FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Jeulmun pottery period
Jeulmun pottery period
{{{image}}}
Hangul: 즐문 토기 시대
Hanja: 櫛文土器時代
Revised Romanization: Jeulmun togi sidae
McCune-Reischauer: Chǔlmun t'ogi sidae
History of Korea

Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan, Gaya
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla
Unified Silla, Balhae
Later Three Kingdoms
Goryeo
Joseon
Japanese Rule
Divided Korea:
 N. Korea, S. Korea
Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language, as opposed to the hanja system borrowed from China. ... Hanja, or hanmun, sometimes translated as Sino-Korean characters, are what Chinese characters (hanzi) are called in Korean. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean (Korean: 국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... This article is about the history of Korea. ... Gojoseon (ancient Joseon, to distinguish the later Joseon Dynasty) was the first Korean kingdom. ... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, at the time when Wiman Joseon occupied the peninsula’s northern half. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... Buyeo was a kingdom established in Northern Manchuria, from about 2nd century BC to 494. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose on the East Sea coast very early in the Common Era. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula in the earliest centuries of the Common Era. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms that existed in the Nakdong River valley of Korea during the Three Kingdoms era. ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in 668... Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 BCE – 668) was an empire in Manchuria and northern Korea. ... Baekje was a kingdom that existed in southwestern Korea from 18 BCE to 660 CE. Together with Goguryeo and Silla, Baekje is known as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Silla (also denoted as Shilla) was one of the three kingdoms of ancient Korea. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (Korean) or Bohai (Chinese) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea, and Russian Far East. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... The Joseon Dynasty (also Chosŏn, Hangul: 조선왕조, Hanja: 朝鮮王朝) was the final ruling dynasty of Korea, lasting from 1392 until 1910. ... Korea under Japanese rule refers to the period of Japans occupation of the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The modern division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II. The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to jointly administer the newly liberated nation... History of North Korea: Following World War II, Korea, which had been a colonial possession of Japan since 1910, was occupied by the Soviet Union (in the north) and the United States (in the south). ... The History of South Korea traces the development of South Korea from the division of the Korean Peninsula in 1945 to the present day. ...

The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). It is named after the decorated pottery vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage consistently over the above period, especially 4000-2000 B.C. A boom in the archaeological excavations of Jeulmun Period sites since the mid-1990s has increased knowledge about this important formative period in the prehistory of East Asia. Korean kingdoms are listed in the order of their fall. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Geographic scope of East Asia East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ...


The Jeulmun period is significant for the origins of plant cultivation and sedentary societies in the Korean peninsula (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003). This period has sometimes been labelled as the "Korean Neolithic", but since intensive agriculture and evidence of European-style 'Neolithic' lifestyle is sparse at best, such terminology is misleading (Kim 1996; Lee 2001). The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... The Neolithic (or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ...


The Jeulmun was a period of hunting, gathering, and small-scale cultivation of plants (Lee 2001, 2006). The origins of the Jeulmun are not well-known, but raised-clay pattern Yungimun pottery (Hangul: 융기문토기; Hanja: 隆起文土器) appear at southern sites such as Gosan-ni in Jeju-do Island and Ubong-ni on the seacoast in Ulsan. Some archaeologists describe this period as the "Incipient Jeulmun period" (Choe and Bale 2002). Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language, as opposed to the hanja system borrowed from China. ... Hanja, or hanmun, sometimes translated as Sino-Korean characters, are what Chinese characters (hanzi) are called in Korean. ... Jejudo Flag Jeju-do is the smallest province of South Korea, situated on, and coterminous with, the countrys largest island. ... Ulsan, a metropolitan city in the south-east of South Korea, lies on the Sea of Japan (East Sea), 70 kilometres north of Busan at the geographical location 35°33′ N 129°19′ E. In the past the city operated as a major center of Korean whaling, which led to...

Contents


Early Jeulmun

The Early Jeulmun period (c. 6000-3500 B.C.) is characterized by deep-sea fishing, hunting, and small semi-permanent settlements with pit-houses. Examples of Early Jeulmun settlements include Seopohang, Amsa-dong, and Osan-ni. Radiocarbon evidence from coastal shellmidden sites such as Ulsan Sejuk-ri, Dongsam-dong, and Ga-do Island indicates that shellfish were exploited, but many archaeologists maintain that shellmiddens (or shellmound sites) did not appear until the latter Early Jeulmun. Ulsan, a metropolitan city in the south-east of South Korea, lies on the Sea of Japan (East Sea), 70 kilometres north of Busan at the geographical location 35°33′ N 129°19′ E. In the past the city operated as a major center of Korean whaling, which led to...


Middle Jeulmun

Choe and Bale estimate that at least 14 Middle Jeulmun period (c. 3500-2000 B.C.) sites have yielded evidence of cultivation in the form of carbonized plant remains and agricultural stone tools (Choe and Bale 2002:110). For example, Crawford and Lee, using AMS dating techniques, directly dated a domesticated foxtail millet (Setaria italica ssp. italica) seed from the Dongsam-dong Shellmidden site to the Middle Jeulmun (Crawford and Lee 2003:89). Another example of Middle Jeulmun cultivation is found at Jitam-ni in North Korea. A pit-house at Jitam-ni yielded several hundred grams of some carbonized cultigen that North Korean archaeologists state is millet. However, not all western archaeologists accept the grains as domesticated millet because it was gathered out of context in a non-systematic way, only black-and-white photos of the find exist, and the original description is in Korean only. Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique to measure the mass-to-charge ratio (m/q) of ions. ... Binomial name Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. ... Pearl millet in the field Ripe head of proso millet The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. ...


Cultivation was likely a supplement to a subsistence regieme that continued to heavily emphasize deep-sea fishing, shellfish gathering, and hunting. "Classic Jeulmun" or Bissalmuneui (Hangul: 빗살문늬토기) pottery, in which comb-patterning, cord-wrapping, and other decorations extend across the entire outer surface of the vessel, appeared at the end of the Early Jeulmun and is found in West-central and South-coastal Korea in the Middle Jeulmun.


Late Jeulmun

The Late Jeulmun period (c. 2000-1500 B.C.) is associated with a de-emphasis on exploitation of shellfish and the appearance of interior settlements such as Sangchon-ni and Imbul-li. Lee suggests that environmental stress on shellfish populations and the movement of people into the interior prompted groups to become more reliant on cultivated plants in their diets (Lee 2001:323; 2006). The subsistence system of the interior settlements was probably not unlike that of the incipient Early Mumun pottery period (c. 1500-1250 B.C.), when small-scale shifting cultivation ("slash-and-burn") was practiced. The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Slash and burn. ...


Kim Jangsuk suggests that the hunter-gatherer-cultivators of the Late Jeulmun were gradually displaced from their "resource patches" by a new group with superior slash-and-burn cultivation technology and who migrated south with Mumun or undecorated (Hangeul: 무문토기; Hanja: 無文土器) pottery (Kim 2003).


References

  • Bale, Martin T. Archaeology of Early Agriculture in Korea: An Update on Recent Developments. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 21(5):77-84, 2001.
  • Choe, C.P. and Martin T. Bale. Current Perspectives on Settlement, Subsistence, and Cultivation in Prehistoric Korea. Arctic Anthropology 39(1-2):95-121, 2002.
  • Crawford, Gary W. and Gyoung-Ah Lee. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87-95, 2003.
  • Kim, Jangsuk. Land-use Conflict and the Rate of Transition to Agricultural Economy: A Comparative Study of Southern Scandinavia and Central-western Korea. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 10(3):277-321, 2003.
  • Lee, June-Jeong. From Shellfish Gathering to Agriculture in Prehistoric Korea: The Chulmun to Mumun Transition. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madision. Proquest, Ann Arbor, 2001.
  • Lee, June-Jeong. From Fisher-Hunter to Farmer: Changing Socioeconomy during the Chulmun Period in Southeastern Korea, In Beyond "Affluent Foragers": The Development of Fisher-Hunter Societies in Temperate Regions, eds. by Grier, Kim, and Uchiyama, Oxbow Books, Oxford, 2006 (forthcoming).

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m