FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Jesus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Jesus
In the 6th century mosaic in Ravenna Jesus is portrayed as a Greco-Roman priest and king—the Pantokrator enthroned, donning regal Tyrian purple, gesturing a sign of the cross, with a sun cross halo behind his head. Though depictions of Jesus are culturally important, no undisputed record exists of his actual appearance.
In the 6th century mosaic in Ravenna Jesus is portrayed as a Greco-Roman priest and king—the Pantokrator enthroned, donning regal Tyrian purple, gesturing a sign of the cross, with a sun cross halo behind his head. Though depictions of Jesus are culturally important, no undisputed record exists of his actual appearance.
A series of articles on

Jesus Christ and Christianity
Christology
Chronology
Ministry
Miracles
Parables
Names and titles
Relics Image File history File links Size of this preview: 478 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1203 × 1507 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A 6th century mosaic of Jesus at Church San Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, Italy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 478 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1203 × 1507 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A 6th century mosaic of Jesus at Church San Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, Italy. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Pantocrator or Pantokrator (from the Greek Παντοκράτωρ) is one of many titles ascribed to the divine in Western religion. ... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... The Sign of the Cross is performed mainly within Latin and Eastern Rite Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, and Lutheranism. ... A solar symbol is a symbol which symbolises the sun. ... JASON Halo may refer to: Halo (optical phenomenon), a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ... Image File history File links JesusYeshua. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... The Parables of Jesus are a collection of parables told by Jesus that embody much of his teaching and are recorded in the four Gospels. ... A large variety of names and titles are used in the New Testament to describe Jesus. ... There are many relics attributed to Jesus that people believe or believed to be authentic relics of the Gospel accounts. ...

Non-religious aspects
Background
Historicity
GreekAramaic
Race This article — a part of the Jesus and history series of articles — discusses the cultural and historical background of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, without regard to his divinity, or to his existence as an actual historical figure. ... The historicity of Jesus concerns the historical authenticity of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Most scholars believe that Jesus spoke both Hebrew and Aramaic, and possibly Greek. ... The race of Jesus has been a subject of debate since at least the 19th century. ...

Perspectives on Jesus
New Testament view
Christian views
Religious perspectives
Jewish view
Islamic view
Historical Jesus
Jesus Seminar
Jesus as myth
This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ... Judaisms view of Jesus per se reflects Jewish views of eschatology, the characteristics of the Messiah, the gift of prophecy, and the cosmological nature of God, which are derived from the Torah and Biblical prophecies expressed by Isaiah, Ezekiel, and others from Biblical times through the destruction of Solomon... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: ‎ `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... This article is about Jesus the person, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about two hundred New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ... Jesus as Myth refers to the idea that the narrative of Jesus in the gospels may be considered as part of Christian mythology, and shows parallels to mystery religions of the Roman Empire such as Mithraism, and the myth of rebirth deities. ...

Jesus in culture
Cultural depictions of Jesus
Images
Jesus has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly two millenniums. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. He is commonly referred to as Jesus Christ, where "Christ" is a title derived from the Greek christós, meaning the "Anointed One", which corresponds to the Hebrew-derived "Messiah". The name "Jesus" is an Anglicization of the Greek Iesous, itself believed to be a transliteration of the Hebrew יהושע Yehoshua or Hebrew-Aramaic ישוע Yeshua, meaning "YHWH is salvation." Look up Jesus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... Nazareth (IPA: ) (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣira lit. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ...


The main widely-accepted sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Most scholars in the fields of history and biblical studies agree that Jesus was a Galilean Jew, was regarded as a teacher and healer, was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on orders of the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate under the accusation of sedition against the Roman Empire.[2][3] A small number of scholars and authors question the historical existence of Jesus, with some arguing for a completely mythological Jesus.[4] For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark, ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is traditionally the second Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Christian and Jewish Scriptures. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Faith healer redirects here. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded... Crucifixion of St. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ... Sedition is a term of law to refer to covert conduct such as speech and organization that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... The historicity of Jesus concerns the historical authenticity of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jesus as Myth refers to the idea that the narrative of Jesus in the gospels may be considered as part of Christian mythology, and shows parallels to mystery religions of the Roman Empire such as Mithraism, and the myth of rebirth deities. ...


Christian views of Jesus (see also Christology) center on the belief that Jesus is the Messiah whose coming was promised in the Old Testament and that he was resurrected after his crucifixion. Christians predominantly believe that Jesus is God incarnate, who came to provide salvation and reconciliation with God. Nontrinitarian Christians profess various other interpretations regarding his divinity (see below). Other Christian beliefs include Jesus' Virgin Birth, performance of miracles, fulfillment of biblical prophecy, ascension into Heaven, and future Second Coming. Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... Many Christians[citation needed] believe that the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) contains certain messianic prophecies of Jesus, or references that predict the coming of Jesus, being written well before his birth. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The doctrine of the Incarnation of Christ is central to the traditional Christian faith as held by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and most Protestants (some Protestant denominations do not hold the doctrine of the Trinity). ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Nontrinitarianism is any of various Christian beliefs that reject the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being, (the Trinity). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Bible prophecy is the concept held by various people that many Bible verses contain prophecies. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the...


In Islam, Jesus (Arabic: عيسى, commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's most beloved and important prophets, a bringer of divine scripture, and also the Messiah. Muslims, however, do not share the Christian belief in the crucifixion or divinity of Jesus. Muslims believe that Jesus' crucifixion was a divine illusion and that he ascended bodily to heaven. Most Muslims also believe that he will return to the earth in the company of the Mahdi once the earth has become full of sin and injustice at the time of the arrival of Islam's Antichrist-like Dajjal. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: ‎ `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christian views of Jesus. ... Main articles: Islamic views of Jesus and Death of Jesus The issue of Jesus death is important to Muslims because it differentiates their concept of Jesus from Christians, to whom the death of Jesus is paramount. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Gorgoroth album, see Antichrist (album) Antichrist is translated from the Greek αντίχριστος antíkhristos, which literally means opposite of Christ. A broader meaning is in place of Christ. Therefore, antichrist means opposed to Christ by being in the place of Christ. ... al-Dajjal (Arabic: الدّجّال, al-dajjāl) (The Deceiver/impostor) is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology, who will appear before Yawm al-Qiyamah (Resurrection Day). ...


Muslims also accept and believe in the Virgin Birth (and highly respect Mary, the Mother of Jesus), the miracles of Christ, including raising the dead to life, healing the sick, making the blind see and the lame walk and many other miracles not ascribed to by Christians. In short Jesus is highly revered by Muslims and to believe in him is an article of faith.[citation needed]

Chronology

Main article: Chronology of Jesus
See also: Census of Quirinius
Suggested years of Jesus'
birth and death based on
Gospel interpretations
c. 8 BC/BCE Birth (earliest)
c. 4 BC/BCE Herod's death
c. 6 AD/CE Birth (latest)
Quirinius' census
c. 26/27 Pilate governor
c. 27 Death (earliest)
c. 36 Death (latest)
c. 36/37 Pilate removed

The most detailed accounts of Jesus' birth are contained in the Gospel of Matthew (probably written between 65 and 90 AD/CE),[5] and the Gospel of Luke (probably written between 65 and 100 AD/CE).[6] There is considerable debate about the details of Jesus' birth among even Christian scholars, and few scholars claim to know precisely either the year or the date of his birth or of his death. The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... The Census of Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was an enrolment (apographai) of the Roman Provinces of Syria and of Iudaea (which included Samaria, Judea and Idumea), for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The Census of Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was an enrolment (apographai) of the Roman Provinces of Syria and of Iudaea (which included Samaria, Judea and Idumea), for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ...


The nativity accounts in the New Testament gospels of Matthew and Luke do not mention a date or time of year for the birth of Jesus. In Western Christianity, it has been traditionally celebrated on December 25 as Christmas (in the liturgical season of Christmastide), a date that can be traced as early as 330 among Roman Christians. Before then, and still today in Eastern Christianity, Jesus' birth was generally celebrated on January 6 as part of the feast of Theophany,[7] also known as Epiphany, which commemorated not only Jesus' birth but also his baptism by John in the Jordan River and possibly additional events in Jesus' life. Some scholars note that Luke's descriptions of shepherds' activities at the time of Jesus' birth suggest a spring or summer date.[8] Scholars speculate that the date of the celebration was moved by the Roman Catholic Church in an attempt to replace the Roman festival of Saturnalia (or more specifically, the birthday of the Roman god Sol Invictus). Western Christianity comprises Catholicism, Anglicanism, Protestantism. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... The Christmas season is a term that covers the time when two interconnected periods of celebration are held. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Look up theophany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Christian feast. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Saturnalia is the feast at which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of the god Saturn, which took place on 17 December. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the undefeated Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ...


In the 248th year during the Diocletian Era (based on Diocletian's ascension to the Roman throne), Dionysius Exiguus attempted to pinpoint the number of years since Jesus' birth, arriving at a figure of 753 years after the founding of Rome. Dionysius then set Jesus' birth as being December 25 1 ACN (for "Ante Christum Natum," or "before Christ (was) born"), and assigned AD 1 to the following year — thereby establishing the system of numbering years from the birth of Jesus: Anno Domini (which translates as "in the year of the Lord"). The system was created in the then current year 532, and almost two centuries later it won acceptance and became the established calendar in Western civilization. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( 245– 312), born Diocles (Greek Διοκλής) and known in English as Diocletian,[1] was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... For the Power Metal band, see Lord (band). ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ...


Having fewer sources and being further removed in time from the authors of the New Testament, establishing a reliable birth date now is particularly difficult. Based on a lunar eclipse that the first-century historian Josephus reported shortly before the death of Herod the Great (who plays a major role in Matthew's account), as well as a more accurate understanding of the succession of Roman Emperors, Jesus' birth is likely to have been some time during or before the year 4 BC/BCE. Alternatively, based on the idea that a Jupiter-Saturn conjunction was the Star of Bethlehem reported in the gospels at the time of Jesus' birth, the date could be as early as 7 BC/BCE.[9] John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earths shadow. ... A representation of Flavius Josephus, a woodcutting in John C. Winstons translation of his works Josephus (37 – shortly after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and royal... Hordes (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, ; Greek: , ; trad. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ...


The Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of Matthew both place Jesus' birth under the reign of Herod the Great. Luke similarly describes Jesus' birth as occurring during the Roman governorship of Quirinius, and involving the first census of the Roman provinces of Syria and Iudaea. Josephus places the governorship of Quirinius, and a census, in 6 AD/CE (which Luke refers to in Acts 5:37), long after the death of Herod the Great in 4 BC/BCE. Hence, debate has centered over whether or not the sources can be reconciled by asserting a prior governorship of Quirinius in Syria, or if an earlier census was conducted, and if not then which source to consider in error.[10] Hordes (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, ; Greek: , ; trad. ... Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (rendered in Greek Κυρήνιος Kyrenios, c. ... The Census of Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was an enrolment (apographai) of the Roman Provinces of Syria and of Iudaea (which included Samaria, Judea and Idumea), for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ...


The exact date of Jesus' death is also unclear. Many scholars hold that the Gospel of John depicts the crucifixion just before the Passover festival on Friday 14 Nisan (called the Quartodeciman), whereas the synoptic gospels (except for Mark 14:2) describe Jesus' Last Supper, immediately before his arrest, as the Passover meal on Friday 15 Nisan; however, a number of scholars hold that the synoptic account is harmonious with the account in John.[11] Further, the Jews followed a lunisolar calendar with phases of the moon as dates, complicating calculations of any exact date in a solar calendar. According to John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, allowing for the time of the procuratorship of Pontius Pilate and the dates of the Passover in those years, his death can be placed most probably on April 7, 30 AD/CE or April 3, 33 AD/CE.[12] The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Quartodecimanism (fourteenism, derived from Latin) refers to the practice of fixing the celebration of Passover for Christians on the fourteenth day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (for example Lev 23:5, in Latin quarta decima). This was the original method of fixing the date of the... The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ... The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ...


Life and teachings, as told in the Gospels

Major events in Jesus's life in the Gospels

This box: view  talk  edit

As few of the details of Jesus' life can be independently verified, it is difficult to gauge the historical accuracy of the Biblical accounts. The four canonical gospels are the main sources of information for the traditional Christian narrative of Jesus' life. Adoration of the Shepherds (1535-40), by Florentine Mannerist painter Agnolo Bronzino Nativity windows at Trinity Church, Boston, designed by Edward Burne-Jones and executed by William Morris, 1882 The Nativity of Jesus, or simply the Nativity, is a story of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... For the school of Peter Abelard, see Oratory of the Paraclete. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


Genealogy and family

Main articles: Genealogy of Jesus and Desposyni
Jesus and Mary: Black Madonna of Częstochowa
Jesus and Mary: Black Madonna of Częstochowa

Of the four gospels, only Matthew and Luke give accounts of Jesus' genealogy. The accounts in the two gospels are substantially different, and various theories have been proposed to explain the discrepancies (see Genealogy of Jesus). Both accounts, however, trace his line back to King David and from there to Abraham. These lists are identical between Abraham and David, but they differ between David and Joseph. Matthew starts with Solomon and proceeds through the kings of Judah to the last king, Jeconiah. After Jeconiah, the line of kings terminated when Babylon conquered Judah. Thus, Matthew shows that Jesus is the legal heir to the throne of Israel. Luke's genealogy is longer than Matthew's; it goes back to Adam and provides more names between David and Jesus. Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ... The Desposyni (from Greek (desposunos) of or belonging to the master or lord[1]) was a sacred name reserved only for Jesus blood relatives. ... Image File history File links Our_Lady_of_Czestochowa. ... Image File history File links Our_Lady_of_Czestochowa. ... Black Madonna, Fleur de lys of CzÄ™stochowa, Poland The Black Madonna of CzÄ™stochowa, (Czarna Madonna or Matka Boska CzÄ™stochowska in Polish) icon was, according to legend, painted by St. ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shlomo) Standard Tibe88rian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Jeconiah (also known as Jehoiachin, Joachin, and Coniah) was king of Judah. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ...


Joseph appears only in descriptions of Jesus' childhood. John's account of Jesus commending Mary into the care of the beloved disciple during his crucifixion (John 19:25–27) suggests that Joseph had died by the time of Jesus' ministry.[13] The New Testament books of Matthew, Mark, and Galatians tell of Jesus' relatives, including possible brothers and sisters.[14] The Greek word adelphos in these verses, often translated as brother, can refer to any familial relation, and most Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians translate the word as kinsman or cousin in this context (see Perpetual virginity of Mary). Luke also mentions that Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist, was a "cousin" or "relative" of Mary (Luke 1:36), which would make John a distant cousin of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Arabic مريم (Maryam); Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Geez: ማሪያም, Māryām; Syriac: Mart, Maryam, Madonna), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Saint Joseph (cf. ... The phrase disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Nativity and early life

Adoration of the Shepherds, Gerard van Honthorst, 17th century
Adoration of the Shepherds, Gerard van Honthorst, 17th century

According to Matthew and Luke, Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea to Mary, a virgin, by a miracle of the Holy Spirit. The Gospel of Luke gives an account of the angel Gabriel visiting Mary to tell her that she was chosen to bear the Son of God (Luke 1:26–38). According to Luke, an order of Caesar Augustus had forced Mary and Joseph to leave their homes in Nazareth and come to the home of Joseph's ancestors, the house of David, for the Census of Quirinius. A key piece of the Paleologan Mannerism - the Annunciation icon from Ohrid. ... Adoration of the Shepherds (1535-40), by Florentine Mannerist painter Agnolo Bronzino Nativity windows at Trinity Church, Boston, designed by Edward Burne-Jones and executed by William Morris, 1882 The Nativity of Jesus, or simply the Nativity, is a story of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jacopo Bellinis Madonna and Child Blessing depicts the infant Jesus in the act of blessing the viewer The Child Jesus is a religious symbol based on the activities of Jesus as an infant up to the age of twelve that recurs throughout history, starting from around the third or... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1873, 220 KB) Description: Title: de: Anbetung der Hirten Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Nantes Current location (gallery): de: Musée des Beaux-Arts Other notes: de: Utrechter Caravaggisten Source: The Yorck... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1873, 220 KB) Description: Title: de: Anbetung der Hirten Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Nantes Current location (gallery): de: Musée des Beaux-Arts Other notes: de: Utrechter Caravaggisten Source: The Yorck... Gerard van Honthorst (1590 - 1656), also known as Gherardo della Notte, was a Dutch painter of Utrecht. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Central Bethlehem Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم   house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity. ... A Gothic angel in ivory, c1250, Louvre An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod In Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʼel, Latin Gabrielus, Greek , Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʼēl, Arabic جبريل JibrÄ«l or Jibrail, literally Master, of God, i. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Nazareth (IPA: ) (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣira lit. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... The Census of Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was an enrolment (apographai) of the Roman Provinces of Syria and of Iudaea (which included Samaria, Judea and Idumea), for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. ...


After Jesus' birth, the couple was forced to use a manger in place of a crib because there was no room for them in the town's inn (Luke 2:1–7). According to Luke, an angel announced Jesus' birth to shepherds who came to see the newborn child and who subsequently publicized what they had witnessed throughout the area (see The First Noël). Matthew also tells of the "Wise Men" or "Magi" who brought gifts to the infant Jesus after following a star which they believed was a sign that the King of the Jews, had been born (Matthew 2:1-12). Manger: A person that stands for freedom and all that is right, wants to be a god person against others, And you can call him a Funfreak A manger is a trough or box of carved stone or wood construction used to hold food for animals (as in a stable). ... The First Noël (sometimes The First Nowell) is a traditional English Christmas carol, most likely from the 16th or 17th century, but possibly dating from as early as the 13th century. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... King of the Jews may refer to: A title used to refer to Jesus in several Biblical passages, including Matthew 2:2 and Luke 23:3. ...


Jesus' childhood home is identified in the Bible as the town of Nazareth in Galilee. Except for a flight to Egypt by his family in his infancy to escape Herod's Massacre of the Innocents and a short trip to Tyre and Sidon (in what is now Lebanon), the Gospels place all other events in Jesus' life in ancient Israel.[15] According to Matthew, the family remained in Egypt until Herod's death, whereupon they returned to Nazareth to avoid living under the authority of Herod's son and successor Archelaus (Matthew 2:19-23). Nazareth (IPA: ) (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣira lit. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... , Sidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا Ṣaydā) is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... Herod Archelaus (23 BC–c. ...


Luke's Finding in the Temple (Luke 2:41–52) is the only event between Jesus' infancy and baptism mentioned in any of the canonical Gospels. According to Luke, Jesus was "about thirty years of age" when he was baptized (Luke 3:23). In Mark, Jesus is called a carpenter. Matthew says he was a carpenter's son, suggesting that Jesus may have spent some of his first 30 years practicing carpentry with his father (Mark 6:3, Matthew 13:55). Depiction of Jesus at age twelve from Jesus and the doctors of the Faith, a painting by the entourage of Giuseppe Ribera. ...


Baptism and Temptation

Temptation of Christ, Ary Scheffer, 19th c.

All three synoptic Gospels describe the Baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist, an event which Biblical scholars describe as the beginning of Jesus' public ministry. According to these accounts, Jesus came to the Jordan River where John the Baptist had been preaching and baptizing people in the crowd. John's message was "Repent or be damned." Matthew describes John as initially hesitant to comply with Jesus' request for John to baptize him, stating that it was Jesus who should baptize him. Jesus persisted, "It is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness" (Matthew 3:15). After Jesus was baptized and rose from the water, Mark states Jesus "saw the heavens parting and the Spirit descending upon Him like a dove. Then a voice came from heaven saying: ‘You are My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased’" (Mark 1:10–11). The Gospel of John doesn't include the baptism but does attest that Jesus is the very one about whom John the Baptist had been preaching—the Son of God. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... Ary Scheffers The Temptation of Christ In Christianity, the temptation of Christ refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the three Synoptic Gospels, specifically at: Matthew 4:1-11 Mark 1:12-13 Luke 4:1-13 According to these texts, after... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded... Image File history File links Ary_Scheffer_-_The_Temptation_of_Christ_(1854). ... Image File history File links Ary_Scheffer_-_The_Temptation_of_Christ_(1854). ... Ary Scheffer (February 10, 1795 _ June 15, 1858), French painter of Dutch extraction, was born at Dordrecht. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ...


Following his baptism, Jesus was led into the desert by God where he fasted for forty days and forty nights (Matt 4:1-2). During this time, the devil appeared to him and tempted Jesus three times to demonstrate his supernatural powers as proof of his being the Son of God. Each time, Jesus refused each temptation with a quote of scripture from the Book of Deuteronomy. Having failed, the devil departed and angels came and brought nourishment to Jesus (Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, Luke 4:1-13). Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food and/or drink, for a period of time. ... Raising the devil. ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Ministry

Sermon on the Mount, Carl Heinrich Bloch, 19th c.
Sermon on the Mount, Carl Heinrich Bloch, 19th c.

The Gospels state that Jesus, as Messiah, was sent to "give his life as a ransom for many" and "preach the good news of the Kingdom of God."[16] Over the course of his ministry, Jesus is said to have performed various miracles, including healings, exorcisms, walking on water, turning water into wine, and raising several people, such as Lazarus, from the dead (John 11:1–44). According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... The Sermon on the Plain, said to be by Jesus according to Gospel of Luke 6:17-49, may be compared to the longer Sermon on the Mount. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-6, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Carl Heinrich Bloch (May 23, 1834 – February 22, 1890) was a Danish painter. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place of which they have possessed (taken control of). ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with Walk on Water . ... Marriage at Cana The Marriage at Cana is an event reported by the Gospel of John but not by any of the Synoptic Gospels. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ...

Judæa and Galilee at the time of Jesus
Judæa and Galilee at the time of Jesus

The Gospel of John describes three different passover feasts over the course of Jesus' ministry. This implies that Jesus preached for a period of three years, although some interpretations of the Synoptic Gospels suggest a span of only one year. The focus of his ministry was toward his closest adherents, the Twelve Apostles, though many of his followers were considered disciples. Jesus led what many believe to have been an apocalyptic following. He preached that the end of the current world would come unexpectedly; for this reason, he called on his followers to be ever alert and faithful. Jesus also taught the necessity of repentance and the danger of damnation (Luke 13:1-5, Luke 12:1-5). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x790, 30 KB) Summary This is a map of First Century Palestine that I created using Illustrator CS2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x790, 30 KB) Summary This is a map of First Century Palestine that I created using Illustrator CS2. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // In Judeo-Christian theology, the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ...


At the height of his ministry, Jesus attracted huge crowds numbering in the thousands, primarily in the areas of Galilee and Perea (in modern-day Israel and Jordan respectively). Some of Jesus' most famous teachings come from the Sermon on the Mount, which contained the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer. Jesus often employed parables, such as the Parable of the Prodigal Son, and the Parable of the Sower. His teachings encouraged unconditional self-sacrificing God-like love for God and for all people. During his sermons, he preached about service and humility, the forgiveness of sin, faith, turning the other cheek, love for one's enemies as well as friends, and the need to follow the spirit of the law in addition to the letter.[17] Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the name given to the well-known, definitive and beginning portion of the Sermon on the Mount of the Gospel of Matthew. ... Representation of the Sermon on the Mount For other uses, see Lords Prayer (disambiguation). ... The Parables of Jesus are a collection of parables told by Jesus that embody much of his teaching and are recorded in the four Gospels. ... The Return of the Prodigal Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni The Prodigal Son, also known as the Lost Son is one of the best known parables of Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Parable of the Sower is a parable attributed to Jesus, and found in all of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 4:1-20, Matthew 13:1-23, and Luke 8:1-15) as well as in the Gospel of Thomas (Thomas 9). ... Brotherly love redirects here. ... Turn the other cheek is a famous phrase taken from the Sermon on the Mount in the Christian New Testament. ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... Tora redirects here. ...


Jesus often met with society's outcasts, such as the publicani (Imperial tax collectors who were despised for extorting money), including the apostle Matthew; when the Pharisees objected to Jesus' meeting with sinners rather than the righteous, Jesus replied that it was the sick who need a physician, not the healthy (Matthew 9:9–13). According to Luke and John, Jesus also made efforts to extend his ministry to the Samaritans, who followed a different form of the Israelite religion. This is reflected in his preaching to the Samaritans of Sychar, resulting in their conversion (John 4:1–42). A Publican can be the manager of a public house, or in New Testament times, a tax collecter. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי, Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew: Mattay; Septuagint Greek: Μαθθαιος, Matthaios) is an important Christian figure best known as one of Jesus Twelve Apostles. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... For the ethnic group of this name, see Samaritan. ... Main article: Samaritan It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Samaritan. ... Shechem or Shchem (שְׁכֶם / שְׁכָם Shoulder, Standard Hebrew Šəḫem / Šəḫam, Tiberian Hebrew Šəḵem / Šəḵām) was the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel. ...


According to the synoptic gospels, Jesus led three of his apostlesPeter, John, and James—to the top of a mountain to pray. While there, he was transfigured before them, his face shining like the sun and his clothes brilliant white; Elijah and Moses appeared adjacent to him. A bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the sky said, "This is my beloved son, with whom I am well pleased."[18] The gospels also state that toward the end of his ministry, Jesus began to warn his disciples of his future death and resurrection (Matthew 16:21-28). “Apostle” redirects here. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with John the Evangelist. ... For people and places called Saint James, see the diambiguation page. ... The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-6, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Arrest, trial, and death

Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseri, 19th c.: Pontius Pilate presents a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to onlookers: a very popular motif in Christian art.
Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseri, 19th c.: Pontius Pilate presents a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to onlookers: a very popular motif in Christian art.

According to the Gospels, Jesus came with his followers to Jerusalem during the Passover festival where a large crowd came to meet him, shouting, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the King of Israel!"[19] Following his triumphal entry, according to the synoptic gospels,[20] Jesus created a disturbance at Herod's Temple by overturning the tables of the moneychangers operating there, claiming that they had made the Temple a "den of robbers." (Mark 11:17). Later that week, according to the synoptic gospels, Jesus celebrated the Passover meal with his disciples—subsequently known as the Last Supper—in which he prophesied his future betrayal by one of his apostles and ultimate execution. In this ritual he took bread and wine in hand, saying: "this is my body which is given for you" and "this cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood," and instructed them to "do this in remembrance of me" (Luke 22:7-20). Following the supper, Jesus and his disciples went to pray in the Garden of Gethsemane. The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Entombment of Christ by Pieter Lastman The death of Jesus is an event described by the New Testament, as occurring after the Passion of Jesus, as a result of his crucifixion. ... Image File history File links Eccehomo2. ... Image File history File links Eccehomo2. ... This article is a work in progress being translated from the German Wiki Ecce Homo by Quentin Massys, ca. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man), a depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to the people of Jerusalem. ... A scourge (from the Italian scoriada, ultimately from the Latin excoriare = to flay and corium = skin) is a whip or lash, especially a multi-tong type used in order to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem is when Jesus, towards the end of public ministry, enters Jerusalem on colt or donkey as people shouted Hossana! and waved palm fronds. ... Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... Anamnesis (Greek: αναμνησις = recollection, reminiscence) is a term used in medicine, philosophy, psychoanalysis, and religion. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ...


While in the Garden, Jesus was arrested by temple guards on the orders of the Sanhedrin and the high priest, Caiaphas (Luke 22:47-52, Matthew 26:47-56). The arrest took place clandestinely at night to avoid a riot, as Jesus was popular with the people at large (Mark 14:2). According to the synoptics, Judas Iscariot, one of his apostles, betrayed Jesus by identifying him to the guards with a kiss. Another apostle used a sword to attack one of the captors, cutting off his ear, which, according to Luke, Jesus immediately healed.[21] Jesus rebuked the apostle, stating "all they that take the sword shall perish by the sword" (Matthew 26:52). After his arrest, Jesus' apostles went into hiding. Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus trial before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate. ... For the American black metal band, see Judas Iscariot (band). ... According to the Synoptic Gospels, Judas pointed out Jesus to those he led to arrest him by means of a kiss. ...

During the Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus, the high priests and elders asked Jesus, "Are you the Son of God?," and upon his replying, "You say that I am," condemned Jesus for blasphemy (Luke 22:70–71). The high priests then turned him over to the Roman procurator Pontius Pilate, based on an accusation of sedition for claiming to be King of the Jews.[22] While before Pilate, Jesus was asked, "Are you the king of the Jews?" to which he replied, "It is as you say." According to the Gospels, Pilate personally felt that Jesus was not guilty of any crime against the Romans, and since there was a custom at Passover for the Roman governor to free a prisoner (a custom not recorded outside the Gospels), Pilate offered the crowd a choice between Jesus of Nazareth and an insurrectionist named Barabbas. The crowd chose to have Barabbas freed and Jesus crucified. Pilate washed his hands to indicate that he was innocent of the injustice of the decision (Matthew 27:11–26). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x836, 41 KB)O JESUS WHAT DID U DO NOW! // Cristo de Velázquez. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x836, 41 KB)O JESUS WHAT DID U DO NOW! // Cristo de Velázquez. ... Crucifixion of St. ... For others named Velázquez, see Velazquez (disambiguation). ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ... Sedition is a term of law to refer to covert conduct such as speech and organization that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... Give us Barabbas!, from The Bible and its Story Taught by One Thousand Picture Lessons, 1910 In the Christian narrative of the Passion of Jesus, Barabbas, according to some texts Jesus bar-Abbas, (Aramaic Bar-abbâ, son of the father), was the insurrectionary whom Pontius Pilate freed at the Passover...


According to all four Gospels, Jesus died before late afternoon at Calvary, or Golgotha. The wealthy Judean Joseph of Arimathea, according to Mark and Luke a member of the Sanhedrin, received Pilate's permission to take possession of Jesus' body, placing it in a tomb.[23] According to John, Joseph was joined in burying Jesus by Nicodemus, who appears in other parts of John's gospel (John 19:38–42). The three Synoptic Gospels tell of the darkening of the sky from twelve until three that afternoon; Matthew also mentions an earthquake (Matthew 27:51). Calvary (Golgotha) is the English-language name given to the hill on which Jesus was crucified. ... Joseph of Arimathea, according to the Gospels, was the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ... An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ...


Resurrection and Ascension

Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c.: Resurrection of Jesus
Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c.: Resurrection of Jesus

According to the Gospels, Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion.[24] The Gospel of Matthew states that an angel appeared near the tomb of Jesus and announced his resurrection to the women who had arrived to anoint the body (Matthew 28:1-10). According to Luke it was two angels (Luke 24:4), and according to Mark it was a youth dressed in white (Mark 16:5). Mark states that on the morning of his resurrection, Jesus first appeared to Mary Magdalene (Mark 16:9). John states that when Mary looked into the tomb, two angels asked her why she was crying; and as she turned round she initially failed to recognize Jesus until he spoke her name (John 20:11-18). Download high resolution version (712x1185, 133 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (712x1185, 133 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Crucifixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528) is a highly regarded figure from the German Renaissance. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed, which states that Jesus descended into hell. It has been termed the most controversial in the Apostles Creed[1]. This phrase was probably the last to be added to the creed[2]. // Christs... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported by the Canonical Gospels to have occurred after the discovery of the empty tomb. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... Crucifixion of St. ... To anoint is to apply perfumed oil. ... The penitent Mary Magdalen, a much reproduced composition by Titian. ...


The Acts of the Apostles state that Jesus appeared to various people in various places over the next forty days. Hours after his resurrection, he appeared to two travelers on the road to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-35). To his assembled disciples he showed himself on the evening after his resurrection (John 20:19). Although his own ministry had been specifically to Jews, Jesus is said to have sent his apostles to the Gentiles with the Great Commission and ascended to heaven while a cloud concealed him from their sight. According to Acts, Paul of Tarsus also saw Jesus during his Road to Damascus experience. Jesus promised to come again to fulfill the remainder of Messianic prophecy.[25] The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Supper at Emmaus by Caravaggio, 1601 Emmaus is the name of two places in Palestine. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Road to Damascus is a Biblical reference to the conversion of a persecutor of Christians named Saul on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus in the Roman province of Syria in AD 36. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the... In Abrahamic religions, messianic prophecies describe the coming, acts, authority, personality, nature, etc. ...


Fulfillment of prophecy

According to the Gospels, Jesus' birth, life, death, and resurrection fulfilled many prophecies found in the Hebrew Bible. See, for example, the virgin birth, the flight into Egypt, Immanuel (Isaiah 7:14), the arrival of Elijah, and the suffering servant. Many Christians[citation needed] believe that the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) contains certain messianic prophecies of Jesus, or references that predict the coming of Jesus, being written well before his birth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Isaiah 53, taken from the Book of Isaiah, is the last of the four Songs of the Suffering Servant, and tells the story of The Suffering Servant. The passage is famous for its interpretation by some Christians to be prophesy of the coming of Jesus, being written over 700 years...


Historicity

Scholars use the historical method to develop probable reconstructions of Jesus' life. This is to be distinguished from the Biblical Jesus, which derives from a theological reading of the Gospel texts. A small minority of scholars dispute any historicity of Jesus. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The historicity of Jesus concerns the historical authenticity of Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Reconstructing a historical Jesus

Main articles: Historical Jesus and Cultural and historical background of Jesus

Secular historians generally describe Jesus as an itinerant preacher and leader of a religious movement within Judaism.[26] According to historical reconstruction, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist, taught in parables and aphorisms, challenged expectations of holiness and social hierarchy, and was crucified by the Romans. Historians are divided on whether Jesus led a career of healing and exorcism, whether he preached the imminent end of the world, and whether he intended to be crucified. This article is about Jesus the person, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... This article — a part of the Jesus and history series of articles — discusses the cultural and historical background of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, without regard to his divinity, or to his existence as an actual historical figure. ...


Most scholars agree the Gospels were written shortly before or after the destruction of the Jewish Temple by the Romans under Titus in the year 70. The historical outlook on Jesus relies on criticism of the Bible, especially the gospels. Many scholars have sought to reconstruct Jesus' life in terms of contemporaneous political, cultural, and religious currents in Israel, including differences between Galilee and Judea, and between different sects such the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes and Zealots.[27] and in terms of conflicts among Jews in the context of Roman occupation. Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... The sect of the Sadducees - from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the teachings... The Essenes (sg. ... Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and ones own cause. ...


Ties to religious groups

The Gospels record that Jesus was a Nazarene, but the meaning of this word is vague.[28] Some scholars assert that Jesus was himself a Pharisee.[29] In Jesus' day, the two main schools of thought among the Pharisees were the House of Hillel and the House of Shammai. Jesus' assertion of hypocrisy may have been directed against the stricter members of the House of Shammai, although he also agreed with their teachings on divorce (Mark 10:1–12).[30] Jesus also commented on the House of Hillel's teachings (Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 31a) concerning the greatest commandment (Mark 12:28–34) and the Golden Rule (Matt 7:12). Nazarene may refer to: an artist in the Nazarene movement a member of the Church of the Nazarene. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Hillel (הלל) was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of King Herod; he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud. ... The House of Shammai(Or Beit Shammai, beit is Hebrew for house) was the school of thought of Judaism founded by Shammai, a Jewish scholar of the 1st century. ... The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... The Shabbat table is set: two covered challahs, a kiddush cup, two candles, and flowers. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The hi niko ethic of reciprocity or Sup Zachhmo Golden Rule is a fundamental moral principle found in virtually all major religions and cultures, which simply means It is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rights. ...


Other scholars assert that Jesus was an Essene, a sect of Judaism not mentioned in the New Testament.[31] Still other scholars assert that Jesus led a new apocalyptic sect, possibly related to John the Baptist,[32] which became Early Christianity after the Great Commission spread his teachings to the Gentiles.[33] This is distinct from an earlier commission Jesus gave to the twelve Apostles, during his lifetime, limited to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel" and specifically excluding the Gentiles or Samaritans (Matt 10). The Essenes (Issiim) were a Jewish religious sect of Zadokites that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. The name Essene, itself, is either a version of the Greek word for Holy, or various Aramaic dialect words for pious, and is probably not what the... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Apocalypticism is a worldview based on the idea that important matters are esoteric in nature (hidden) and they will soon be revealed in a major confrontation of earth-shaking magnitude that will change the course of history. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... For the ethnic group of this name, see Samaritan. ...


Names and titles

According to most critical historians, Jesus probably lived in Galilee for most of his life and he probably spoke Aramaic and Hebrew. The name "Jesus" is an English transliteration of the Latin (Iēsus) which in turn comes from the Greek name Iesous (Ιησους). The name has also been translated into English as "Joshua."[34] Since most scholars hold that Jesus was an Aramaic-speaking Jew living in Galilee around 30 AD/CE, it is highly improbable that he had a Greek personal name. Further examination of the Septuagint finds that the Greek, in turn, is a transliteration of the Hebrew/Aramaic Yeshua (ישוע) (Yeshua—he will save) a contraction of Hebrew name Yehoshua (יהושוע YehoYahweh [is] shua`—help/salvation, usually Romanized as Joshua). As a result, scholars believe that one of these was most likely the name that Jesus was known by during his lifetime by his peers.[35] A large variety of names and titles are used in the New Testament to describe Jesus. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... For the article on the person, teaching, and acts of Jesus Christ, see the Jesus article. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This page is about Old Testament character. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tetragrammaton. ...


Christ (which is a title and not a part of his name) is an Anglicization of the Greek term for Messiah, and literally means "anointed one." Historians have debated what this title might have meant at the time Jesus lived; some historians have suggested that other titles applied to Jesus in the New Testament (e.g. Lord, Son of Man, and Son of God) had meanings in the first century quite different from those meanings ascribed today: see Names and titles of Jesus. Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... The phrase son of man is a primarily Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to denote humanity or self. ... A large variety of names and titles have been used to describe Jesus, many of which reflect various theological understandings or different beliefs about him. ...


Sources on Jesus' life

See also: Historicity of Jesus

Most modern Biblical scholars hold that the works describing Jesus were initially communicated by oral tradition, and were not committed to writing until several decades after Jesus' crucifixion. The earliest extant texts which refer to Jesus are Paul's letters, which are usually dated from the mid-1st century. Paul wrote that he only saw Jesus in visions, but that they were divine revelations and hence authoritative (Gal 1:11–12). The earliest extant texts describing Jesus in any detail were the four New Testament Gospels. These texts, being part of the Biblical canon, have received much more analysis and acceptance from Christian sources than other possible sources for information on Jesus. The historicity of Jesus concerns the historical authenticity of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... An extant text is a textual source that is still in existence and that is not extinct, destroyed or lost (extant). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ...


Many other early Christian texts detail events in Jesus' life and teachings, though they were not included when the Bible was canonized due to a belief that they were pseudepigraphical, not inspired, or written too long after his death, while others were suppressed because they contradicted Christian orthodoxy. It took several centuries before the list of what was and was not part of the Bible became finally fixed, and for much of the early period the Book of Revelation was not included while works like The Shepherd of Hermas were. A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and doxa (thought, teaching, glorification), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ...


Books that were not included are known as the New Testament apocrypha. These include the Gospel of Thomas, a collection of logia—phrases and sayings attributed to Jesus without a narrative framework, only rediscovered in the 20th century. Other important apocryphal works that had a heavy influence in forming traditional Christian beliefs include the Apocalypse of Peter, Protevangelium of James, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, and Acts of Peter. A number of Christian traditions (such as Veronica's veil and the Assumption of Mary) are found not in the canonical gospels but in these and other apocryphal works. In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ... Logia is a term applied to collections of sayings credited to Jesus and used as source materials by the Gospel writers in the writing of the familiar canonic narrative gospels. ... The recovered Apocalypse of Peter or Revelation of Peter is extant in two translations of a lost original, one Greek, one Ethiopic, which diverge considerably. ... The Gospel of James is an apocryphal gospel also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James probably written about 150 AD. The document presents itself as written by James: I, James, wrote this history in Jerusalem. ... The Infancy Gospel of Thomas is a non-canonical Christian text that was part of a popular genre of the 2nd and 3rd centuries— a miracle literature of Infancy gospels that was both entertaining and inspirational, written to satisfy a hunger for more miraculous and anecdotal stories of the childhood... One of the earliest of the apocryphal acts of the apostles, the Acts of Peter is one of the books in the New Testament Apocrypha. ... Abgar of Edessa in a 10th-century icon, displaying the miraculous image of Edessa, a veronica According to the Acta Sanctorum published by the Bollandists (under February 4), Saint Veronica or Berenice was a pious woman of Jerusalem, who moved with pity as Jesus carried his cross to Golgotha, gave... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ...


Possible earlier texts

Some texts with even earlier historical or mythological information on Jesus are speculated to have existed prior to the Gospels,[36] though none have been found. Based on the unusual similarities and differences (see synoptic problem) between the Synoptic GospelsMatthew, Mark and Luke, the first three canonical gospels — many Biblical scholars have suggested that oral tradition and logia (such as the Gospel of Thomas and the theoretical Q document)[37] probably played a strong role in initially passing down stories of Jesus, and may have inspired some of the Synoptic Gospels. The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark, ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is traditionally the second Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Logia is a term applied to collections of sayings credited to Jesus and used as source materials by the Gospel writers in the writing of the familiar canonic narrative gospels. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ...


Specifically, many scholars believe that the Q document and the Gospel of Mark were the two sources used for the gospels of Matthew and Luke; however, other theories, such as the older Augustinian hypothesis, continue to hold sway with some Biblical scholars. Another theoretical document is the Signs Gospel, believed to have been a source for the Gospel of John.[38] The Two-Source Hypothesis is the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem among biblical scholars, which posits that there are two sources to Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings collection called Q. The Two-Source Hypothesis was first... The Augustinian hypothesis holds that Matthew was written first, then Mark, then Luke, and each Evangelist depended on those who preceded him. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ...


There are also early noncanonical gospels which may predate the canonical Gospels, although few surviving fragments have been found. Among these are the Unknown Berlin Gospel, the Oxyrhynchus Gospels, the Egerton Gospel, the Fayyum Fragment, the Dialogue of the Saviour, the Gospel of the Ebionites, the Gospel of the Hebrews, and the Gospel of the Nazarenes. While the earliest surviving manuscripts and fragments of these texts are dated later than the earliest surviving manuscripts and fragments of the canonical Gospels, they are probably copies of earlier manuscripts whose precise dates are unknown. The Unknown Berlin Gospel is a fragmentary text considered a part of the New Testament apocrypha, which is also known as the Gospel of the Saviour. ... Two fragmentary manuscripts, the Oxyrhynchus Gospels with British Library accession numbers 840 and 1224, throw light on early non-canonical Gospel traditions of Christianity for scholars, but are ignored by most Christians, as they are extremely fragmentary. ... The Egerton Gospel (British Library Egerton Papyrus 2) refers to a group of fragments of a codex of a previously unknown gospel, found in Egypt and sold to the British Museum in 1934 and now dated to the very end of the 2nd century AD. It is one of the... The Fayyum Fragment is a papyrus fragment containing text that could form part of the New Testament, and consists of only about 100 Greek letters. ... The Dialogue of the Saviour is one of the New Testament apocrypha texts that was found within the Nag Hammadi collection of predominantly gnostic texts. ... The Gospel of the Ebionites is a text sharing an affinity with the Gospel of the Hebrews and the Gospel of the Nazarenes. ... The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...


Questions of reliability

As a result of the likely several-decade time gap between the writing of the Gospels and the events they describe, the accuracy of all early texts claiming the existence of Jesus or details of Jesus' life have been disputed by various parties. The authors of the Gospels are traditionally thought to have been witnesses to the events included. After the original oral stories were written down, they were transcribed, and later translated into other languages. Several Biblical historians have responded to claims of the unreliability of the gospel accounts by pointing out that historical documentation is often biased and second-hand, and frequently dates from several decades after the events described. For example, Paul Barnett pointed out that "scholars of ancient history have always recognized the 'subjectivity' factor in their available sources" and "have so few sources available compared to their modern counterparts that they will gladly seize whatever scraps of information that are at hand." He noted that modern history and ancient history are two separate disciplines, with differing methods of analysis and interpretation. [39] Dr. Paul Barnett was the Anglican Bishop of North Sydney from 1990 to 2001. ... Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The terms Modern World, Modern Period, New World, Modern Times, Progressive Age, Modern Age, or Modern Era are recognized by historians as being that period of time commencing after the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, after the mid-18th century. ... Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ...


The Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution brought skepticism regarding the historical accuracy of these texts. Although some critical scholars, including archaeologists, continue to use them as points of reference in the study of ancient Near Eastern history,[40] others have come to view the texts as cultural and literary documents, generally regarding them as part of the genre of literature called hagiography, an account of a holy person regarded as representing a moral and divine ideal. Hagiography has a principal aim of the glorification of the religion itself and of the example set by the perfect holy person represented as its central focus. The Age of Enlightenment (French: Siècle des Lumières, German: Aufklärung) refers to the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... // The event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


The views of scholars who entirely reject Jesus' historicity are summarized in the chapter on Jesus in Will Durant's Caesar and Christ; it is based on: a suggested lack of eyewitness, a lack of direct archaeological evidence, the failure of certain ancient works to mention Jesus, and alleged similarities between early Christianity and contemporary mythology.[41] William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ...


Those who have a naturalistic view of history generally do not believe in divine intervention or miracles, such as the resurrection of Jesus mentioned by the Gospels. One method used to estimate the factual accuracy of stories in the gospels is known as the "criterion of embarrassment," which holds that stories about events with embarrassing aspects (such as the denial of Jesus by Peter, or the fleeing of Jesus' followers after his arrest) would likely not have been included if those accounts were fictional [42]. Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that do not distinguish the supernatural (including strange entities like non-natural values, and universals as they are commonly conceived) from nature. ... For the U.S. hockey teams victory in the 1980 Winter Olympics, see Miracle on Ice, or Miracle (movie) According to many religions, a miracle is an intervention by God in the universe. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Saint Peter, also known as Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha — original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ...


Possible external influence

See also: Historicity of Jesus, Historical Jesus, and Cultural and historical background of Jesus
Vatican mosaic (3rd c.): Sol Invictus
Vatican mosaic (3rd c.): Sol Invictus

Some scholars believe that the gospel accounts of Jesus have little or no historical basis. At least in part, this is because they see many similarities between stories about Jesus and older myths of pagan god-men such as Mithras, Attis and Osiris-Dionysus, leading to conjectures that the pagan myths were adopted by some authors of early accounts of Jesus to form a syncretism with Christianity. A small minority, such as Earl Doherty, carry this further and propose that the gospels are actually a reworking of non-Abrahamic myths and not based on a historical figure. Some Christian authors, such as Justin Martyr and C.S. Lewis, account for these similarities with the belief that the myths were created by ancient pagans with vague and imprecise foreknowledge of the Biblical texts; in other words the pagans gave prophetic attributes of the Messiah as thought in the Pentateuch and Prophets to their particular deity. Lewis wrote that Christianity would be less believable if it did not have themes in common with said pagan myths. The historicity of Jesus concerns the historical authenticity of Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about Jesus the person, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... This article — a part of the Jesus and history series of articles — discusses the cultural and historical background of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, without regard to his divinity, or to his existence as an actual historical figure. ... Image File history File links ChristAsSol. ... Image File history File links ChristAsSol. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the undefeated Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Heathen redirects here. ... Mithras and the Bull: fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy, (3rd century AD) Mithras was the central god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from... Attis, a life-death-rebirth deity, was both the son and the lover of Cybele, her eunuch attendant and driver of her lion-driven chariot; he was driven mad by her and castrated himself. ... The term Osiris-Dionysus is used by some historians of religion to refer to a group of deities worshipped around the Mediterranean in the centuries prior to the birth of Jesus. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... Earl Doherty, currently living in Canada, is the author of The Jesus Puzzle, a work published in 2000 by the Canadian Humanist Association arguing that Jesus never lived. ... Jesus as Myth refers to the idea that the narrative of Jesus in the gospels may be considered as part of Christian mythology, and shows parallels to mystery religions of the Roman Empire such as Mithraism, and the myth of rebirth deities. ... Justin Martyr (Justin the Martyr, also known as Justin of Caesarea) (100 – 165) was an early Christian apologist. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Prophecy in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events or the speaking of divine words (divine Revelation) through chosen human messengers (prophets). ...


Many scholars disagree with the view that the stories about Jesus were adapted from older myths. In 1962, Judaism scholar Samuel Sandmel cautioned against this practice and adapted the term 'Parallelomania' to describe it. "We might for our purposes define parallelomania as that extravagance among scholars which first overdoes the supposed similarity in passages and then proceeds to describe source and derivation as if implying a literary connection flowing in an inevitable or predetermined direction."[43] In the book Reinventing Jesus, the authors put forth the position that "Only after 100 A.D. did the mysteries begin to look very much like Christianity, precisely because their existence was threatened by this new religion. They had to compete to survive."[44] Other scholars, such as Michael Grant, also do not see significant similarity between the pagan myths and Christianity. Grant states in Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels that "Judaism was a milieu to which doctrines of the deaths and rebirths, of mythical gods seemed so entirely foreign that the emergence of such a fabrication from its midst is very hard to credit."[45] Michael Grant (21 November 1914 – 9 August 2004) was a trained classicist who was one of the few classical historians to win respect from academics and a lay readership. ...


Religious perspectives

Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ...

Christian views

Part of a series of articles on
Christianity
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church · Christian Theology
New Covenant · Supersessionism
Apostles · Kingdom · Gospel
History of Christianity · Timeline
Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... “Apostle” redirects here. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. ...


Bible
Old Testament · New Testament
Books · Canon · Apocrypha
Septuagint · Decalogue
Birth · Resurrection
Sermon on the Mount
Great Commission
Translations · English
Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


Christian Theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of · Theology · Apologetics
Creation · Fall of Man · Covenant · Law
Grace · Faith · Justification · Salvation
Sanctification · Theosis · Worship
Church · Sacraments · Eschatology
Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity. ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys fall from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favor of God for humankind, as manifest in the blessings bestowed upon all —irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the existence of God, who created the universe. ... In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine), is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


History and Traditions
Early · Councils · Creeds · Missions
Great Schism · Crusades · Reformation
Great Awakenings · Great Apostasy
Restorationism · Nontrinitarianism
Thomism · Arminianism
Congregationalism Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... The Great Apostasy is a term of opprobrium used by some religious groups to allege a general fallen state of traditional Christianity, or especially of Catholicism, reformist Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy: that it is not representative of the faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles: in short... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to unaffiliated religious movements that attempted to circumvent Protestant denominationalism and orthodox Christian creeds to restore Christianity to their constructions of its original form. ... Nontrinitarianism is any of various Christian beliefs that reject the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being, (the Trinity). ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Eastern Christianity
Eastern Orthodox · Oriental Orthodox
Syriac Christianity · Eastern Catholic
Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ...


Western Christianity
Western Catholicism · Protestantism
Anabaptism · Lutheranism · Calvinism
Anglicanism · Baptist
Methodism · Evangelicalism
Liberalism · Fundamentalism
Adventism · Pentecostalism
Mormonism · Christian Science
Jehovah's Witness · Unity Church
Western Christianity comprises Catholicism, Anglicanism, Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers [1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe how the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, the Anglican Communion. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to religious practices and traditions which are found in conservative, almost always Protestant Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, the virgin birth... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... Mormonism is a term to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (First published in 1875). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Topics in Christianity
Movements · Denominations
Ecumenism Preaching · Prayer
Music · Liturgy · Calendar
Symbols · Art · Criticism
Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


Important Figures
Apostle Paul · Church Fathers
Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine
Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe
Luther · Calvin · Wesley · Pope Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... This article covers the events of, reaction to, and historical legacy of Roman Emperor Constantine Is promotion, legitimization, and conversion to Christianity. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ...

Christianity Portal

This box: view  talk  edit

Though Christian views of Jesus vary, it is possible to describe a general majority Christian view by examining the similarities between Catholic, Orthodox, and certain Protestant doctrines found in their catechetical or confessional texts.[46] This view, given below as the Principal view, does not encompass all groups which describe themselves as Christian, with other views immediately following. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ... Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching. ...


Principal view

Jesus Carrying the Cross, El Greco, 1580.
Jesus Carrying the Cross, El Greco, 1580.

Christians predominately profess that Jesus is the Messiah (Greek: Christos; English: Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament,[47] who, through his life, death, and resurrection, restored humanity’s communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as the redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's salvation and the atonement for sin,[48] which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.[49] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x1300, 166 KB) Christ Carrying the Cross as portrayed by EL GRECO - Domenikos Theotokopoulos 1580 Uploaded to en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x1300, 166 KB) Christ Carrying the Cross as portrayed by EL GRECO - Domenikos Theotokopoulos 1580 Uploaded to en. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys fall from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... According to Christian tradition, original sin is the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born (Psalm 51:5). ...


They profess Jesus to be the only Son of God, the Lord,[50] and the eternal Word (which is a translation of the Greek Logos),[51] who became man in the incarnation,[52] so that those who believe in him might have eternal life.[53] They further hold that he was born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit in an event described as the miraculous virgin birth.[54] In his life Jesus proclaimed the "good news" (Middle English: gospel; Greek: euangelion) that the coming Kingdom of Heaven was at hand,[55] and established the Christian Church, which is the seed of the kingdom, into which Jesus calls the poor in spirit.[56] Jesus' actions at the Last Supper, where he instituted the Eucharist, are understood as central to communion with God and remembrance of Jesus' sacrifice.[57] Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... Look up logos, λόγος in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The doctrine of the Incarnation of Christ is central to the traditional Christian faith as held by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and most Protestants (some Protestant denominations do not hold the doctrine of the Trinity). ... Our Lady redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... The term Christian Church, or Catholic Church, as it was known by Christians beginning in the second century, expresses the idea that organised Christianity (the Christian religion) is seen as an institution. ... The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Christians also predominately profess that Jesus suffered death by crucifixion,[58] descended into Hell (variously understood as either the place of eternal punishment or place of the dead),[59] and rose bodily from the dead in the definitive miracle that foreshadows the resurrection of humanity at the end of time,[60] when Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead, resulting in election to Heaven or damnation to Hell.[61] Crucifixion of St. ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed, which states that Jesus descended into hell. It has been termed the most controversial in the Apostles Creed[1]. This phrase was probably the last to be added to the creed[2]. // Christs... // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ...


The nature of Jesus was theologically articulated and refined by a series of seven ecumenical councils, between 325 and 681 (see Christology). These councils described Jesus as one of the three divine hypostases or persons of the Holy Trinity: the Son is defined as constituting, together with God the Father and the Holy Spirit, the single substance of the One God.[62] Furthermore, Jesus is defined to be one person with a fully human and a fully divine nature, a doctrine known as the Hypostatic union[63] (an articulation not accepted by Oriental Orthodoxy, see Nestorianism, Monophysitism and Miaphysitism). In defense of Jesus' divinity, some apologists argue that there is a trilemma, or three possibilities, resulting from Jesus' reported claims that he is the one God of Israel:[64] either he is truly God, a liar, or a lunatic — the latter two dismissed on the basis of Jesus' coherence.[65] In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Miaphysitism is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... The term trilemma derives from the much older term dilemma, a choice between two unacceptable options. ...


Alternative views

See also: Nontrinitarianism

Current religious groups that do not accept the doctrine of the Trinity include the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and Jehovah's Witnesses. Non-Trinitarian groups from history included Unitarians, and from antiquity, Arians. Nontrinitarianism is any of various Christian beliefs that reject the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being, (the Trinity). ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ...


Latter-day Saints theology maintains that the Heavenly Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost are three separate and distinct beings, though all eternal and equally divine, who together constitute the Godhead. Though described as "one God in purpose," each play different roles: the Holy Ghost is a spirit without a physical body, the Father and Son possess distinct, perfected, bodies of flesh and bone. The Book of Mormon records that the resurrected Jesus visited and taught some of the inhabitants of the early Americas after he appeared to his apostles in Jerusalem.[66] Mormons also believe that an apostasy occurred after the death of Christ and his apostles. They believe that Christ and the Heavenly Father appeared to Joseph Smith in 1820 as part of a series of heavenly visits to restore the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ. They believe Jesus (not the Father) is the same as Jehovah or Yahweh of the Old Testament. See Jesus in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... In Christianity, the Godhead is a unit consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ (the Son), and the Holy Spirit. ... The Book of Mormon[1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement, named after the prophet/historian Mormon who, according to the text, compiled most of the book. ... The Great Apostasy is a term of opprobrium used by some religious groups to allege a general fallen state of traditional Christianity, or especially of Catholicism, reformist Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy: that it is not representative of the faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles: in short... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Jehovah is an English transcription of יְהֹוָה, a specific vocalized spelling of יהוה which is found in the Masoretic Text. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tetragrammaton. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ...


Jehovah's Witnesses believe Jesus to be God's (or Jehovah's) son, but rather than being God himself, Jehovah's Witnesses believe he was the same divine creature as Michael the Archangel, and that he became a perfect human to come down to earth.[67] They view the term "Son of God" as an indication of Jesus' importance to the creator and his status as God's "only-begotten (unique) Son,"[68] the "firstborn of all creation,"[69] the one "of whom, and through whom, and to whom, are all things."[70] Lastly, they believe that Jesus died on a single-piece torture stake, not a cross.[71]


Others believe that the one God, who revealed himself in the Old Testament as Jehovah, came to earth, taking on the human form of Jesus Christ. They believe Jesus is Jehovah, is the Holy Spirit, and is the one Person who is God. Examples of such churches today are Oneness Pentecostals and the New Church. An offshoot of the Pentecostal branch of Christianity, Oneness Pentecostals believe that there is one God with no essential divisions in His nature (such as a trinity) . He is not a plurality of persons, but He does have a plurality of manifestations, roles, titles, attributes, or relationships to man. ... Swedenborgianism is a term based on the ecclesiastical organization of certain beliefs relating to Emanuel Swedenborgs writings and, as such, is considered a religious movement by some. ...


Other early views

Various early Christian groups and theologians held differing views of Jesus. The Ebionites, an early Jewish Christian community, believed that Jesus was the last of the prophets and the Messiah. They believed that Jesus was the natural-born son of Mary and Joseph, and thus they rejected the Virgin Birth. The Ebionites were adoptionists, believing that Jesus was not divine, but became the son of God at his baptism. They rejected the Epistles of Paul, believing that Jesus kept the Mosaic Law perfectly and wanted his followers to do the same. However, they felt that Jesus' crucifixion was the ultimate sacrifice, and thus animal sacrifices were no longer necessary. Therefore, some Ebionites were vegetarian and considered both Jesus and John the Baptist to have been vegetarians.[72] The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... The Ebionites (from Hebrew; אביונים, Ebyonim, the poor ones) were an early sect of mostly Jewish followers of Jesus, which flourished in the early centuries of the Common Era, one of several ancient Jewish Christian groups that co-existed from the 1st to the 5th century CE in and around the... Jewish Christians (sometimes called also Hebrew Christians or Christian Jews, but see below for differences) is a term which can have two meanings, an historical one and a contemporary one. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous and serves as an intermediary with humanity for the divine. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... Adoptionism or adoptianism is an attempt to explain how Jesus is related God (that is, it was one option that arose in the Trinitarian controversies of the early church). ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded...


In Gnosticism, Jesus is said to have brought the secret knowledge (gnosis) of the spiritual world necessary for salvation.[73] Their secret teachings were paths to gnosis, and not gnosis itself. While some Gnostics were docetics, other Gnostics believed that Jesus was a human who became possessed by the spirit of Christ during his baptism.[74] Many Gnostics believed that Christ was an Aeon sent by a higher deity than the evil demiurge who created the material world. Some Gnostics believed that Christ had a syzygy named Sophia. The Gnostics tended to interpret the books that were included in the New Testament as allegory, and some Gnostics interpreted Jesus himself as an allegory. The Gnostics also used a number of other texts that did not become part of the New Testament canon. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Christianity, Docetism is the belief, regarded by most theologians as heretical, that Jesus did not have a physical body; rather, that his body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion. ... The Latin word æon means forever. ... Within certain variations of Gnosticism, especially those inspired by Monoimus, the Monad was the highest God which created lesser gods, or elements (similar to aeons). ... The Demiurge, in some belief systems, is a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... Look up Syzygy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Gnostic Christians, the Sophia was a central element in their cosmological understanding of the Universe. ... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than (and in addition to) the literal. ... Gnosticism used a number of religious texts that are preserved, in part or whole, in ancient manuscripts or are lost but mentioned critically in Patristic writings. ...


Marcionites were 2nd century Gentile followers of the Christian theologian Marcion of Sinope. They believed that Jesus rejected the Jewish Scriptures, or at least the parts that were incompatible with his teachings.[75] Seeing a stark contrast between the vengeful God of the Old Testament and the loving God of Jesus, Marcion came to the conclusion that the Jewish God and Jesus were two separate deities. Like some Gnostics, Marcionites saw the Jewish God as the evil creator of the world, and Jesus as the savior from the material world. They also believed Jesus was not human, but instead a completely divine spiritual being whose material body, and thus his crucifixion and death, were divine illusions. Marcion was the first known early Christian to have created a canon, which consisted of ten Pauline epistles, and a version of the Gospel of Luke (possibly without the first two chapters that are in modern versions, and without Jewish references),[76] and his treatise on the Antithesis between the Old and New Testaments. Marcionism was declared a heresy by proto-orthodox Christianity. Marcionism is a sect founded in A.D. 144 at Rome by Marcion of Sinope. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Marcionism. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... In Christianity, Docetism is the belief, regarded by most theologians as heretical, that Jesus did not have a physical body; rather, that his body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marcions Gospel of the Lord was a text used by the mid- 2nd-century Christian teacher to the exclusion of the other gospels, and now its reconstructed fragments appear among the New Testament apocrypha. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...


Montanists in the 2nd century and Sabellius in the 3rd century taught that the Trinity represented not three persons but a single person in three "modes." Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Sabellius was a third century priest and theologian. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first...


Islamic views

In Islam, Jesus (known as Isa in Arabic, Arabic: عيسى), is considered one of God's most-beloved and important prophets and the Messiah.[77] He is one of five messengers (rusul), and one of the five "Resolute" prophets. The Hadith states that Jesus will return to the world in the flesh following Imam Mahdi to defeat the Dajjal (an Antichrist-like figure, translated as "Deceiver"),[78] though some Islamic scholars regard these verses as unreliable and false.[79][80][81][82] . As in the Christian nativity accounts, the 7th-century Qur'an holds that Jesus was born without a biological father to the virgin Mary, by the will of God (in Arabic, Allah). He is referred to as Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), a matronymic, as he had no biological father. (Qur'an 3:45, 19:21, 19:35, 21:91) In Muslim traditions, Jesus lived a perfect life of nonviolence, showing kindness to humans and animals (similar to the other Islamic prophets), without material possessions, and abstaining from sin.[83] Most Muslims believe that Jesus abstained from alcohol[citation needed], and many believe that he also abstained from eating animal flesh. Similarly, Islamic belief also holds that Jesus could perform miracles, but only by the will of God.[84] Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God and the Messiah. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: ‎ `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad al-Mahdi (868 - ?) is the twelfth and final Imam of the Shia. ... al-Dajjal (Arabic: الدّجّال, al-dajjāl) (The Deceiver/impostor) is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology, who will appear before Yawm al-Qiyamah (Resurrection Day). ... For the Gorgoroth album, see Antichrist (album) Antichrist is translated from the Greek αντίχριστος antíkhristos, which literally means opposite of Christ. A broader meaning is in place of Christ. Therefore, antichrist means opposed to Christ by being in the place of Christ. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Allah (disambiguation). ... A matronymic is a personal name based on the name of ones mother. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. ...


Muslims, however, do not believe Jesus to have divine nature as God nor as the Son of God. The Qu'ran warns against believing that Jesus was divine (Qu'ran 3:59, 4:171, 5:116-117). Muslims believe that Jesus received a gospel from God called the Injil in Arabic that corresponds to the Christian New Testament, but that parts of it have been misinterpreted over time so that they no longer accurately represent God's message (See Tahrif).[85] A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Injil (Arabic إنجيل , also transcribed Injeel) is one of the four Islamic Holy Books the Quran records as revealed by Allah - the others being the Zabur, Tawrat, and Quran. ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ...


Muslims also do not believe in Jesus' sacrificial role, and the Qur'an states that Jesus was not killed on the cross. In fact, Islam does not accept any human sacrifice for sin (See Islamic conceptions of atonement for sin for further information). Regarding the crucifixion, the Qur'an against the Jews who claimed "we slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God," categorically states that "yet they did not slay him, neither crucified him, only a likeness of that was shown to them." (Qur'an 4:157-158)[86] The Muslim tradition completes the statement of the Qur'an: Some traditions say Christ was replaced by a double, and according to others it was Simon of Cyrene or one of the Apostles (Judas).[86] However certain Islamic philosophers and some Ismaili commentators have interpreted the relevant verse differently: "the Jews intended to destroy the person of Jesus completely; in fact, they crucified only his nasut, his lahut remained alive"[86] (see Muslim and Christian interpretation of death of Jesus for a comparison between the further religious interpretations of the death of Jesus). Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. ... Main articles: Islamic views of Jesus and Death of Jesus The issue of Jesus death is important to Muslims because it differentiates their concept of Jesus from Christians, to whom the death of Jesus is paramount. ...


Ahmadiyya Views

The Ahmadiyya Movement (a religious movement that originated from Islam, with a small number of followers) believes that Jesus survived the crucifixion and travelled to Kashmir, where he died as a prophet under the name of Yuz Asaf (whose grave they identify in Srinagar, India).[87] Muslims, however, do not subscribe to this view. Ahmadis (Urdu: ‎ Ahmadiyya), is the collective name given to the two distinct groups (The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement) comprising of followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (d. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Yuz Asaf (یوذسف) ( युझ असफ ) (or Yus Asaph, or Shahzada Nabi Hazrat Yura Asaf) is believed by Ahmadis to be the name adopted by Jesus after he allegedly survived the crucifixion and subsequently traveled to Kashmir. ... Srinagar (Hindi: श्रीनगर, Urdu: سرینگر, Kashmiri: سِرېنَگَر सिरीनगर) , is the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India, and is situated in the valley of Kashmir. ...


Judaism's view

Judaism holds the idea of Jesus being God, or part of a Trinity, or a mediator to God, to be heresy.(Emunoth ve-Deoth, II:5) Judaism also holds that Jesus is not the Messiah, arguing that he had not fulfilled the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh nor embodied the personal qualifications of the Messiah.[88] Judaisms view of Jesus per se reflects Jewish views of eschatology, the characteristics of the Messiah, the gift of prophecy, and the cosmological nature of God, which are derived from the Torah and Biblical prophecies expressed by Isaiah, Ezekiel, and others from Biblical times through the destruction of Solomon... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Emunoth ve-Deoth (אמונות ודעות; Hebrew: Beliefs and Opinions) written by Rabbi Saadia Gaon - originally Kitab al-Amanat wal-ltikadat (Book of the Articles of Faith and Doctrines of Dogma) - was the first systematic presentation and philosophic foundation of the dogmas of Judaism. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... Messianic prophecies in the Jewish Tanach (also known as the Christian Old Testament) foretell the coming of the Messiah. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ...


The Mishneh Torah (an authoritative work of Jewish law) states: The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...

Even Jesus the Nazarene who imagined that he would be Messiah and was killed by the court, was already prophesied by Daniel. So that it was said, “And the members of the outlaws of your nation would be carried to make a (prophetic) vision stand. And they stumbled” (Daniel 11.14). Because, is there a greater stumbling-block than this one? So that all of the prophets spoke that the Messiah redeems Israel, and saves them, and gathers their banished ones, and strengthens their commandments. And this one caused (nations) to destroy Israel by sword, and to scatter their remnant, and to humiliate them, and to exchange the Torah, and to make the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God. However, the thoughts of the Creator of the world — there is no force in a human to attain them because our ways are not God's ways, and our thoughts not God's thoughts. And all these things of Jesus the Nazarene, and of (Muhammad) the Ishmaelite who stood after him — there is no (purpose) but to straighten out the way for the King Messiah, and to restore all the world to serve God together. So that it is said, “Because then I will turn toward the nations (giving them) a clear lip, to call all of them in the name of God and to serve God (shoulder to shoulder as) one shoulder” (Zephaniah 3.9). Look how all the world already becomes full of the things of the Messiah, and the things of the Torah, and the things of the commandments! And these things spread among the far islands and among the many nations uncircumcised of heart. (Hilkhot Melakhim 11:10–12)[89]

Reform Judaism, the modern progressive movement, states For us in the Jewish community anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate. (Contemporary American Reform Responsa, #68).[90] In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyel, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous and serves as an intermediary with humanity for the divine. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Expulsion of Ishmael and His Mother. ... Tora redirects here. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ...


According to Jewish tradition, there were no more prophets after 420 BC/BCE, Malachi being the last prophet, who lived centuries before Jesus. Judaism states that Jesus did not fulfill the requirements set by the Torah to prove that he was a prophet. Even if Jesus had produced such a sign that Judaism recognized, Judaism states that no prophet or dreamer can contradict the laws already stated in the Torah, which Judaism states Jesus did. (Devarim 13:1–5)[91] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC 421 BC - 420 BC - 419 BC 418 BC... Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. ... Tora redirects here. ...


Buddhist views

Further information: Christianity and Buddhism

Buddhists' views of Jesus differ, since Jesus is not mentioned in any Buddhist text. Some Buddhists, including Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama[92] regard Jesus as a bodhisattva who dedicated his life to the welfare of human beings. Some Buddhist scholars have noted parallels between the teachings of Jesus and Gautama Buddha both in terms of preaching a doctrine of love and compassion and of occupying a similar position with respect to the existing religious orthodoxy of their day of which they were both critical. Both advocated radical alterations in the common religious practices of the day. There are occasional similarities in language, such as the use of the common metaphor of a line of blind men to refer to religious authorities they disagreed with (DN 13.15, Matthew 15:14). Some believe there is a particularly close affinity between Buddhism (or Eastern spiritual thought generally) and the doctrine of Gnostic texts such as The Gospel of Thomas[93] Parallels between Christianity and Buddhism have been noted across the ages by scholars but are now being more widely appreciated as individuals search accessible Buddhist scriptures in ancient and modern languages. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Tenzin Gyatso (Tibetan: བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་; Wylie: Bstan-dzin Rgya-mtsho) (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama, and as such, is often referred to in Western media simply as the Dalai Lama, without any qualifiers. ... In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: púsà; Japanese: 菩薩 bosatsu; Korean: ë³´ì‚´ bosal ; Tibetan changchub sempa (byang-chub sems-dpa); Vietnamese: Bồ Tát; Thai: พระโพธิสัตว์) is a being who is dedicated to assisting all sentient beings in achieving complete Buddhahood. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Hindu views

Hindu beliefs about Jesus vary. Some believe that Jesus was a normal man. Many Hindus see Jesus as a wise guru or yogi who was not God. Many in the Surat Shabd Yoga tradition regard Jesus as a Satguru. Swami Vivekananda has praised Jesus and cited him as a source of strength and the epitome of perfection.[94] Paramahansa Yogananda taught that Jesus was the reincarnation of Elisha and a student of John the Baptist, the reincarnation of Elijah.[95] Mahatma Gandhi considered Jesus one of his main teachers and inspirations for Nonviolent Resistance, saying "I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ."[96] Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Guru - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that yogin be merged into this article or section. ... Surat Shabd Yoga or Surat Shabda Yoga is a form of spiritual practice that is followed in the Sant Mat and many other related spiritual traditions. ... Satguru or Sadguru means true guru (Sanskrit सदगुरू sat=true), literally: true teacher. ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: স্বামী বিবেকানন্দ Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: নরেন্দ্রনাথ দত্ত Nôrendronath Dotto), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism and India. ... Paramahansa Yogananda (Bengali: পরমহংস যোগানন্দ Pôromôhongsho Joganondo, Hindi: परमहंस योगानन्‍द; January 5, 1893–March 7, 1952), was an Indian yogi and guru. ... Elisha (אֱלִישַׁע My God is salvation, Standard Hebrew Elišaʿ, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîšaʿ) is the name of a Biblical prophet. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without using violence. ...


Bahá'í views

The Bahá'í Faith considers Jesus, along with Muhammad, the Buddha, and others, to be "Manifestations" (or prophets) of God, with both human and divine stations. While some Bahá'í views of Jesus agree with Christian views, Christians do not accept the Bahá'í view of Jesus.[97] Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Media:Example. ... The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called Prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ...


Mandaean views

Mandaeanism regards Jesus as a deceiving prophet (mšiha kdaba) of the false Jewish god of the Old Testament, Adonai,[98] and an opponent of the good prophet John the Baptist. Even so, they believe that John baptized Jesus. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded...


Other views

The New Age movement entertains a wide variety of views on Jesus, often recognizing him as a "great teacher" (or Ascended Master") similar to Buddha. Some (such as A Course In Miracles) claim to go so far as to trance-channel his spirit. However, the New Age movement generally teaches that Christhood is something that all may attain. Many New Age teachings such as reincarnation appear to reflect a certain discomfort with traditional Christianity. Numerous New Age subgroups claim Jesus as a supporter, often incorporating contrasts with or protests against the Christian mainstream. Thus, for example, Theosophy and its offshoots have Jesus studying esotericism in the Himalayas or Egypt during his "lost years." New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Media:Example. ... Second hardbound edition of A Course in Miracles, as published by Foundation for Inner Peace. ... Channeling is the communication of information to or through a physically embodied human being, from a source that is said to exist on some other level or dimension of reality than the physical, and that is not from the normal mind (or self) of the channel. ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... Emblem of the Theosophical Society (Adyar) described at [1] Theosophy, literally wisdom of the divine (in the Greek language), designates several bodies of ideas. ... Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


There are many non-religious people who emphasize Jesus' moral teachings. Garry Wills argues that Jesus' ethics are distinct from those usually taught by Christianity.[99] The Jesus Seminar[100] portrays Jesus as an itinerant preacher (Matt 4:23), who taught peace (Matt 5:9) and love (Matt 5:44), rights for women (Luke 10:42) and respect for children (Matt 19:14), and who spoke out against the hypocrisy of religious leaders (Luke 13:15) and the rich (Matt 19:24). Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers that many consider to have been a deist, created a "Jefferson Bible" for the Indians entitled "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" that included only Jesus' ethical teachings. Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934) is a celebrated author and historian, and a frequent contributor to the New York Review of Books. ... The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about two hundred New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ... This article is becoming very long. ... ... Deism is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... The Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth as it is formally titled, was an attempt by Thomas Jefferson to glean the teachings of Jesus from the Christian Gospels. ...


Philosopher Bertrand Russell saw Jesus' teachings and values as surpassed by other philosophers; Russell writes 'I cannot myself feel that either in the matter of wisdom or in the matter of virtue Christ stands quite as high as some other people known to History. I think I should put Buddha and Socrates above Him in those respects.'[101] Friedrich Nietzsche saw Socrates and Jesus as foundational to Western culture and criticized them both. He considered Jesus' concern for the weak to be a reversal of noble morality (see The Antichrist) and accused Christianity of spreading the concept of equal rights for all (which he despised)[102]. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 to August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philosopher. ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... The Antichrist (Der Antichrist) is a German philosophical book by Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1895. ...


Legacy

Pietà, Michelangelo, 16th c.: Jesus' mother Mary holds the body of her dead son
Further information: Images of Jesus, Cultural depictions of Jesus, and Anno Domini

According to most Christian interpretations of the Bible, the theme of Jesus' teachings was that of repentance, unconditional love[103], forgiveness of sin, grace, and the coming of the Kingdom of God.[104] Jesus extensively trained disciples who, after his death, spread his teachings. Within a few decades his followers comprised a religion clearly distinct from Judaism. Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire under a version known as Nicene Christianity and became the state religion under Constantine the Great. Over the centuries, it spread to most of Europe, and around the world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1660, 636 KB) Summary Michelangelos Pietà, St. ... The Pietà (1498–1499) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ... Jesus has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly two millenniums. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Brotherly love redirects here. ... Hello this is all crapBold textForgiveness is the mental, emotional and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution[]. Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favor of God for humankind, as manifest in the blessings bestowed upon all —irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Constantine. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Jesus has been drawn, painted, sculpted, and portrayed on stage and in films in many different ways, both serious and humorous. The figure of Jesus features prominently in art and literature. A number of popular novels, such as The Da Vinci Code, have also portrayed various ideas about Jesus, and a number of films, such as The Passion of the Christ, have portrayed his life, death, and resurrection. Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have become part of the culture of Western civilization. There are many items purported to be relics of Jesus, of which the most famous are the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo. There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jesus in popular culture. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Passion of the Christ (2004) is an Academy Award nominated film about the last twelve hours of the life of Jesus Christ, known to Christians as The Passion. Directed by Mel Gibson, it was nominated for three Academy Awards: best cinematography, best makeup, and best original score. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... There are many relics of Jesus that people believe or believed to be authentic relics of the Gospel accounts. ... The first photo of the Shroud of Turin, taken in 1898, had the surprising feature that the image on the negative was clearer than the positive image. ... The Sudarium of Oviedo is a bloodstained cloth kept in Oviedo, Spain and claimed to be the cloth that was wrapped around the head of Jesus of Nazareth after he died. ...


Other legacies include a view of God as more lovingly parental, merciful, and more forgiving, and the growth of a belief in a blissful afterlife and in the resurrection of the dead. His teaching promoted the value of those who had commonly been regarded as inferior: women, the poor, ethnic outsiders, children, prostitutes, the sick, prisoners, etc. For over a thousand years, countless hospitals, orphanages, and schools have been founded explicitly in Jesus' name. Jesus and his message have been interpreted, explained and understood by many people. Jesus has been explained notably by Paul of Tarsus, the Church Fathers, including Augustine of Hippo, Martin Luther, and more recently by C.S. Lewis and Pope John Paul II. Thomas Jefferson considered Jesus' teaching to be "the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man."[105] For the Notorious B.I.G. Album, see Life After Death. ... // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni Paolo II), born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic... This article is becoming very long. ...


For some Jews, the legacy of Jesus has been a history of Christian antisemitism,[106] although in the wake of the Holocaust many Christian groups have gone to considerable lengths to reconcile with Jews and to promote interfaith dialog and mutual respect. For others, Christianity has often been linked to Atlantic slave trade and European colonialism (see British Empire, Portuguese Empire, Spanish Empire, French colonial empire, Dutch colonial empire).[107] Conversely, some have argued that through Bartolomé de las Casas defense of the indigenous inhabitants of Spain's New World empire, one of the legacies of Jesus has been the notion of universal human rights. It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Atlantic slave trade, started by the Portuguese,[1] was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dutch Empire. ... Bartolomé de Las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ...


See also

Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the... This is a list of written works with information or interpretations of the life and teachings of Jesus. ... Nazarene may refer to: an artist in the Nazarene movement a member of the Church of the Nazarene. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor of the Church of the Apostles. ... Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ... This article is about Jesus the person, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... The historicity of Jesus concerns the historical authenticity of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jesus as Myth refers to the idea that the narrative of Jesus in the gospels may be considered as part of Christian mythology, and shows parallels to mystery religions of the Roman Empire such as Mithraism, and the myth of rebirth deities. ... The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about two hundred New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... Biblical Jesus is the man Jesus Christ as described by the canonical books of the Bible. ... This article — a part of the Jesus and history series of articles — discusses the cultural and historical background of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, without regard to his divinity, or to his existence as an actual historical figure. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... // Christian views (attitudes and beliefs) about women vary considerably today and have varied even more throughout the last two millennia, evolving along with or counter to the societies in which Christians have lived. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... The race of Jesus has been a subject of debate since at least the 19th century. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320[1]. A long-standing, heretical tradition has interpreted the story of Jesus and John the Apostle as an erotic romance and their love has been held up as an exemplar of same sex love that created a social and... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: ‎ `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ... The following figures are believed to have founded major beliefs or to have been the first codifiers or best known proponents of older known religion or traditions. ... This is a list of people who have been said to be a messiah either by themselves, or by their followers. ... The list of people considered to be deities consists of those notable human beings who were considered deities by themselves or others. ... . ...

Notes

  1. ^ Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992, 54, 56; Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner's, 1977, p. 71; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, Doubleday, 1991–, vol. 1:214; E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, Penguin Books, 1993, pp. 10–11, and Ben Witherington III, "Primary Sources", Christian History 17 (1998) No. 3:12–20.
  2. ^ Raymond E. Brown, The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave (New York: Doubleday, Anchor Bible Reference Library 1994), p. 964; D. A. Carson, et al., p. 50–56; Shaye J.D. Cohen, From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, Westminster Press, 1987, p. 78, 93, 105, 108; John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, HarperCollins, 1991, p. xi–xiii; Michael Grant, p. 34–35, 78, 166, 200; Paula Fredriksen, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, Alfred A. Knopf, 1999, p. 6–7, 105–110, 232–234, 266; John P. Meier, vol. 1:68, 146, 199, 278, 386, 2:726; E.P. Sanders, pp. 12–13; Geza Vermes, Jesus the Jew (Philadelphia: Fortress Press 1973), p. 37.; Paul L. Maier, In the Fullness of Time, Kregel, 1991, pp. 1, 99, 121, 171; N. T. Wright, The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions, HarperCollins, 1998, pp. 32, 83, 100–102, 222; Ben Witherington III, pp. 12–20.
  3. ^ Though many historians may have certain reservations about the use of the Gospels for writing history, "even the most hesitant, however, will concede that we are probably on safe historical footing" concerning certain basic facts about the life of Jesus; Jo Ann H. Moran Cruz and Richard Gerberding, Medieval Worlds: An Introduction to European History Houghton Mifflin Company 2004, pp. 44–45.
  4. ^ Thomas L. Thompson The Messiah Myth: The Near Eastern Roots of Jesus and David (Jonathan Cape, Publisher, 2006); Bruno Bauer; Timothy Freke & Peter Gandy. The Jesus Mysteries: Was the 'Original Jesus' a Pagan God? London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1999, pp. 133, 158; Michael Martin, The Case Against Christianity (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 36–72; John Mackinnon Robertson; G.A. Wells. The Jesus Legend, Chicago: Open Court, 1996, p xii.
  5. ^ Darrell L. Bock, Jesus According to Scripture, pp. 29-30, gives a c. 60-70 date; L. Michael White, From Jesus to Christianity, p. 244, gives c. 80-90.
  6. ^ Bock, ibid., p. 38, gives c. 62-70; White, ibid., p. 252, gives c. 90-100.
  7. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Grand Rapids, Mich.; Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003, 1:454–55
  8. ^ Porterm J. R. Jesus Christ: The Jesus of History, the Christ of Faith. Oxford University Press, 1999. Pg. 70 ISBN 0-19-521429-3
  9. ^ Speculations on Christ's Birth, About: Astrology
  10. ^ Josephus, Antiquities 17.342-4
  11. ^ See Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John, Revised, pp. 284-295, for a discussion of several alternate theories with references.
  12. ^ Meier, p.1:402
  13. ^ Easton, Matthew Gallego.Joseph (the foster father of Jesus Christ). Accessed June 26, 2006
  14. ^ Matthew 13:55–56, Mark 6:3, and Galatians 1:19
  15. ^ For Egypt: Matt 2:13–23; For Tyre and sometimes Sidon:Matt 15:21–28 and Mark 7:24–30
  16. ^ Mark 10:45, Luke 4:43, John 20:31.
  17. ^ Sermon on the Mount: Matt 5–7; Prodigal Son: Luke 15:11–32; Parable of the Sower: Matt 13:1–9; Agape: Matt 22:34–40.
  18. ^ Matthew 17:1-6, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36
  19. ^ The crowd was quoting Psalms 118:26; found in John 12:13–16.
  20. ^ John puts the cleansing of the temple at the start of Jesus' ministry.
  21. ^ The apostle is identified as Simon Peter in John 18:10; the healing of the ear is found in Luke 22:51.
  22. ^ Matt 27:11; Mark 15:12.
  23. ^ Mark 15:42–46; Luke 23:50–56.
  24. ^ Matthew 28:5-10; Mark 16:9; Luke 24:12–16; John 20:10–17; Acts 2:24; 1Cor 6:14
  25. ^ Ministering to Israel: Matthew 15:24; ascension: Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51Acts 1:6–11.; Paul's conversion on the road to Damascus: Acts 9:1–19., 22:1-22; 26:9-24; Second coming: Matthew 24:36–44
  26. ^ Harrison, John B. and Richard E. Sullivan. A short history of Western civilization. New York: Knopf. 1975.
  27. ^ For a comparison of the Jesus movement to the Zealots, see S. G. F. Brandon, Jesus and the Zealots: a study of the political factor in primitive Christianity, Manchester University Press (1967) ISBN 0-684-31010-4
  28. ^ For a general comparison of Jesus' teachings to other schools of first century Judaism, see John P. Meier, Companions and Competitors (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Volume 3) Anchor Bible, 2001. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.
  29. ^ Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Talmud and other Jewish literature. Maccoby, Hyam Jesus the Pharisee, Scm Press, 2003. ISBN 0-334-02914-7; Falk, Harvey Jesus the Pharisee: A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus, Wipf & Stock Publishers (2003). ISBN 1-59244-313-3.
  30. ^ Neusner, Jacob A Rabbi Talks With Jesus, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7735-2046-5. Rabbi Neusner contends that Jesus' teachings were closer to the House of Shammai than the House of Hillel.
  31. ^ Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Dead Sea Scrolls, especially the Teacher of Righteousness and Pierced Messiah. Eisenman, Robert James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Penguin (Non-Classics), 1998. ISBN 0-14-025773-X; Stegemann, Hartmut The Library of Qumran: On the Essenes, Qumran, John the Baptist, and Jesus. Grand Rapids MI, 1998. See also Broshi, Magen, "What Jesus Learned from the Essenes," Biblical Archaeology Review, 30:1, pg. 32-37, 64. Magen notes similarities between Jesus' teachings on the virtue of poverty and divorce, and Essene teachings as related in Josephus' The Jewish Wars and in the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls, respectively.
  32. ^ The Gospel accounts show both John the Baptist and Jesus teaching repentance and the coming Kingdom of God. Some scholars have argued that Jesus was a failed apocalyptic prophet; see Schwietzer, Albert The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede, pgs. 370–371, 402. Scribner (1968), ISBN 0-02-089240-3; Ehrman, Bart Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press USA, 1999. ISBN 0-19-512474-X. Crossan, however, makes a distinction between John's apocalyptic ministry and Jesus' ethical ministry. See Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus, pgs. 305-344. Harper Collins, 1998. ISBN 0-06-061659-8.
  33. ^ This includes the belief that Jesus was the Messiah. Brown, Michael L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus: Messianic Prophecy Objections Baker Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8010-6423-6. Brown shows how the Christian concept of Messiah relates to ideas current in late Second Temple period Judaism. See also Klausner, Joseph, The Messianic Idea in Israel: From its Beginning to the Completion of the Mishnah, Macmillan 1955; Patai, Raphael, Messiah Texts, Wayne State University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8143-1850-9; Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus, pg. 461. Harper Collins, 1998. ISBN 0-06-061659-8. Patai and Klausner state that one interpretation of the prophecies reveal either two Messiahs, Messiah ben Yosef (the dying Messiah) and Messiah ben David (the Davidic King), or one Messiah who comes twice. Crossan cites the Essene teachings about the twin Messiahs. Compare to the Christian doctrine of the Second Coming.
  34. ^ "Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ". Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed December 21, 2006.
  35. ^ Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. p. 558; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew. New York: Doubleday, 1991 vol. 1:205-7;
  36. ^ Henry Bettenson, Chris Maunder, Documents of the Christian Church (3rd edition), Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-288071-3
  37. ^ Daniel Gaztambide, "The Synoptic Problem: Two-Source Hypothesis and Q", AramaicNT.org, accessed August 19, 2006.
  38. ^ Daniel Gaztambide, "So Sayeth The Lord... According to Who?", AramaicNT.org, accessed March 14, 2006.
  39. ^ Paul Barnett, "Is the New Testament History?", p.1.
  40. ^ Craig S. Hawkins, "The Book of Acts and Archaeology", Apologetics Information Ministry, accessed March 14, 2006.
  41. ^ Durant 1944:553-7
  42. ^ Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Doubleday: 1991. vol 1: p. 168-171.
  43. ^ Samuel Sandmel, "Parallelomania," Journal of Biblical Literature 1 (Mar.1962)
  44. ^ Komoszewski et al (2006), Reinventing Jesus, Kregel, p.237
  45. ^ Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner, 1995 p. 199. ISBN 0-684-81867-1
  46. ^ This section draws on a number of sources to determine the doctrines of these groups, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, works contained in the Book of Concord, and others.
  47. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §436-40; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Irenaeus Adversus Haereses in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866) 7/1, 93; Luke 2:11; Matthew 16:16
  48. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §606-618; Council of Trent (1547) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §1529;John 14:2-3
  49. ^ Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 9; Augsburg Confession, article 2; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 8; Rom 5:12–21; 1 Cor 15:21–22.
  50. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §441-451; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Luther's Small Catechism, commentary on Apostle's Creed; Matthew 16:16-17; 1 Corinthians 2:8
  51. ^ Augsburg Confession, article 3; John 1:1
  52. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §461-463;Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Luther’s Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; John 1:14, 16; Hebrews 10:5-7
  53. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §456-460; Gregory of Nyssa, Orat. catech. 15 in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866) 45, 48B; St. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3.19.1 in ibid. 7/1, 939; St. Athanasius, De inc., 54.3 in ibid. 25, 192B. St. Thomas Aquinas, Opusc. in ibid. 57: 1-4; Galatians 4:4-5
  54. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §484-489, 494-507; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed
  55. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church’’§541-546
  56. ^ Apostle's Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §551-553; Augsburg Confession, article 8; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; ‘’Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Leo the Great, Sermo 4.3 in Patrologia Latina ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1841–1855); Matthew 16:18
  57. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church”§1322-1419; Martin Luther, ‘’Augsburg Confession, article 10; Luther's Small Catechism: the Sacrament of the Altar
  58. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed;Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; [[Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9
  59. ^ 'Apostle's Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §632-635; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 3; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Council of Rome (745) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §587; Benedict XII, Cum dudum (1341) in ibid. §1011; Clement VI, Super quibusdam (1351) in ibid. §1077; Council of Toledo IV (625) in ibid. §485; Matthew 27:52-53
  60. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §638-655; Byzantine Liturgy, Troparion of Easter; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 4 and 17; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; See also, apologetics.com and worldinvisible.com.
  61. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed, Catechism of the Catholic Church §668-675, 678-679; Luther’s Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; Mt 25:32-46
  62. ^ Nicene Creed; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 1; Augsburg Confession, article 1; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 3; Council of Nicaea I (325) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §126; Council of Constantinople II (553) in ibid. §424 and 424; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §255; John 1:1; 8:58; 10:30
  63. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §464-469; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2 and 3 Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Council of Ephesus (431) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §250; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §251; Council of Chalcedon (451) in ibid. §301 and 302; Hebrews 4:15
  64. ^ John 8:58
  65. ^ e.g. C.S. Lewis and Peter Kreeft (1988): "The Divinity of Jesus Christ" from Fundamentals of the Faith. Ignatius Press.
  66. ^ 3 Nephi 11:8
  67. ^ "Jesus The Ruler Whose Origin Is From Early Times," The Watchtower (15 June 1998) p. 22.
  68. ^ John 3:16
  69. ^ Col 1:15
  70. ^ Rom 11:36
  71. ^ See the Jehovah's Witnesses Official Web Site, c.f. Galatians 3:13 and Acts 5:30
  72. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 102.
  73. ^ McManners, John, ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 26-31.
  74. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 124-125.
  75. ^ Wace, Henry, Commentary on Marcion
  76. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, Lost Christianities, Oxford, 2003, p. 103, p. 104-105, p.108
  77. ^ Sheikh Ahmad Kuftaro, "What is Islam? Jesus", Kuftaro.org, accessed March 15, 2006.
  78. ^ Mufti A.H. Elias, "Jesus (Isa) A.S. in Islam, and his Second Coming", Islam.tc, accessed March 15,2006.
  79. ^ Geoffrey Parrinder, Jesus in the Quran, p.121, Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 1996. ISBN 1-85168-094-2
  80. ^ Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Qur'anic Verse regarding Second Coming of Jesus.
  81. ^ The Second Coming of Jesus, Renaissance—Monthly Islamic Journal, 14(9), September 2004.
  82. ^ Islahi, Amin. Tadabbur-i-Qur’an, 1st, Lahore: Faran Foundation. OCLC 60341215.  vol.2, p.243
  83. ^ III&E, "Prophethood in Islam", Accessed March 19, 2006
  84. ^ "The Islamic and Christian views of Jesus: a comparison", ISoundvision, accessed March 15, 2006.
  85. ^ Abdullah Ibrahim, "The History of the Quran and the Injil", Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry, accessed March 15, 2006.
  86. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Islam, Jesus article
  87. ^ M. M. Ahmad, "The Lost Tribes of Israel: The Travels of Jesus", Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Accessed March 16, 2006. This view has also been taken up by some western authors, Günter Grönbold, Jesus In Indien, München: Kösel 1985, ISBN 3466202701. Norbert Klatt, Lebte Jesus in Indien?, Göttingen: Wallstein 1988.
  88. ^ Rabbi Shraga Simmons, "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus", accessed March 14, 2006; "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus", Ohr SamayachAsk the Rabbi, accessed March 14, 2006; "Why don't Jews believe that Jesus was the messiah?", AskMoses.com, accessed March 14, 2006.
  89. ^ "Hilchot Malachim (laws concerning kings) (Hebrew)", MechonMamre.org, accessed March 14, 2006.
  90. ^ "Question 18.3.4: Reform's Position On...What is unacceptable practice?", faqs.org, accessed March 14, 2006.
  91. ^ Rabbi Ephraim Buchwald, "Parashat Re'eh 5764-2004: Identifying a True Prophet", National Jewish Outreach Program, accessed March 14, 2006; Tracey Rich, "Prophets and Prophecy", Judaism 101, accessed March 14, 2006; Rabbi Pinchas Frankel, "Covenant of History: A Fools Prophecy", Orthodox Union of Jewish Congregations of America, accessed March 14, 2006;Laurence Edwards, "Torat Hayim—Living Torah: No Rest(s) for the Wicked", Union of American Hebrew Congregations, accessed March 14, 2006.
  92. ^ Beverley, James A. (2001-06-11). Hollywood's Idol. Christianity Today. Retrieved on 2006-10-23. “"Jesus Christ also lived previous lives," he said. "So, you see, he reached a high state, either as a Bodhisattva, or an enlightened person, through Buddhist practice or something like that."”
  93. ^ Gospel of Thomas:The Buddhist Jesus? accessed April 10, 2006.
  94. ^ name=vivekananda>Christ the Messenger. Accessed April 10, 2006.
  95. ^ Paramahansa Yogananda, Autobiography of a Yogi, 2nd ed., Crystal Clarity Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1-56589-212-7.
  96. ^ wikiquote:Mahatma Gandhi; Gandhi vs. Christ. Both accessed on April 10, 2006.
  97. ^ The Bahá'í Position on Christianity Jesus Christ was a "Manifestation" of God. Both accessed April 10, 2006.
  98. ^ Mandaean Scriptures and Fragments: The Haran Gawaitha. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  99. ^ Wills, Garry, What Jesus Meant (2006) ISBN 0-670-03496-7
  100. ^ John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, HarperSanFrancisco (1993), ISBN 0-06-061629-6; Robert Funk, The Five Gospels: What Did Jesus Really Say? The Search for the AUTHENTIC Words of Jesus, Harper San Francisco (1997), ISBN 0-06-063040-X; Robert Funk, The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?, The Jesus Seminar, Harper San Francisco (1998), ISBN 0-06-062978-9; The Jesus Seminar, The Gospel of Jesus: According to the Jesus Seminar, Robert Walter Funk (Editor), Polebridge Press (1999), ISBN 0-944344-74-7
  101. ^ [1]
  102. ^ The Anti-Christ, section 43
  103. ^ john 13:34-35
  104. ^ http://catholicbooksreview.org/2005/grassi.htm Book Review by John Sniegocki of Xavier University, review of Joseph GRASSI, "Peace on Earth: Roots and Practices from Luke's Gospel," Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 2004 (repentance, forgiveness);http://www.bible.org/page.php?page_id=2210 "Major Themes of Jesus' life," Darrell L. Bock (coming of the Kingdom of God); http://www.spiritualityandpractice.com/books/books.php?id=9695 Book review by Frederic and Mary Ann Brussat of "If Grace Is So Amazing, Why Don't We Like It?," Donald McCullough (grace); http://www.stempublishing.com/authors/hughes/GRACTRTH.html "Grace and Truth," F. A. Hughes, STEM publishing 1972 (grace)
  105. ^ The Jefferson Bible. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  106. ^ "Christian Antisemitism: A History of Hate" by William Nicholls, 1993. Published by Jason Aronson Inc., 1995; "Mature Christianity: The Recognition and Repudiation of the Anti-Jewish Polemic in the New Testament" Norman A. Beck, Susquehanna Univ. Press, 1985; "The Satanizing of the Jews: Origin and development of mystical anti-Semitism" Joel Carmichael, Fromm, 1993; "The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes Toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity" John G. Gager, Oxford Univ. Press, 1983; "What Did They Think of the Jews?" Edited by Allan Gould, Jason Aronson Inc., 1991; "The New Testament's Anti-Jewish Slander and Conventions of Ancient Polemic," Luke Johnson, Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 3, 1989; "Three Popes and the Jews" Pinchas E. Lapide, Hawthorne Books, 1967; "National Socialism and the Roman Catholic Church" Nathaniel Micklem, Oxford Univ. Press, 1939; Theological Anti-Semitism in the New Testament," Rosemary Radford Ruether, Christian Century, Feb. 1968, Vol. 85; "John Chrysostom and the Jews" Robert L. Wilken, Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, 1983
  107. ^ Of Revelation and Revolution, Volume 1: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa by Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff 1991 University of Chicago Press; A Violent Evangelism: The Political and Religious Conquest of the Americas by Luis Rivera Pagan 1992 Westminster Press; The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for Conquest in the 17th Century by James Muldoon 1994 University of Pennsylvania Press; An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880–1914 by J.P. Daughton 2006 Oxford University Press; Contracting Colonialism: Translations and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society Under Early Spanish Rule by Vicente L. Rafael 1988 Cornell University Press; Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-Cultural Communication Since 1500; With Special Reference to Caste, Conversion, and Colonialism (Studies in the History of Christian Missions) edited by Robert Eric Frykenberg and Alaine Low 2003 Wm. B. Eerdmans

Donald A. (D.A.) Carson is an evangelical Christian scholar. ... Douglas J. Moo is a New Testament scholar who, after teaching for more than twenty years at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Illinois, has served as Blanchard Professor of New Testament at the Wheaton College Graduate School since 2000. ... Leon Morris is a New Testament scholar who is currently retired. ... Michael Grant (21 November 1914 – 9 August 2004) was a trained classicist who was one of the few classical historians to win respect from academics and a lay readership. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1937) is a leading New Testament theologian (Th. ... Ben Witherington III is a prominent evangelical Biblical scholar, and popular lecturer on New Testament Studies. ... Father Raymond Edward Brown, S.S., (born May 22, 1928, died of aids August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest appointed in 1972 and in 1996 to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which advises the pontiff on scriptural matters, and professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in... Shaye J. D. Cohen is the Littauer Professor of Hebrew Literature and Philosophy in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations of Harvard University. ... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ... Paula Fredriksen is a historian, and author of two books. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ... Paul L. Maier is the Russell H. Seibert Professor of Ancient History at Western Michigan University. ... Nicholas Thomas Tom Wright (b. ... Bruno Bauer (September 6, 1809 - April 13, 1882), was a German theologian, philosopher and historian. ... Dr. Timothy Freke has an honours degree in philosophy and is an internationally respected authority on world mysticism. ... Peter Gandy is a scholar of Western religion and philosophy. ... The Jesus Mysteries: Was the Original Jesus a Pagan God? is a 1999 book by Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy that attempts to reconstruct the true origins of Christianity. ... Michael Martin (born 3 February 1932) is an analytic philosopher at Boston University as professor emeritus. ... John Mackinnon Robertson (14 November 1856 - 5 January 1933) was a prolific journalist, advocate of rationalism and secularism, and Liberal MP for Tyneside from 1906 to 1918. ... George Albert Wells (born 1926) is an Emeritus Professor of German at Birkbeck College, but he is more widely known as a New Testament scholar. ... Darrell L. Bock is a New Testament scholar and research professor of New Testament studies at Dallas Theological Seminary in Dallas, Texas. ... Leon Morris is a New Testament scholar who is currently retired. ... Saint Peter, also known as Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha — original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ... Samuel George Frederick Brandon (1907-1971) was a British scholar of comparative religion. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Hyam Maccoby (1924-2004) was a British scholar, dramatist, and Orthodox Jew specializing in the study of the Jewish and Christian religious tradition. ... Jacob Neusner (born July 28, 1932, Hartford, Connecticut) is an influential as well as controversial academic scholar of Judaism, and the most prolific. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran... The Teacher of Righteousness is a figure found in some of the Dead sea scrolls at Qumran, most prominently in the Damascus Document (CD). ... Dr. Robert H. Eisenman is a Professor of Middle East Religions and Archaeology and Director of the Institute for the Study of Judeo-Christian Origins at California State University, Long Beach; and Visiting Senior Member of Linacre College, Oxford University. ... The Biblical Archaeology Review (illuminating archaeology and the Bible) is the organ of the non-denominational Bible Archaeology Society which has been combining the excitement of archaeology and the latest in Bible scholarship since 1974 [1]. The Societys founder and editor-in-chief is Hershel Shanks. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Albert Schweltzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 - September 4, 1965) was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Bart D. Ehrman is a New Testament Scholar and an expert on Early Christianity. ... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ... Joseph Klausner (1874-1958) was a brilliant Jewish scholar born in Lithuania who emigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine, and died in Israel. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the... Dr. Paul Barnett was the Anglican Bishop of North Sydney from 1990 to 2001. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... Michael Grant (21 November 1914 – 9 August 2004) was a trained classicist who was one of the few classical historians to win respect from academics and a lay readership. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Luthers Small Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Luthers Small Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Luthers Small Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Luthers Small Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Luthers Small Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ... Very Reverend Henry Wace (December 10, 1836 - January 9, 1924) was the Dean of Canterbury from 1903, edited in and contributed to publications in Christian and Ecclesiastical history. ... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tadabbur-i-Qur’an is a tafsir (exegeses) of the Quran by Amin Ahsan Islahi based on the concept of thematic and structural coherence, which was originally inspired by Allama Hamiduddin Farahi. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and the second most populated city in Pakistan, also known as the Gardens of the Mughals or City of Gardens, after the significant rich heritage of the Mughal Empire. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (Arabic: الجماعة الأحمدية; transliterated: ) is based on the Ahmadiyya movement founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (1835-1908). ... Shraga Simmons is an influential Israeli Orthodox rabbi involved in kiruv (Jewish outreach). ... Ohr Somayach (also Or Samayach or Ohr Somayach International) was founded in 1970. ... AskMoses. ... A Torah database (מאגר תורני or מאגר יהדות) is an electronic collection of classic Jewish texts in electronic form, the kinds of texts which especially in Israel are often called The Traditional Jewish Bookshelf (ארון הספרים היהודי); the texts are in their original languages (Hebrew or Aramaic). ... Ephraim Buchwald is an influential Orthodox Judaism rabbi based in New York City. ... The National Jewish Outreach Program, known as NJOP, is a Jewish adult education and outreach organization that was founded in 1987, by Rabbi Ephraim Buchwald, a leading rabbi at the Lincoln Square Synagogue New York City. ... OU logo. ... The Union for Reform Judaism (URJ), formerly known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC), is an organization which supports Reform Jewish congregations in North America. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ... Robert W. Funk (July 18, 1926-September 3, 2005), was founder of the controversial Jesus Seminar and the nonprofit Westar Institute in Santa Rosa, California. ... Robert W. Funk (July 18, 1926-September 3, 2005), was founder of the controversial Jesus Seminar and the nonprofit Westar Institute in Santa Rosa, California. ... The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about two hundred New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... retired from his position as William H. Danforth Professor of Religion at Princeton University in the spring of 2006. ...

References

  • Allison, Dale. Jesus of Nazareth: Millenarian Prophet. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1999. ISBN 0-8006-3144-7
  • Brown, Raymond E.. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2
  • Cohen, Shaye J.D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1988. ISBN 0-664-25017-3
  • Cohen, Shaye J.D. The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 0-520-22693-3
  • Crossan, John Dominic. The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993. ISBN 0-06-061629-6
  • Guy Davenport and Benjamin Urrutia. The Logia of Yeshua; The Sayings of Jesus. Washington, DC: 1996. ISBN 1-887178-70-8
  • De La Potterie, Ignace. "The Hour of Jesus." New York: Alba House, 1989.
  • Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. ISBN 0-671-11500-6
  • Ehrman, Bart. The Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-514183-0
  • Ehrman, Bart. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-515462-2
  • Fredriksen, Paula. Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews: A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity. New York: Vintage, 2000. ISBN 0-679-76746-0
  • Fredriksen, Paula. From Jesus to Christ. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-300-04864-5
  • Finegan, Jack. Handbook of Biblical Chronology, revised ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-56563-143-9.
  • Fuller, Reginald H., The Foundations of New Testament Christology. New York: Scribners, 1965. ISBN 022717075X
  • Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, New York: Anchor Doubleday,
v. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person, 1991. ISBN 0-385-26425-9
v. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, 1994. ISBN 0-385-46992-6
v. 3, Companions and Competitors, 2001. ISBN 0-385-46993-4
  • O'Collins, Gerald. Interpreting Jesus. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1983.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. Jesus Through the Centuries: His Place in the History of Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-07987-7
  • Robinson, John A. T. Redating the New Testament. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2001 (original 1977). ISBN 1-57910-527-0.
  • Sanders, E.P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin, 1996. ISBN 0-14-014499-4
  • Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8006-2061-5
  • Vermes, Geza. Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1981. ISBN 0-8006-1443-7
  • Vermes, Geza. The Religion of Jesus the Jew. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993. ISBN 0-8006-2797-0
  • Vermes, Geza. Jesus in his Jewish Context. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0-8006-3623-6
  • Wilson, A.N. Jesus. London: Pimlico, 2003. ISBN 0-7126-0697-1
  • Wright, N.T. Jesus and the Victory of God. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1997. ISBN 0-8006-2682-6
  • Wright, N.T. The Resurrection of the Son of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0-8006-2679-6

Dr. Dale Allison Dale Allison is a Christian theologian who currently serves as Errett M. Grable Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Early Christianity at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary since 1997. ... Father Raymond Edward Brown, S.S., (born May 22, 1928, died of aids August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest appointed in 1972 and in 1996 to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which advises the pontiff on scriptural matters, and professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ... The cover of Apples and Pears by Guy Davenport Guy Mattison Davenport (November 23, 1927 – January 4, 2005) was an American writer, translator, painter, illustrator, intellectual, and teacher. ... Benjamin Urrutia (1950-), international author and scholar, was born in Guayaquil, Ecuador. ... Bart D. Ehrman is an historian of religions. ... Bart D. Ehrman is an historian of religions. ... Paula Fredriksen is a historian, and author of two books. ... Paula Fredriksen is a historian, and author of two books. ... Reginald Horace Fuller (b. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... The Anchor Bible Project, consisting of the Anchor Bible Commentary Series, Anchor Bible Dictionary and Anchor Bible Reference Library is a scholarly and commercial co-venture that began in 1956, when individual volumes in the commentary series began production. ... Jaroslav Jan Pelikan (17 December 1923 – 13 May 2006) was one of the worlds leading scholars in the history of Christianity and medieval intellectual history. ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1947) is a leading New Testament theologian and one of the principal proponents of the New Perspective on Paul. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ... Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer, known for his biographies, novels and works of popular and cultural history. ... Nicholas Thomas Tom Wright (b. ... Nicholas Thomas Tom Wright (b. ...

External links

Find more information on Jesus by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews
 Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Jesus Movie (Google Video)
  • About-Jesus.org (Christian)
  • Jesus Christ at WikiChristian
  • Complete Sayings of Jesus Christ In Parallel Latin & English — The Complete Christ Sayings
  • Jesus Christ Catholic Encyclopedia article
  • Latter-day Saint statement on the divinity of Jesus Christ
  • An Hindu perspective on Jesus
  • An Islamic perspective on Jesus
  • Ahmadiyya views on Jesus
  • The Historic & Reformation View of Jesus Christ: Solus Christus, Sola Gratia, Sola Fide, Sola Scriptura, Soli Deo Gloria
  • Jesus Christ—Smith's Bible Dictionary article
Historical and skeptical views
  • Overview of the Life of Jesus A summary of New Testament accounts.
  • From Jesus to Christ — A Frontline documentary on Jesus and early Christianity.
  • The Jewish Roman World of Jesus
  • The Jesus Puzzle—Earl Doherty's website.
Persondata
NAME Jesus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Jesus Christ (honorific); Jesus of Nazareth (traditional); יֵשׁ֣וּעַ (Hebrew); Yeshua (transliteration); Isa (Islam)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Religious figure, founded Christianity
DATE OF BIRTH c. 4 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Bethlehem, Iudaea Province (traditionally)
DATE OF DEATH c. 30
PLACE OF DEATH Jerusalem, Iudaea Province

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Frontline is an hour-long public affairs television program produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... Earl Doherty, currently living in Canada, is the author of The Jesus Puzzle, a work published in 2000 by the Canadian Humanist Association arguing that Jesus never lived. ... Central Bethlehem Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم   house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MySpace.com - jesu - UK - Metal / Shoegaze / Electronica - www.myspace.com/officialjesu (1057 words)
The noisy yet stubbornly melodic shoegaze anthems he creates as Jesu mercilessly drag his audience to an appreciation of a densely layered, deliberately emotional sound.
With somber requiems built from two guitar tones at a time, their self-titled album transcended mere melancholia to reach a far loftier despair." "If Godflesh was a deliberation on Industrial Society and Its Future, Jesu is the aural equivalent of Siddhartha.
I hope i would be able to come to see JESU playing in France.
Jesu ke mang? (1965 words)
Bophelo bja Jesu, dimakatšo tše a di dirilego, mantšu a a a boletšego, lehu la gagwe sefapanong, go tsoga ga gagwe lehung, thotošetšo ya gagwe legodimong — tšohle di bontšha gore e be e le monna yoo seemo sa gagwe se bego se feta maemo a monna wa ka mehla.
Jesu o boletše a re “Nna le Tate re batee” (Johane 10:30), “E a bonego nna o bone Tate” (Johane 14:9), le “Tsela ke nna, le therešo, le bophelo.
Jesu wa Natsaretha o ile a baboplwa sefapanong, a bolokwa mo lebitleng le le adimilwego, gomme morago ga matšatši a mararo a tsoga bahung.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m