. ^ a b Farndon, J. 2001. 1,000 Facts on Modern History. Miles Kelly Publishing.
  26. ^ Ilse-Neuman, Ursula. Book review “Schmuck/Jewellery 1840-1940: Highlights from the Schmuckmuseum Pforzheim.’’ ‘’Metalsmith’’. Fall2006, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p12-13, 2p
  27. ^ Constantino, Maria. Art Nouveau. Knickerbocker Press; 1999 ISBN 1-57715-074-0 as well as Ilse-Neuman 2006.
  28. ^ Lu, Peter J., "Early Precision Compound Machine from Ancient China." Science, 6/11/2004, Vol. 304, Issue 5677
  29. ^ a b c Reader's Digest Association. 1983. Vanished Civilisations. Reader's Digest.
  30. ^ Untracht, Oppi. Traditional Jewellery of India. New York: Abrams, 1997 ISBN 0-8109-3886-3. p15.
  31. ^ Josephy Jr, A.M. 1994. 500 Nations: The Illustrated History of North American Indians. Alfred A. Knopf. Inc.
  32. ^ a b Neich, R., Pereira, F. 2004. Pacific Jewellery and Adornment. David Bateman & Auckland Museum. ISBN 1-86953-535-9.
  33. ^ Dorling Kindersley Ltd. 1989. Facts and Fallacies: Stories of the Strange and Unusual. Reader's Digest. 11-13.
  34. ^ McCrieght, Tim. "What's New?" Metalsmith Spring 2006, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p42-45, 4p
  35. ^ Nineteenth-Century American Jewelry | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  36. ^ a b Packard, M. 2002. Ripley's Believe it or not: Special Edition. Scholastic Inc. 22.
  37. ^ Moss, Madonna L. "George Catlin among the Nayas: Understanding the practice of labret wearing on the Northwest Coast." Ethnohistory Winter99, Vol. 46 Issue 1, p31, 35p.
  38. ^ KPMG India. "Global Jewelry Consumption". Gems and Gemology XLIII (Summer 2007): 180. GIA date=2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.

is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Frederick Kunz (September 29, 1856 – June 29, 1932) was an American mineralogist. ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي), (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline (a website that he helped to found in 1997), where he offers opinions and religious edicts (fatwa) based... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... The souq in Marrakech, Morocco A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Borel, F. 1994. The Splendor of Ethnic Jewelry: from the Colette and Jean-Pierre Ghysels Collection. New York: H.N. Abrams. (ISBN 0-8109-2993-7).
  • Evans, J. 1989. A History of Jewellery 1100-1870. (ISBN 0-486-26122-0).
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. (ISBN 0-313-29497-6).
  • Tait, H. 1986. Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery. London: British Museum Publications. (ISBN 0-7141-2034-0).

External links

Look up Jewellery in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • History of Jewellery
  • Ancient Jewelry from Central Asia (IV BC-IV AD)
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

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Jewellery - Online Jewellery Shop by Jonathan Lloyd (1131 words)
The next time you return to our online jewellery shop, you will be given the chance of collecting more bonus points to put towards a future purchase or convert the bonus points you've already received in the form of a payment discount.
All you would have to do is simply e-mail us with the invoice number and name of your friend or family member who made the purchase and we will then credit your account with the same amount of bonus points.
This is a fabulous monthly jewellery competition, which is free to everyone.
Jewellery History (2973 words)
Fine diamond jewellery was kept for evening and embroidered stomachers which formed part of the dress frontage, could be decorated by jewels.
Many pieces of fake jewellery have survived in their original setting, but fine estate pieces of real gems were often broken up for resetting into more fashionable styles of the era.
Her jewellery is exclusive to the QVC shopping channel in the UK and she is constantly working on new ideas such is her enthusiasm.
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