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Encyclopedia > Jet airliner
The de Havilland Comet 1, G-ALYP - The first production Comet. This aircraft also flew the world's first commercial jetliner.

A jet airliner, which is also sometimes called a jetliner though technically similiar, and rightful synonyms of one another, in actual English language semantics have substantially different meanings and connotations. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DH_Comet_1_G-ALYP.jpg‎ The BOAC de Havilland Comet 1 G-ALYP (Yoke-Peter) This aircraft flew the worlds first jet airline service but later crashed due to the fatigue problem that subsequently grounded all Comet 1s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DH_Comet_1_G-ALYP.jpg‎ The BOAC de Havilland Comet 1 G-ALYP (Yoke-Peter) This aircraft flew the worlds first jet airline service but later crashed due to the fatigue problem that subsequently grounded all Comet 1s. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Although semantically and mechanically, and in terms of aviation terminology, "any airliner powered by a reaction engine such as a jet engine, may be considered a "jet propelled airliner," or "jet airliner," the term "jetliner" is generally linguistically slated for only a very select few members of this genus of aircraft among aviators, historians, and experienced air travelers. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... A reaction engine is an engine which provides propulsion by expelling reaction mass, in accordance with Newtons third law of motion. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Aviators are people who fly aircraft either for pleasure or for a job. ... This is a list of historians. ...


Jetliners refer back to era attached to the "fashionably stylistic and glamorous form of travel" which is usually associated with, and reserved for only the first generations of uniquely distinguishible jet-propelled aircraft as the airline industry was transitioning from the piston aircraft era. For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...


Much like the word "jet" is often simplistically used to identify a "jet engine", which also is sometimes referred to as a "pure-jet", "turbojet", or "straight-jet;" a jet as they are also colloquially known, is in itself in sharp contrast to the modern technology "high bypass ratio," gas turbine, turbofan, propelled airliner powerplants which currently ply the nations skyways. From an engineering standpoint, first generation centrifugal-flow and axial-flow turbojet propulsion systems are as far a apart in their complexity from modern jet propulsion systems as the word jet airliners and jetliners are in the English language. A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... In aeronautical engineering, and jet engine design in particular, bypass ratio is a common measurement that compares the amount of air deliberately blown past the engine to that moving through the core. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... A cutaway example of an early jet engine showing the centrifugal compressor A centrifugal compressor, also called a radial blower, squirrel cage, or squirrel wheel compressor, consists of a cylindrical assembly of compressor blades mounted on an axle. ... An axial compressor is the name used in the aircraft industry to refer to a particular type of compressor used in jet engines. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


It is from these first generations of workable "fanjets." that we derive the now antiquated systems of "water-injection" and "afterburners" for added "thrust" which were regularly used and demonstrated, on most jetliners, but not necessarily on all jet airliners. Yet, now these also once cryptic terms are regular aspects of the English vocabulary as is the word powerplants instead of jets, to addequately describe the complexities of modern jet engines. Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... Water injection is a method for cooling the combustion chambers of engines by adding water to the incoming fuel-air mixture, allowing for greater compression ratios and largely eliminating the problem of engine knocking. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


While first generation jetliners were supplanted relatively quickly, second and even a very few third generation jet airliners may rightfully be referred to as "jetliners" in certain English context. In contrast to today's long-distance quiet, fuel-efficient, and modern turbofan powered air travel, first generation "jet airliner" travel was incredibly noisy, and notoriously fuel in-efficient. These inefficiencies were addressed by the "jetprop," also known as the turboprop. A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ...


Although the fleets of many modern airlines may include a number of smaller but just as modern turboprop and seemingly ancient propeller propelled and reciprocating piston driven types, these appearances can be deceiving. These types of gas turbine, "propjet airliners" are just as modern as turbofan driven aircraft, and are typically used for shorter flights to provincial towns, island communities, or airports where topography or adjoining development limits the runway length. A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ...


Among one of the first successful "post-jetliner" aircraft with traits resembling modern jetprop and propfan technology such as multi-blade contra-rotating propellers was the prop fanjetliners developed by Tupolev designated as Tu-114s. Although a long-range airliner, this Soviet Russian swept wing design can rightfully be seen as a much more technically advanced late 1950's, predecessor of many of the modern short range regional aircraft type of gas turbine turboprop propelled airliners flying today, and with the rapidly advancing of engine blade technology, may dominate the world's skies in the very near future. A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... General Electric GE-36 UDF Unducted Fan engine on a McDonnell Douglas MD-81 testbed A propfan is a modified turbofan engine, with the fan placed outside of the engine nacelle on the same axis as the compressor blades. ... Categories: Aircraft stubs ... General Electric GE-36 UDF Unducted Fan engine on a McDonnell Douglas MD-81 testbed A propfan is a modified turbofan engine, with the fan placed outside of the engine nacelle on the same axis as the compressor blades. ... The Tupolev Tu-114 Rossiya (NATO reporting name Cleat) is a turboprop powered medium-range airliner designed by the Tupolev design bureau. ... The swept wing of an airliner: British Midland Airbus A320-200 A swept-wing is a wing planform used on high-speed aircraft that spend a considerable portion of their flight time in the transonic. ... SN Brussels Airlines Avro RJ85 regional jet A regional jet (RJ) is a small jet aircraft that was intended to fly passengers from point to point as efficiently as possible. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ...

Tupolev Tu114, the first large modern gas turbine propjet powered, swept wing, prop fan-jet liner
Tupolev Tu114, the first large modern gas turbine propjet powered, swept wing, prop fan-jet liner

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ...

Introduction and Early History

The first airliners with turbojet propulsion were experimental conversions of the Avro Lancastrian piston engined airliner, which were flown with several types of early jet engine, including the de Havilland Ghost and the Rolls-Royce Nene, however these retained the two inboard piston engines, the jets being housed in the outboard nacelles and these aircraft were therefore of 'mixed' propulsion. The first airliner with full jet power was the Nene-powered Vickers VC.1 Viking G-AJPH, which first flew on the 6 April 1948. Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s. ... The De Havilland Ghost was a turbojet engine. ... The Nene or RB.41, was Rolls-Royces third jet engine to enter production, designed and built in an astonishingly short five month period in 1944, first running on October 27th, 1944. ... Note: this is an artice about the Post World War Two twin-engined Vickers Viking airliner. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


First Commercially Successful Jet Airliner

A jet airliner, the Boeing 777 of American Airlines
A jet airliner, the Boeing 777 of American Airlines

The first purpose-built jet airliner was the de Havilland Comet which first flew in 1949 and entered service in 1952. Also developed in 1949 was the Avro Jetliner, and although it never reached production, the term jetliner caught on as a generic term for all passenger jet aircraft. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2007x1416, 887 KB) American Airlines Boeing 777-200ER (N780AN) landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2007x1416, 887 KB) American Airlines Boeing 777-200ER (N780AN) landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... The Boeing 777 is an American long-range wide-body twin-engine airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... American Airlines, Inc. ... This article deals with the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... Avro Canada C-102 Rolls-Royce Derwent Engine, used in the Avro Jetliner The C-102 Jetliner was a medium-range jet airliner built by Avro Canada in 1949. ...


These first Jetliners were followed some years later by the enormously successful Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, the Sud Aviation Caravelle, Tupolev Tu-104, and Convair 880. National prestige was attached to developing prototypes and bringing these first generation designs into service. There was also a strong nationalism in purchasing policy, such that the Boeing and Douglas products became closely associated with Pan Am, while BOAC ordered British made Comets. The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... The SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium-range jet airliner, produced by the French Sud Aviation firm starting in 1955 (when it was still known as SNCASE). ... The Tupolev Tu-104 (NATO reporting name: Camel) was a twin-engined medium-range turbojet-powered Soviet airliner. ... The first Convair 880 The Convair 880 was a jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ...


These two airlines with "strong nautical traditions of command hierarchy rank and chain of command, retained from their days of operations with flying boats," undoubtably were quick to capitalize upon with the help of top advertising agencies, the linkings of the "speed of jets" with the safety and secure "luxury of ocean liners" among public perception. An airline is an organization providing aviation services to passengers and/or cargo. ... A command hierarchy is a group of people committed to carrying out orders from the top, that is, of authority. ... For the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode, see Chain of Command (Star Trek: The Next Generation). ... Boeing 314 A flying boat is an aircraft that is designed to take off and land on water, in particular a type of seaplane which uses its fuselage as a floating hull (instead of pontoons mounted below the fuselage). ... For capitalize in the context of Capital Letters, see Capitalization and Majuscule. ... An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ...


Nationalism also ensued in Russia with Aeroflot which used Tupolevs, while Air France introduced Caravelles. Commercial realities dictated exceptions, however, as few airlines could risk missing out on a superior product: American airlines ordered the pioneering Comet (but later cancelled when the Comet ran into fatigue problems), Canadian, British and European airlines could not ignore the better operating economics of the Boeing 707 and the DC-8, while some American airlines ordered the Caravelle. JSC Aeroflot - Russian Airlines (Russian: ) (MICEX:AFLT RTS:AFLT), or Aeroflot (Russian: ) as the airline is commonly known, is the Russian flag carrier and the largest airline in Russia. ... Tupolev (Russian: Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is an airline based in Paris, France, and a subsidiary of Air France-KLM Group. ... This article is about a computer game. ...


Boeing became the most successful of the early manufacturers. The KC-135 Stratotanker and military versions of the 707 remain operational, mostly as tankers or freighters. The basic configuration of the Boeing, Convair and Douglas aircraft jet airliner designs, with widely spaced podded engines under slung on pylons beneath a swept wing, proved to be the most common arrangement and was most easily compatible with the large-diameter high-bypass turbofan engines that subsequently prevailed for reasons of quietness and fuel efficiency. The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft. ... A tanker is an aircraft used for in-flight refuelling. ... Freight aircraft, also called a freighter, are airliners converted for cargo hauling through the removal of passenger ammenities and the installation of a large cargo door. ... The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation, universally known as Convair, was the result of a 1943 merger between Consolidated Aircraft and Vultee Aircraft, resulting in a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States. ...

Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-600 landing. This airliner has an additional undercarriage on the fuselage belly.
Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-600 landing. This airliner has an additional undercarriage on the fuselage belly.

The de Havilland and Tupolev designs had engines incorporated within the wings next to the fuselage, a concept that endured only within military designs while the graceful Caravelle pioneered engines mounted either side of the rear fuselage. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1802x1275, 376 KB) Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-600 (G-VYOU) lands at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1802x1275, 376 KB) Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-600 (G-VYOU) lands at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd. ... Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340. ... MyTravel Airways Airbus A320 landing Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 87s, with fixed conventional landing gear. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... Tupolev (Russian: Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ...


Second Generation Jet Airliner Developments

In the 1960s, when jet airliners were powered by slim, low-bypass engines, many aircraft used the rear-engined, T-tail configuration, such as the Boeing 727, Douglas DC-9, BAC One-Eleven, Hawker Siddeley Trident, Ilyushin Il-62, Tupolev Tu-154 and Vickers VC-10. This engine arrangement survives into the 21st century on numerous Douglas DC-9 derivatives plus newer short-range regional "jet airliners" built by Bombardier, Embraer and, until recently, Fokker. However other "jetliner" developments, such as the concept of rocket assisted takeoffs RATO, and the briefly mentioned water-injection as used and tested upon first generation passenger jets, as well as trailing edge mounted powerplants, afterburners also known as reheat used upon supersonic jetliners SSTs such as the Concorde and Tupolev Tu-144, likewise have been relegated to the past. In aircraft a T-tail is an arrangement of the tail control surfaces with the horizontal surfaces (tailplane and elevators) mounted to the top of the fin, rather than the more common location on the fuselage at the base of the fin. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ... The BAC One-Eleven was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Trident 1E The Trident, model DH121 or HS121, was a short/medium-range airliner designed by de Havilland in the 1950s, and built by the Hawker-Siddeley Group in the 1960s when de Havilland was merged, along with several other British aviation firms. ... The Ilyushin Il-62 is a Soviet long range airliner. ... The Tupolev Tu-154 (NATO reporting name: Careless) is a Soviet medium-range trijet airliner, equivalent to the Boeing 727. ... The VC-10 airliner was designed and built by Vickers (part of the British Aircraft Corporation) in the 1960s. ... 20XX redirects here. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ... For other uses, see Bombardier (disambiguation). ... Embraer, the Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. is a Brazilian aircraft manufacturer. ... Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. ... JATO is an acronym for Jet Assisted Take Off. ... Water injection is a method for cooling the combustion chambers of engines by adding water to the incoming fuel-air mixture, allowing for greater compression ratios and largely eliminating the problem of engine knocking. ... A jetliner is an airliner powered by jet engines (usually of the turbofan type). ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... The Concorde supersonic transport has a delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Olympus engines. ... The acronym SST may refer to: Sea Surface Temperature Supersonic transport Shiva Smart Tunneling, a simple VPN tunneling protocol in Eicon Shiva series VPN gateway products. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was the first supersonic transport aircraft (SST), constructed under the direction of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ...


For business jets, the rear-engined universal configuration pioneered by the turbojet powered early Learjet 23, North American Sabreliner , and Lockheed JetStar is altogether common practice on smaller bizjet aircraft as the wing is too close to the ground to accommodate underslung engines. This as opposed to early generation jet airliners, whose design engineers slung jet engines on the rear to increase wing lift performance and at the same time reduce cabin noise of the lower bypass "turbojet" engines. Business jet, private jet or, in slang, bizjet is a term describing a jet aircraft, usually of modest size, designed for transporting small groups of business people for commercial reasons at a time convenient to their business needs. ... The Learjet 23 is an American six to eight seat (two crew and four to six passengers) twin-engined, high speed business jet. ... The North American Sabreliner (later sold as the Rockwell Sabreliner) was developed by North American Aviation in response to the U.S. Air Forces Utility Trainer Experimental (UTX) program. ... The Lockheed L-1329 JetStar (C-140 in USAF service) is a business jet produced from the early 1960s through the 1970s. ... Business jet (slang, Bizjet) is a term for a jet aircraft, usually of modest size, designed for transporting small groups of business people for commercial reasons at a time convenient to their business needs. ... There are multiple definitions of lift: Lift, an aerodynamic force. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ...


Present day Jet Airliners

Linguistically, present day aircraft and airliners are now more commonly broken into the distinction of "jumbo" and,"wide-body" jets, "narrow-body" jets, and "regional jets" with the terms "jets" and "liners" conveniently dropped from all but the "regional" and "jumbo jets." The more endearingly familiar "retrojet liners" and colorful "logojet liners" have also become coloquially abbreivated. Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The Boeing 747, which is also known as the jumbo jet, is the second largest passenger airliner after the Airbus A380. ... Wide-body Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300 A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with a fuselage diameter of about 5 to 6 metres and twin aisles. ... This Southwest Airlines Boeing 737 is an example of a narrow-body passenger cabin. ... SN Brussels Airlines Avro RJ85 Air France ERJ 145 A regional jet (RJ) is a small jet aircraft that is intended to fly passengers from point to point as efficiently as possible. ... A Lufthansa Airbus A321 in a retrojet livery Heritage Aircraft is a term applied to both old aircraft from preceding generations[1] with correct period livery as well as to current in service aircraft painted in a historic livery, sometimes called a retrojet. ... A HLX Boeing 737 logojet A logojet is an airliner with a special advertising paint scheme. ...


While criticism has been leveled at the impact jet airliners have had upon such issues as noise pollution, one far greater issue has been the transmission and what some contend unjustifiably, as the negative aspects of "anglospheric" culture worldwide. Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ...


These resentment can possibly be attributable to a few reasons. First, the vast increases in the speed of jet aircraft and jetliners have permitted interactions between foreign, culturally diverse peoples by means of mass transit tourism to reach many remote areas of the world. These remote geographical areas and quantitatively tremendous amounts of interactions among peoples which would not have ordinarily been possible on the average persons available time frame without advent of the jet airliner, may have accelerated naturally occuring culturally inertacting tensions. And secondly, aviators need for a common international language in the interest of air safety, which English has officially been desginated, by the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO, may have left other none designated ICAO languages speakers perplexed by modern aviation operational principles. Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... “Tourist” redirects here. ... Aviators are people who fly aircraft either for pleasure or for a job. ... Air safety is a broad term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through appropriate regulation, as well as through education and training. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jet airliner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (403 words)
Most modern long-distance air travel is conducted with jet aircraft, although the fleets of many airlines include a number of smaller turboprop types, typically used for shorter flights to provincial towns, island communities, or airports where topography or adjoining development limits the runway length.
The first jet airliner was the de Havilland Comet, which first flew in 1949 and entered service in 1952.
In the 1960s, when jet airliners were powered by slim, low-bypass engines, many aircraft used the rear-engined configuration, such as the Boeing 727, Douglas DC-9, BAC One-Eleven, Hawker Siddeley Trident, Ilyushin Il-62 and Vickers VC-10.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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