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Encyclopedia > Jerusalem
Jerusalem

Jerusalem, viewed from the Mount of Olives

Emblem

Flag
Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim)
(Standard) Yerushalayim
Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds);
officially in Israel أورشليم القدس
(Urshalim-Al-Quds)
Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below),
Arabic: "The Holy"
Government City
District Jerusalem
Population 732,100[1] (2007)
Jurisdiction 126,000 dunams (126 km²)
Mayor Uri Lupolianski
Website www.jerusalem.muni.il[i]

Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם , Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس , al-Quds)[ii] is the capital[iii] and largest city of Israel[2] in both population and area,[3] with 732,100 residents in an area of 126 square kilometers (49 sq mi).[1] Located in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern tip of the Dead Sea, the city has a history that goes back as far as the 4th millennium BCE, making it one of the oldest cities in the world.[4] Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual center of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[5] The city contains a number of significant ancient Christian sites and is considered the third-holiest city in Islam.[6] The city of Jerusalem is the largest in Israel. ... Al-Quds usually refers to the city of Jerusalem. ... Download high resolution version (1280x851, 370 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of arms of the Medieval Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, featuring the Jerusalem cross The coat of arms of Jerusalem is an emblem of the city as well as of its municipality. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The municipal flag of Jerusalem The Flag of Jerusalem is based on the flag of Israel. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Jerusalem Tel Aviv-Jaffa Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Beersheba Petah Tikva Netanya Holon Bnei Brak Bat Yam Ramat Gan Ashkelon Rehovot The following list of cities in Israel is based on the current index of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). ... Map of the districts of Israel Population density by geographic region, sub-district and district (thicker border indicates higher tier). ... The Jerusalem District, highlighted. ... A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum is a unit of area. ... Uri Lupolianski (born 1951) is the current mayor of Jerusalem. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Image File history File links He-Jerusalem. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links ArAlquds. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The Judean Mountains are the mountain range on which Jerusalem, the capital city of Israel is located. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or a member of the Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are generally recognized as the three most important cities in Islam according to interpretations of scriptures in the Quran and Hadith. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The walled area of Jerusalem, which constituted the entire city until the 1860s, is now called the Old City, and was added to the List of World Heritage Sites in danger in 1982.[7] The Old City has been traditionally divided into four quarters, although the names used today—the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters—were only introduced in the early 19th century.[8] Despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometer (0.35 square mile),[9] the Old City is home to several sites of key religious importance: the Temple Mount and its Western Wall for Jews, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christians, and the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque for Muslims. The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ... These are thirty sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ... The Christian Quarter is one of the four quarters of the ancient, walled Old City of Jerusalem, the other three being the Jewish Quarter, the Muslim Quarter and the Armenian Quarter. ... A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... The Muslim Quarter (or Moslem Quarter) is one of the four quarters of the ancient, walled Old City of Jerusalem, the other three being the Jewish Quarter, the Christian Quarter and the Armenian Quarter. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... The Western Wall by night. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Modern Jerusalem has grown up around the Old City, with its civic and cultural hub extending westward toward Israel's urban center in Gush Dan. The Arab population resides in clusters in the North, East and South. Today, Jerusalem remains a bone of contention in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem (captured in the 1967 Six-Day War) has been particularly controversial, as Palestinians view this part of the city as the capital of a potential Palestinian state.[10][11] The status of a "united Jerusalem" as Israel's "eternal capital"[12][13] has not been officially recognized by the international community. Hence, all foreign nations maintain their embassies outside of the city, mostly in Tel Aviv.[14] Gush Dan (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ דָּן, Standard Hebrew Guš Dan) is the name of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv District and the Central District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also Palestinian state and State of Palestine). ... Israel has de facto control over all of Jerusalem. ... - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...

Contents

Etymology


Jerusalem
v  d  e
Further information: Names of Jerusalem

Although the precise origin of the Hebrew name for Jerusalem, Yerushalayim remains uncertain, scholars have come up with a variety of interpretations. Some say it means "legacy of peace" — a portmanteau of yerusha (legacy) and shalom (peace). "Shalom" is a cognate of the Hebrew name "Shlomo," i.e., King Solomon," the builder of the First Temple.[15][16] Alternatively, the second part of the portmanteau could be Salem (Shalem literally "whole" or "in harmony"), an early name for Jerusalem[17] that appears in the Book of Genesis.[18] Others cite the Amarna letters, where the Akkadian name of the city appears as Urušalim, a cognate of the Hebrew Ir Shalem. Some believe there is a connection to Shalim, the beneficent deity known from Ugaritic myths as the personification of dusk.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Jerusalem_icon_small2. ... This article explores the different names of Jerusalem and their linguistic natures, etc. ... This article chronicles the history of Jerusalem. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... Neighborhoods Baaka German Colony Greek Colony Katamonim Old Katamon Ramot Rekhavia Qiriat HaYovel Talbieh Talpiot Beit Khanina French Hill Neve Yaaqov Old City Jewish Quarter Western Wall The Cardo Muslim Quarter Temple Mount, site of the former Temple in Jerusalem Dome of the Rock Al Aqsa Mosque Armenian... The Old City is a 0. ... Founded around 3000 BCE, the Old City of Jerusalem is divided into Muslim, Christian, Jewish, and Armenian quarters. ... This is the list of Mayors of Jerusalem. ... For Christians, Jerusalems place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible, as described above. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... This article explores the different names of Jerusalem and their linguistic natures, etc. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... Look up Shalom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Salem is a common name for towns and places, particularly in the Western world. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ...


A Midrashic interpretation in Genesis Rabba explains that Abraham came to the city that was then called Shalem after rescuing Lot.[20] Upon arrival, he asked the king and high priest Melchizedek to bless him, and Melchizedek did so in the name of God (indicating that he, like Abraham, was a monotheist). This encounter between Melchizedek and Abraham was commemorated by renaming the city in their honor: the name Yeru (derived from Yireh, the name Abraham gave to the Temple Mount) was combined with Shalem,[20] producing Yeru-Shalem, meaning the "city of Shalem," or "founded by Shalem." If shalem means "complete," or "without defect, " Yerushalayim would mean the "perfect city," or "the city of he who is perfect".[21] The ending -im indicates the plural in Hebrew grammar and -ayim the dual, leading to an interpretation of the name as representing two facets of the city, such as two hills.[22][23] The pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint. Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Genesis Rabba, (Breshit Rabba in Hebrew), is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67 Melchizedek or Malki-tzédek (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק / מַלְכִּי־צָדֶק, Standard Hebrew Malki-ẓédeq / Malki-ẓádeq, Tiberian Hebrew Malkî-ṣéḏeq / Malkî-ṣāḏeq), sometimes written Malchizedek, Melchisedec, Melchisedech, Melchisedek or Melkisedek, is a figure mentioned by various sects of both Christian and Judaic traditions. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


History

Main article: History of Jerusalem
See also: History of ancient Israel and Judah, History of Palestine, and Timeline of Jerusalem

Ceramic evidence indicates the occupation of Ophel, within present-day Jerusalem, as far back as the Copper Age, c. 4th millennium BCE,[24][4] with evidence of a permanent settlement during the early centuries of the Early Bronze Age, c. 3000-2800 BCE.[24] Ann Killebrew has shown how Jerusalem was a large and important walled city in the MB IIB and IA IIC (ca. 1800-1550 and 720-586 BCE), during the intervening Late Bronze (LB) and IA I and IIA/B Ages Jerusalem was a small and relatively insignificant and unfortified town.[25] The earliest written references to the city are probably in the Berlin and Brussels groups of Execration Texts (c. 19th century BCE) (which refer to a city called Roshlamem or Rosh-ramen)[24] and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BCE).[26][27] Some archaeologists, including Kathleen Kenyon, believe Jerusalem as a city was founded by West Semitic people with organized settlements from around 2600 BCE. According to tradition the city was founded by Shem and Eber, ancestors of Abraham. The Biblical account portrays the Jebusites as having control of the city, inhabiting the area around the present-day city until the late 11th century BCE when David is said to have invaded and conquered their city, Jebus, and established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah (c. 1000s BCE).[28][29][iv] Recent excavations of a large stone structure are interpreted by some archaeologists as lending credence to the biblical narrative. This article chronicles the history of Jerusalem. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... Ophel - hill; mound, the long, narrow, rounded promontory on the southern slope of the temple hill in Jerusalem, between the Tyropoeon and the Kedron valley (2 Chr. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Execration texts are hieratic texts upon which the names of loathed people were written, in Ancient Egypt. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... (Redirected from 19th century BCE) (20th century BC - 19th century BC - 18th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events Hittite empire in Anatolia 1829 - 1818 BC -- Egyptian-Nubian war 1818 BC -- Egyptian Campaign in Palestine 1813 BC -- Amorite Conquest of Northern Mesopotamia 1806... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... (Redirected from 14th century BCE) (15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC - other centuries) (1400s BC - 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC - 1300s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events... Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon (5 January 1906 – 24 August 1978), important English archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent and excavator of Jericho in Jordan from 1952 to 1958. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... (Redirected from 26th century BCE) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... According to the Hebrew Bible the Jebusites (Hebrew יְבוּסִי, Standard Hebrew YÉ™vusi, Tiberian Hebrew Yəḇûsî) were a Canaänite tribe who inhabited the region around Jerusalem in pre-biblical times (second millennium BC). ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Meanings of Jebus (יבוס, Standard Hebrew YÉ™vus, Tiberian Hebrew Yəḇûs): Jebus (fortress) a fortress on the hill of Zion captured by King David (died circa 965 BCE). ... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Large Stone Structure is the name given to the remains of a large 10th to 9th century BC public building in central Jerusalem, south of the Old City. ...


Temple periods

Artist's depiction of the First Temple, according to Biblical descriptions
Artist's depiction of the First Temple, according to Biblical descriptions

According to the Hebrew Bible, David reigned until 970 BCE, when his son Solomon became king of Israel.[30] Within a decade, Solomon began to build the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah inside the city. Solomon's Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish history as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant.[31] The next four centuries, up until the destruction of Solomon's Temple (c. 586 BCE), are known in history as the First Temple Period.[32] Upon Solomon's death (c. 930 BCE), the ten northern tribes split off to form the Kingdom of Israel. Under the leadership of the House of David and Solomon, Jerusalem remained the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.[33] When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCE, Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon's Temple.[33] However, many claims of the Fall of Jerusalem are gathered from the Ptolemaic records, in which some dates have been found to be erroneous. Some religions (JWs, Biblestudents and several others) claim that Jerusalem fell in 606-607 BCE; however, no historical evidence supports that the 18th or 19th year of Nebuchadrezzar was in the year 607 BCE, and Zecharias 7:1-5 establishes the year 587 BCE for the complete and final attack on Jerusalem by the Babylonians. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1528x1057, 737 KB) From http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1528x1057, 737 KB) From http://www. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Temple of Solomon. ... The phrase Ten Lost Tribes of Israel refers to the ancient Tribes of Israel that disappeared from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar () (c 630-562 B.C.E), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ...


In 538 BCE, after fifty years of Babylonian captivity, Persian King Cyrus the Great permitted the Jews to return to Judah to rebuild Jerusalem and their holy temple. Construction of the Second Temple, was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, seventy years after the destruction of the First Temple.[34][35] Jerusalem resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship. When Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem and Judea fell under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the Ptolemaic dynasty under Ptolemy I. In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V lost Jerusalem and Judea to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. The Seleucid attempt to recast Jerusalem as a Hellenized polis came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of Mattathias the High Priest and his five sons against Antiochus Epiphanes, and their establishment of the Hasmonean Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem again as its capital.[36] For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... A stone (2. ... Darius the Great (c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Persia redirects here. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... For the unrelated astronomer, see Ptolemy Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC), ruler of Egypt (reigned 323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Ptolemy V Epiphanes (reigned 204-181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoë, was not more than five years old when he came to the throne, and under a series of regents the kingdom was paralysed. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Mattathias, a Jewish priest, the father of the Maccabees, who in 170 BC, when asked by a Syrian embassy to offer sacrifice to the Syrian gods, not only refused to do so, but slew with his own hand the Jew that stepped forward to do it for him, and then... The term High Priest may refer to particular individuals who hold the office of ruler-priest in local regional or ethnic contexts. ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ...

The Tower of David as seen from the Hinnom Valley
The Tower of David as seen from the Hinnom Valley

As Rome became stronger it installed Herod as a Jewish client king. Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size.[37][38][30] In 6 CE, the city, as well as much of the surrounding area, came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province[39] and Herod's descendants through Agrippa II remained client kings of Judea until 96 CE. Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region began to be challenged with the first Jewish-Roman war, the Great Jewish Revolt, which resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. In 130 CE Hadrian attempted to Romanize the city, and renamed it Aelia Capitolina.[40] Jerusalem once again served as the capital of Judea during the three-year rebellion known as the Bar Kochba revolt. The Romans succeeded in recapturing the city in 135 CE and as a punitive measure Hadrian banned the Jews from entering it. Hadrian proceeded to rename the entire Iudaea Province to Syria Palaestina after the Biblical Philistines in an attempt to thwart future rebellion and to de-Judaize Judea.[41][42] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ... ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Herod the Great. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... Model of Herods Temple - currently in the Israel Museum View from east to west of the model of Herods Temple Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... Agrippa II (AD 27–100), son of Agrippa I, and like him originally named Marcus Julius Agrippa. ... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... A stone (2. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Shifts in control

Capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099 (from a medieval manuscript)

In the five centuries following the Bar Kokhba revolt, the city remained under Roman then Byzantine rule. During the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I constructed Christian sites in Jerusalem such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple Period: The city covered two square kilometers (0.8 sq mi.) and had a population of 200,000[43][41] From the days of Constantine until the Arab conquest in 638, Jews were banned from Jerusalem,[44] but were allowed back into the city by Muslim rulers.[45] By the end of the 7th century, an Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik had commissioned and completed the construction of the Dome of the Rock over the Foundation Stone.[46] In the four hundred years that followed, Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control.[47] Image File history File links Jerusalem1099. ... Image File history File links Jerusalem1099. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... the Stone - south is towards the top of the image For the foundation-stone of a building, see Cornerstone. ...


In 1099, Jerusalem was besieged by the First Crusaders, who killed most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants, apart from many Christians.[48] That would be the first of several conquests to take place over the next four hundred years. In 1187, the city was taken from the Crusaders by Saladin.[49] Between 1228 and 1244, it was given by Saladin's descendant al-Kamil to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Jerusalem fell again in 1244 to the Khawarizmi Turks, who were later, in 1260, replaced by the Mamelukes. In 1517, Jerusalem and its environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who would maintain control of the city until the 20th century.[49] This era saw the first expansion outside the Old City walls, as new neighborhoods were established to relieve the overcrowding that had become so prevalent. The first of these new neighborhoods included the Russian Compound and the Jewish Mishkenot Sha'ananim, both founded in 1860.[50] Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... The Middle East, c. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Holy Trinity church in the Russian Compound The Russian Compound (Migrash Harusim; ‎) is one of the oldest districts in central Jerusalem, including a few government buildings and a large church. ... Old gristmill in Mishkenot Sha’ananim A street in Mishkenot Sha’ananim Mishkenot Sha’ananim (Hebrew: ) was the first Jewish community built outside the walls of Jerusalem. ...

In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by General Edmund Allenby, captured the city.[51] The League of Nations, through its 1922 ratification of the Balfour Declaration, entrusted the United Kingdom to administer the Mandate of Palestine and help establish a Jewish state in the region.[52] The period of the Mandate saw the construction of new garden suburbs in the western and northern parts of the city[53][54] and the establishment of institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew University, founded in 1925.[55] Famous public photo of dismounted General Sir Edmund Allenby entering the Holy City of Jerusalem on foot 1917. ... Famous public photo of dismounted General Sir Edmund Allenby entering the Holy City of Jerusalem on foot 1917. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Jaffa Gate The Jaffa Gate is a stone portal in the historic walls of Jerusalems Old City; it is one of eight gates in Jerusalems Old City walls. ... The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Erich von Falkenhayn Strength Egyption Expeditionary Force Seventh Army Casualties 18,000 (for entire campaign) 25,000 (for entire cmpaign) {{{notes}}} The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the city of Jerusalem falling to British forces in December 1917. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


State of Israel

See also: UN General Assembly Resolution 194

As the British Mandate of Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan (Part III) recommended "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the United Nations."[56] However, this plan was never implemented and at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Jerusalem found itself divided between Israel and Jordan (then known as Transjordan). The ceasefire line established through the Armistice Agreement of 1949 between Israel and Jordan, cut through the center of the city from 1949 until 1967, during which time West Jerusalem was part of Israel and East Jerusalem was part of Jordan. In 1949, Israel designated West Jerusalem as its capital. Contrary to the terms of the Armistice Agreement of 1949 between Jordan and Israel, Israelis were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were desecrated, and only allowed extremely limited access to Christian holy sites.[57][58] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [1] was passed on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ...


Following the 1967 Six-Day War Israel captured East Jerusalem, asserted sovereignty over the entire city, and later in 1980 declared Jerusalem, "complete and united", to be the capital of Israel.[59] However, East Jerusalem has been seen by the Palestinian Arabs as a possible capital of a proposed Palestinian state.[60][61] They also refer to Security Council resolution 252, which considers invalid expropriation of land and other actions that tend to change the legal status of Jerusalem.[62] The status of the city and of its holy places remains disputed to this day. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... It has been suggested that State of Palestine be merged into this article or section. ...


Geography

Ein Karem in the hills of southwest Jerusalem

Jerusalem is situated around 31°47′N, 35°13′E on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus (North East). The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m.[63] The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis), although those to the north are less pronounced than those on the other sides. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Ain Karim (Arabic: عين كارم Hebrew עין כרם) (literally, Spring of the Vineyard) is an artisan village within the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem, Israel. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The Judean Mountains are the mountain range on which Jerusalem, the capital city of Israel is located. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... Mount Scopus (הר הצופים, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic جبل المشارف Jabal al-Mašārif, جبل المشهد Jabal al-Mašhad, جبل ا&#1604... Riverbed may refer to: Stream bed, the channel bottom of a stream or river or creek Wadi, a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain Riverbed Technology, an American technology company Category: ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ...


Three of the most prominent valleys in the region, the Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys, intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem.[64] The Kidron Valley runs just to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in Biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or hell.[65] A third valley commenced in the northwest near the present-day location of Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Today, this valley, the Tyropoeon Valley, is mostly hidden from view due to the amount of debris that has accumulated within the ravine over the past few millennia.[64] The Kidron Valley (or Qidron Valley) is valley near Jerusalem which features significantly in the Bible. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Kidron Valley (or Qidron Valley) is valley near Jerusalem which features significantly in the Bible. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... Note: Tanach quotes are from the Judaica press Tanach. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... Damascus Gate The Damascus Gate (also known as Shechem Gate or Nablus Gate; Bab-al-Amud, Gate of Columns) is an important gate in the walls of the old city of Jerusalem. ... Pool of Siloam (Hebrew sent or sending) is a landmark located at the lower part of the southern slope of Ophel, the original site of Jerusalem, but now just to the south east (and outside) the walls the Old City. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi)[66] east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi)[67] away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem and Beit Jala to the south, Abu Dis and Ma'ale Adumim to the east, Mevaseret Zion to the west, and Ramallah and Giv'at Ze'ev to the north.[68][69][70] Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... This article describes extreme locations on Earth. ... Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... Beit Jala (Arabic:  , possibly from Aramaic grass carpet) is a small city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. ... Abu Dis is a Palistinian city near Jerusalem in the West Bank. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Mevaseret Zion (Hebrew: מבשרת ציון, literally herald of Zion) is a town (local council) in Israel. ... Arabic رام الله Founded in 16th century Government City (from 1995) Governorate Ramallah & Al-Bireh Population 23,347 (2006) Jurisdiction 16,344 dunams (16. ... Givat Zeev (גבעת זאב) is an Israeli settlement in the Samaria region of the West Bank, just to the north of Jerusalem. ...


Climate

The city is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers, and cold, wet winters. Snowfall occurs every couple of winters. January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 8 °C (46 °F). July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 23 °C (73 °F).[71] Temperatures vary widely from day to night, and Jerusalem evenings are typically cool even in summer. The average annual precipitation is close to 590 millimetres (23 in) with rain occurring usually from October to May.[71]  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ...

Weather averages for Jerusalem
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 12 (53) 13 (56) 16 (61) 21 (70) 25 (77) 28 (82) 29 (84) 29 (84) 28 (82) 25 (77) 19 (66) 14 (57)
Average low °C (°F) 4 (39) 4 (40) 6 (43) 9 (49) 12 (54) 15 (59) 17 (63) 17 (63) 16 (61) 14 (57) 9 (49) 6 (42)
Precipitation mm (inch) 142.2 (5.6) 114.3 (4.5) 99.1 (3.9) 30.5 (1.2) 2.5 (0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.0 (0.0) 22.9 (0.9) 68.8 (2.7) 109.2 (4.3)
Source: The Weather Channel[72]

Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic, especially in East Jerusalem.[73] Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city.[73][74] Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... The Israeli Coastal Plain (Hebrew: , Mishor HaHof) is a name to the flat and low-lying narrow strip around the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Demographics

 State of Israel  Flag of Israel
Geography

Land of Israel · Districts · Cities
Transport · Mediterranean · Red Sea
Sea of Galilee · Jerusalem · Tel Aviv · Haifa Image File history File links COA_of_Israel. ... Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz YiÅ›rāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... Map of the districts of Israel Population density by geographic region, sub-district and district (thicker border indicates higher tier). ... Jerusalem Tel Aviv-Jaffa Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Beersheba Petah Tikva Netanya Holon Bnei Brak Bat Yam Ramat Gan Ashkelon Rehovot The following list of cities in Israel is based on the current index of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ...

History

Jewish history · Timeline · Zionism · Aliyah
Herzl · Balfour · British Mandate
1947 UN Plan · Independence · Austerity This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Main article: History of Israel Austerity in Israel: From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (צנע tsena), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. ...

Arab-Israeli conflict · History

1948 War · 1949 Armistice
Jewish exodus · Suez War · Six-Day War
Attrition War · Yom Kippur War
1982 Lebanon War · 2006 Lebanon War
Peace proposals · Treaties with Egypt, Jordan Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Arab-Israeli conflict is a modern phenomenon, which dates back to the end of the 19th century. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Combatants Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[10] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[4] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ...

Israeli-Palestinian conflict  · History

Timeline · 1948 Palestinian exodus
Occupation · Peace process
Peace camp · First Intifada · Oslo
Second Intifada · Barrier
Disengagement
Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... // The article discusses the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict from the turn of the twentieth century to the present day, disregarding the prior history of Jews and Arabs in the area. ... This is an incomplete timeline of notable events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... For the Palestinian annual commemorative day, see Nakba Day. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all...

Economy

Science and technology · Companies
Tourism · Wine · Diamonds · Agriculture
Military industry · Aerospace industry This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. ... The Israeli wine industry has wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest producing over ten million bottles per year. ... The Israeli Diamond industry is a world leader in producing cut diamonds for wholesale. ... IMI logo Israel Military Industries Ltd. ... IAI new logo The Avocet ProJet with IAI Logo Israel Aerospace Industries (Hebrew: התעשייה האווירית לישראל) or IAI (תעא) is Israels prime aerospace and aviation manufacturer, producing aerial systems for both military and civilian usage. ...

Demographics · Culture

Religion · Israeli Arabs · Kibbutz
Music · Archaeology · Universities
Hebrew · Literature · Sport · Israelis This article discusses the demographics of Israel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... The archaeology of Israel is researched intensively in the universities of the region and also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... There are eight official universities in Israel. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Israeli literature is the literature of the people or State of Israel. ...

Laws · Politics

Law of Return · Jerusalem Law
Parties · Elections · PM · President
Knesset · Supreme Court · Courts The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Law of Return (Hebrew: חוק השבות, hok ha-shvut) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and spouses of the aforementioned, to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... It has been suggested that Law of Israel be merged into this article or section. ...

Foreign affairs

International law · UN · US · Arab League The State of Israel joined the United Nations on May 11, 1949. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people, the proposed State of Palestine and the region of the Levant (called the Middle East at the UN) occupy a large amount of debate, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1947 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel with the United States, with the U.S. superpower trying to balance competing... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

Security

Israel Defense Forces
Intelligence Community · Security Council
Police · Border Police · Prison Service The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... The Israel Prison Service (Hebrew: שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar), commonly known by its acronym, Shabas, is the Israeli prison service. ...

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Population of Jerusalem
Year Total
1844 15,510
1876 25,030
1896 45,420
1922 62,578
1931 90,053
1944 157,000
1948 165,000
1967 263,307
1980 407,100
1985 457,700
1990 524,400
1995 617,000
2000 657,500
2005 706,400

In May 2006, Jerusalem had a population of 724,000, of whom 65% were Jewish, 32% were Muslim, and 2% were Christian, and a population density of 5,750.4 inhabitants per square kilometer (14,893.5/sq mi).[3][75] In 2005, Jerusalem received 2,450 immigrants, with nearly three quarters of them arriving from the United States, France, and former members of the Soviet Union. Within Israel, emigrants from Jerusalem outnumber immigrants to the city. In 2005, over ten thousand Israelis migrated to Jerusalem while over sixteen thousand left the city.[3] The population of Jerusalem, however, continues to rise due to high birth rates, especially among the Arab and Haredi Jewish communities (whose birth rates are higher than the Israeli national average). Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem (4.02) is far higher than those of comparable cities in the region such as Tel Aviv (1.98) and well above the national average of 2.90. Similarly, the average size of Jerusalem's 180,000 households is 3.8 people.[3] Founded around 3000 BCE, the Old City of Jerusalem is divided into Muslim, Christian, Jewish, and Armenian quarters. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ...


In 2005, the total number of residents in Jerusalem grew by approximately thirteen thousand (1.8%) — also well above the Israeli national average. However, as the city has continued to grow, the religious and ethnic composition of Jerusalem has proceeded to shift. Although Jews account for the majority of people in Jerusalem, they only account for thirty-one percent of the children under age fifteen.[3] This recent data corroborates the observation that the Jewish population of Jerusalem has been declining over the past four decades. In 1967, the year of the Six-Day War, Jews accounted for seventy-four percent of the population, which is nine percent more than their share of the population in 2006.[76] Explanations for this decline are the soaring cost of housing in Jerusalem, the smaller job market and the growing religious character of the city. Many young people are moving to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and the more secular lifestyle offered by other cities.[77] Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...


Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population split continue to play a major role in carving the outcome of the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the chairman of the Jerusalem Development Authority even proposed expanding city limits to the west so as to include more areas heavily populated with Jews.[78]


Local government

Kikar Safra, Jerusalem City Hall
Kikar Safra, Jerusalem City Hall

The Jerusalem City Council has thirty-one elected members, one of whom is the mayor. The mayor serves a five-year term and appoints six deputies. The current mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski was elected in 2003.[79] Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek, who spent twenty-eight years — six consecutive terms — in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public.[79] Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats.[80] The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor's office are at Safra Square (Kikar Safra) on Jaffa Road. The new municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993.[81] The city falls under the Jerusalem District, with Jerusalem as the district's capital. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Safra Squares central plaza Safra Square is the name of Jerusalems new city hall complex and adjacent plaza. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... Uri Lupolianski (born 1951) is the current mayor of Jerusalem. ... Teddy Kollek in Vienna in 2003 Theodor Teddy Kollek (May 27, 1911 – January 2, 2007) was an Israeli politician and Mayor of Jerusalem from 1965 until 1993. ... Safra Squares central plaza Safra Square is the name of Jerusalems new city hall complex and adjacent plaza. ... Jaffa Road (‎) is one of the most central and longest streets in Jerusalem, as well as one of its oldest. ... The Jerusalem District, highlighted. ...


Capital of Israel

Further information: Positions on Jerusalem
See also: Politics of Israel

On December 5, 1949, the State of Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel's capital[13] and since then all branches of the Israeli governmentlegislative, judicial, and executive — have resided there.[82] At the time of the proclamation, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan and thus only West Jerusalem was considered Israel's capital. Immediately after the 1967 Six-Day War, however, Israel annexed East Jerusalem, making it a de facto part of the Israeli capital. Israel enshrined the status of the "complete and united" Jerusalem — west and east — as its capital, in the 1980 Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel.[59] Israel has de facto control over all of Jerusalem. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ...

The Knesset Building in Jerusalem, home to the legislative branch of the Israeli government
The Knesset Building in Jerusalem, home to the legislative branch of the Israeli government

The non-binding United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, passed on August 20, 1980, declared that this law was "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith." Member states were advised to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure. Most of the remaining countries with embassies in Jerusalem complied with the resolution by relocating them to Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Currently there are no embassies located within the city limits of Jerusalem, although there are embassies in Mevaseret Zion, on the outskirts of Jerusalem, and four consulates in the city itself.[83] In 1995, the United States Congress had planned to move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem with the passage of the Jerusalem Embassy Act.[84] However, U.S. presidents, including President Bush and President Clinton, have argued that Congressional resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem are merely advisory. The Constitution reserves foreign relations as an executive power, and as such, the US embassy is still in Tel Aviv.[85] Israel's most prominent governmental institutions, including the Knesset,[86] the Supreme Court,[87] and the official residences of the President and Prime Minister, are located in Jerusalem. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1252x556, 706 KB) Other versions Image:Knesset building. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1252x556, 706 KB) Other versions Image:Knesset building. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... A non-binding resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body that can not progress in to a law. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. This resolution, not taken under chapter VI or VII of the charter (the binding chapters), advised member... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Mevaseret Zion (Hebrew: מבשרת ציון, literally herald of Zion) is a town (local council) in Israel. ... The United States Jerusalem Embassy Act, passed by Congress on October 23, 1995 , states that Jerusalem should be recognized as the capital of the State of Israel; and the United States Embassy in Israel should be established in Jerusalem no later than May 31, 1999. The act explains that every... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ...


Palestinian claims

Further information: Positions on Jerusalem (Palestinian)

Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of the British Mandate of Palestine, which included present-day Israel and Jordan.[88] From 1949 until 1967, West Jerusalem served as Israel's capital but was not recognized internationally as Israel's capital, because UN General Assembly Resolution 194 ruled Jerusalem an international city. As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem came under Israeli control. According to the Oslo Accords, the final status of Jerusalem should be determined by peaceful negotiations, as the Palestinian National Authority sees East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state.[10] Orient House was the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization in the 1980s and 1990s, but is currently closed.[89] Israel has de facto control over all of Jerusalem. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [1] was passed on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that State of Palestine be merged into this article or section. ... Orient House is the PLO headquarters in East Jerusalem. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ...


Culture

The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Outside the Children's Memorial at Yad Vashem
Outside the Children's Memorial at Yad Vashem

Although Jerusalem is known around the world for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem's premier art museum, annually attracts nearly one million visitors, approximately one-third of them visitors from overseas.[90] The twenty-acre museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archeological findings, and Israeli and European art. The Dead Sea scrolls, discovered in the mid-twentieth century in the Qumran caves near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum's Shrine of the Book.[91] The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden, and a scale-model of the Second Temple was recently moved from the Holyland Hotel to a new location on the museum grounds.[90] Other museums affiliated with the Israel Museum are the Rockefeller Archaeological Museum, Ticho House, and the Paley Center of Art. The Rockefeller Museum, located in East Jerusalem, was the first archeological museum in the Middle East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate.[92][93] Ticho House, in downtown Jerusalem, houses the paintings of Anna Ticho and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem's first eye clinic in this building in 1912.[94] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 712 KB) Summary The Shrine of The Book complex in the Israel Museum (Jerusalem, Israel) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jerusalem Israel Museum Tourism in Israel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 712 KB) Summary The Shrine of The Book complex in the Israel Museum (Jerusalem, Israel) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jerusalem Israel Museum Tourism in Israel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Exterior view of the Shrine of the Book Entrance to the Shrine of the Book The Shrine of the Book is built to symbolized the scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness - The shrine is built as a white dome symbolizing the Sons... The road sign The Shrine of the Book The Israel Museum (‎, Muzion Yisrael) in Jerusalem, was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jerusalem Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jerusalem Metadata This... New Yad Vashem museum building designed by Safdie Yad Vashem (Hebrew: ‎; Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority) is Israels official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israels parliament. ... The city of Jerusalem, located in modern-day Israel, is significant in a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... The road sign The Shrine of the Book The Israel Museum (‎, Muzion Yisrael) in Jerusalem, was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. ... The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Exterior view of the Shrine of the Book Entrance to the Shrine of the Book The Shrine of the Book is built to symbolized the scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness - The shrine is built as a white dome symbolizing the Sons... The Rockefeller Museum located in Eastern Jerusalem, houses a vast collection of regional archeology unearthed in excavations conducted in the country mainly during the time of the British Mandate (1919-1948). ... The Ticho House museum is located in one of the first houses in Jerusalem built outside the Old City Walls at the end of the nineteenth century. ... Anna Ticho (1894-1980) was born in Moravia, which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, modern-day Czech Republic. ...


Another prominent cultural institution in Jerusalem is Yad Vashem, Israel's national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. Yad Vashem houses the world's largest[95] library of Holocaust-related information, with an estimated 100,000 books and articles.[96] The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families whose lives were torn asunder, and a gallery displaying permanent and changing exhibits of work by artists who died in the Holocaust.[96] Another memorial at Yad Vashem commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children who perished at the hands of the Nazis. Yad Vashem operates as both a research and educational institution. New Yad Vashem museum building designed by Safdie Yad Vashem (Hebrew: ‎; Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority) is Israels official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israels parliament. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...

The Jerusalem Theater at night
The Jerusalem Theater at night

One of the city's foremost orchestras is the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, which has been operating since the 1940s.[97] The Orchestra has held performances in cities around the world, including Vienna, Frankfurt, and New York City.[97] Within walking distance of the Old City is a cultural district which includes the Khan Theatre, the only repertoire theater in the city,[98] and the Jerusalem Cinematheque. The Jerusalem Theater, located in the Komemiyut (Talbiya) neighborhood, hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas.[99] Other prominent facilities for the performing arts include the International Convention Center (Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city, where the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra plays, the Gerard Behar Center in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Music Center in Yemin Moshe,[100] and the Targ Music Center in Ein Kerem. The Palestinian National Theatre, founded in 1984 and once the only center for art and culture in East Jerusalem,[101] today presents art from the Palestinian perspective.[102] The Israel Festival,[103] featuring local and international vocal artists, concerts, plays and street theater, has been held annually since 1961. For the past 25 years, Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event, which takes place in May-June, and most of the performances take place at venues around the city.[104] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 791 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 1063 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 791 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 1063 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra of the Israel Broadcasting Authority (Hebrew: התזמורת הסימפונית ירושלים, רשות השידור, ha-Tizmoret ha-Simfonit Yerushalayim Rashut ha-Shidur) traces its origins to the national radio orchestra founded in the 1940s as the Kol Radio Orchestra. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...   (German: , English: American English: ) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a mid-2007 population of 663,567. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ... In theatre, a repertoire system can operate when a theatre has many plays (or musicals, ballets, operas, etc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Glass face of the International Convention Center. ... Fredric R. Mann Auditorum (he:Hichal Hatarbot), home of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The Leonard Bernstein Plaza in front of the Mann Auditorum The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisreelit) is the leading symphony orchestra in Israel, and one of the top orchestras... Yemin Moshe is a neighborhood in Jerusalem that was established in 1891 by Moses Montefiore and includes about 130 houses. ... Ain Karim (Arabic: عين كارم Hebrew עין כרם) (literally, Spring of the Vineyard) is an artisan village 7. ... The Palestinian National Theatre (Arabic: المسرح الوطني الفلسطيني) is a Palestinian-owned theatre in East Jerusalem, Israel. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ... The Israel Festival is a multidisciplinary arts festival, held every spring in Israel. ...


Religious significance

Jerusalem plays an important role in the three monotheistic religionsJudaism, Christianity, and Islam. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city.[105] Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy. The city of Jerusalem, located in modern-day Israel, is significant in a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ...

The Western Wall, one of the holiest sites in Judaism
The Western Wall, one of the holiest sites in Judaism

Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews since the 10th century BCE,[5] as the site of Solomon's Temple and the Second Temple. It is mentioned in the Bible 632 times. Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the Second Temple, is a holy site for Jews, second only to the Temple Mount itself.[106] Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem,[107] and Arks within Jerusalem face the "Holy of Holies".[108] As prescribed in the Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Many Jews have "Mizrach" plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer.[108][109] Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1013 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1013 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Western Wall by night. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... A stone (2. ... The Western Wall by night. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holy of Holies. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ...

The main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
The main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Christianity reveres Jerusalem not only for its role in the Old Testament but also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to Biblical accounts, Jesus was brought to the city of Jerusalem not long after his birth[110] and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple.[111] The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus' Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David.[112][113] Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem,[114] but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city.[115] The land currently occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past two thousand years.[115][116][117] Main entrance Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter Sunday 27/03/2005 by Wayne McLean (jgritz) Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre... Main entrance Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter Sunday 27/03/2005 by Wayne McLean (jgritz) Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Cenacle is the traditional Latin term for the Upper Room, or the site of The Last Supper. ... For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ... Mount Zion (Hebrew: ‎ transliteration: Har Tziyyon - Height) is the ancient name of a mountain in jerusalem southe of the old city. ... King Davids Tomb is believed to be situated on Mount Zion near the Old City of Jerusalem, Israel. ... Golgotha redirects here. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...

Dome of the Rock viewed through the Temple Mount's Cotton Gate (Bab al-Qattanin)

According to tradition, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city in Islam.[6] Before it was permanently switched to the Kabaa in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for Muslims was Jerusalem.[118] The city's lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to Muhammad's Night of Ascension (c. 620 CE). Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam.[119][120] The first verse in the Qur'an's Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque,[121] in reference to the location in Jerusalem. Today, the Temple Mount is topped by two Islamic landmarks intended to commemorate the event — al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur'an, and the Dome of the Rock, which stands over the Foundation Stone, from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven.[122] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (563 × 750 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Gila Brand, this is my own work. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (563 × 750 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Gila Brand, this is my own work. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are generally recognized as the three most important cities in Islam according to interpretations of scriptures in the Quran and Hadith. ... The Kaaba or Kaaba, in the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah), is the holiest place in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Facing the Qibla at a prayer in Damascus The geometrical calculation of Qibla Qibla () is an Arabic word for the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays. ... Salat redirects here. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... A 16th century Persian miniature painting celebrating Muhammads ascent into the Heavens, a journey known as the Miraj. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Surat Al-Isra (Arabic: سورة الإسراء ) (ie The Night Journey) is the 17th sura of the Quran . ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... the Stone - south is towards the top of the image For the foundation-stone of a building, see Cornerstone. ...


Sports

The two most popular sports in Jerusalem, and Israel as a whole, are football (soccer) and basketball.[123] Beitar Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most popular teams in Israel. Fans include several former and current political figures who make a point of attending its games.[124] Jerusalem's other major football team, and one of Beitar's top rivals, is Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club. Whereas Beitar has been Israel State Cup champion five times,[125] Hapoel has only won the Cup once. Also, Beitar plays in the more prestigious premier league, while Hapoel is in the third division national league. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the sport. ... Beitar Jerusalem Football Club (מועדון כדורגל ביתר ירושלים; Moadon Kaduregel Beitar Yerushalayyim, also known as Beitar Yerushalayyim) is the Israeli football team with the largest following [1] [2]. Beitar players play in Teddy Stadium (capacity 23,000)[] in the Malkha complex in Jerusalem, nicknamed Gehinom (Hell) for the hostile atmosphere they present to visiting... Hapoel Peace Jerusalem Football Club (Hebrew: מועדון כדורגל הפועל השלום ירושלים, Moadon Kaduregel Hapoel haShalom Yerushalayim) is an Israeli football club, and is based at Teddy, Malha, Jerusalem. ... The State Cup (Hebrew: גביע המדינה) is the second most important tournament in Israeli football after the championship. ... For Ligat haAl basketball, see Ligat Winner. ... The Liga Artzit (Hebrew: ליגה ארצית) is the third-highest division overall in the Israeli football league system after Ligat haAl (Premier League) and the Liga Leumit (National League). ...


In basketball, Hapoel Jerusalem is higher up on the scale. In a league dominated by Maccabi Tel Aviv it has yet to win a championship, but it has won the Israeli Cup three times, and it took the European ULEB Cup in 2004.[126] Since its opening in 1992, Teddy Kollek Stadium has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium, with a capacity of 21,000.[127] Hapoel Migdal Jerusalem (הפועל מגדל ירושלים) is a basketball team based in Jerusalem, Israel. ... Ligat Haal (Hebrew: ליגת העל) (often referred to as the Israeli Premier League or Ligat Winner) is a league competition for Israeli basketball, making it Israels primary football competition. ... Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv (Hebrew: מכבי תל-אביב) is a basketball team based in Tel Aviv, Israel. ... The ULEB Cup is a second-caliber professional basketball league with teams from Europeean federation associated to ULEB (Basketball European Leagues Union), that havent qualified to Euroleague. ... Teddy Kollek Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Jerusalem, Israel. ...


Economy

Kanyon Hadar shopping mall in Talpiot
Kanyon Hadar shopping mall in Talpiot
Ben Yehuda Street on Shabbat, when businesses are closed
Ben Yehuda Street on Shabbat, when businesses are closed

Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa and Gaza.[128] Jerusalem's religious landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the Western Wall and the Old City,[3] but in the past half-century it has become increasingly clear that Jerusalem's providence cannot solely be sustained by its religious significance.[128] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ben Yehuda Street at night Ben Yehuda Street on Shabbat, when businesses are closed (looking from Zion Square). ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... The Western Wall by night. ... The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ...


Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967 East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem.[128] Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab households (76.1%) than for Jewish households (66.8%). The unemployment rate in Jerusalem (8.3%) is slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons fifteen years or older — lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv (58.0%) and Haifa (52.4%).[3] Poverty in the city has increased dramatically in recent years; between 2001 and 2007, the number of people below the poverty threshold increased by forty percent.[129] In 2006, the average monthly income for a worker in Jerusalem was NIS5,940 (US$1,410), NIS1,350 less than that for a worker in Tel Aviv.[129] East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living. ... ISO 4217 Code ILS User(s) Israel, The West Bank, Gaza Strip Inflation -0. ... USD redirects here. ...


During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of Jerusalem stone in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city.[54] Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem; only about 2.2% of Jerusalem's land is zoned for "industry and infrastructure." By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa, seven times as high.[3] Only 8.5% of the Jerusalem District work force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the national average (15.8%). Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs. 12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%).[130] Although Tel Aviv remains Israel's financial center, a growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006.[131] Northern Jerusalem's Har Hotzvim industrial park is home to some of Israel's major corporations, among them Intel, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, and ECI Telecom. Expansion plans for the park envision one hundred businesses, a fire station, and a school, covering an area of 530,000 m² (130 acres).[132] Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Walls of Jerusalem showing appearance of Jerusalem Stone Jerusalem Stone is the trade name of stone quarried in areas from the Jordan River on the east of Israel to the Mediterranean Sea on the countrys west, and from the southern Port of Eilat on the Red Sea to The... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... The Jerusalem District, highlighted. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... Intel redirects here. ... Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. ... ECI Telecom Ltd NASDAQ: ECIL, is a telecommunication equipment manufacturer based in Petah Tikva, Israel. ...


Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem's economy. The government, centered in Jerusalem, not only generates a large number of jobs, but also offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups.[128] In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ...


Transportation

Jerusalem's Central Bus Station
Jerusalem's Central Bus Station

The airport nearest to Jerusalem is Atarot Airport, which was used for domestic flights only until its closure in 2001. Since then it has been under the control of the Israel Defense Forces due to disturbances in Ramallah and the West Bank. All air traffic from Atarot was rerouted to Ben Gurion International Airport, Israel's largest and busiest airport, which serves nine million passengers annually.[133] Transport in Jerusalem characterized more by a well-developed inter-city network and an emerging, developing intra-city network. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 554 KB) Summary A photo of the new Jerusalem central bus station from across Jaffa street and the Yizkor squere. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 554 KB) Summary A photo of the new Jerusalem central bus station from across Jaffa street and the Yizkor squere. ... The Jerusalem Central Bus Station Jerusalem Central Bus Station is the main bus depot in Jerusalem, Israel. ... Atarot Airport (IATA: JRS, ICAO: LLJR) officially known Jerusalem International Airport and also Qalandiya Airport, is a domestic-only airport in northern Jerusalem along the road to Ramallah. ... Arabic رام الله Founded in 16th century Government City (from 1995) Governorate Ramallah & Al-Bireh Population 23,347 (2006) Jurisdiction 16,344 dunams (16. ... Ben Gurion International Airport or Ben Gurion Airport (‎, Namal HaTeÅ«fa Ben GÅ«ryōn, Arabic: , maār Ben Ghuryon ad-dawlÄ«) (IATA: TLV, ICAO: LLBG), historically known as Lydda Airport and sometimes referred to today by its Hebrew acronym Natbag (‎), is the largest and busiest international airport in Israel. ...


The Egged Bus Cooperative, the second-largest bus company in the world,[134] handles most of the local and intercity bus service out of the city's Central Bus Station on Jaffa Road near the entrance to Jerusalem. Israel Railways, which hopes to transport forty million passengers annually by 2010,[135] runs a limited rail service to Malha train station, at the terminus of an Israel Railways line from Tel Aviv.[136][137] Egged A bendy city bus in Israel. ... The Jerusalem Central Bus Station Jerusalem Central Bus Station is the main bus depot in Jerusalem, Israel. ... Jaffa Road (‎) is one of the most central and longest streets in Jerusalem, as well as one of its oldest. ... Israel Railways Logo Israel Railways (Hebrew: רכבת ישראל Rakévet Yisraél) is Israels government-owned national railway company and is responsible for all inter-city and suburban railway passenger and freight traffic in the country. ... The stations facade The Jerusalem Malha Train Station is the main Israel Railways station in Jerusalem, Israel. ...


Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem's major north-south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city until its northern end merges with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Route 60 runs through the center of the city near the Green Line that, de facto, separates East Jerusalem from West Jerusalem. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer (22-mile) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs.[138][139] The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed.[138] The Menachem Begin Expressway (or Begin Boulevard) is an urban expressway in western Jerusalem. ... The Israeli symbol for Road 443 Highway 443 (Hebrew: ), also Maaleh Beit Choron, way of Beth-Horon, is the main highway connecting Modiin with Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, and also serves as a secondary connection between the Tel Aviv area and Jerusalem. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... For the American political term, see Inside the Beltway and Beltway bandits. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


As of 2007, Egged buses, taxicabs and private cars are the only transportation options in Jerusalem. However, this will change with the completion of the Jerusalem Light Rail, a new rail-based transit system currently under construction. A rail-based system was first envisioned in 1995; since then, a light rail system has been chosen over a subway or monorail design due to its cheaper cost, minimal disruption, and preservation of the city center's aesthetics.[140] The rail system will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily. It will have twenty four stops, and is scheduled for completion in January 2009.[141] Alternative meaning: taxicab geometry. ... The Jerusalem Light Rail project consists of initially one and in a later phase possibly multiple light rail lines to provide fast and efficient public transportation in Jerusalem. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colorful straddle-beam monorail A monorail is a single rail serving as a track for a wheeled vehicle; also, a vehicle traveling on such a track. ...


In addition,[141] the new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem will, when completed in 2011, terminate at an underground station serving the national Convention centre and the Central Bus Station,[142] and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha station. French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The stations facade The Jerusalem Malha Railway Station is the main Israel Railways station in Jerusalem, Israel. ...


Education

The campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem atop Mount Scopus
The campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem atop Mount Scopus

Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities, with courses offered in Hebrew, Arabic, and English. Founded in 1925, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem[143] is one of the most respected institutions of higher learning in Israel. The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud.[55] The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include Avram Hershko,[144] David Gross,[145] and Daniel Kahneman.[146] One of the university's major assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses over five million books.[147] The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world's largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel.[148] The Hebrew University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv'at Ram and a medical campus at the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution (2519 × 1836 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution (2519 × 1836 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Mount Scopus (הר הצופים, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic جبل المشارف Jabal al-Mašārif, جبل المشهد Jabal al-Mašhad, جبل ا&#1604... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Winners of the Nobel Prize are scientists, writers and peacemakers who have been awarded in their field of endeavour, and who are known collectively as either Nobel laureates or Nobel Prize winners. ... Avram Hershko (‎, born Herskó Ferenc, 31 December 1937) is an Israeli biologist. ... David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941 in Washington, D.C.) is an American particle physicist and string theorist (although hes stated to the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo, on 09/27/2006, that the second area is included in the first one). ... Daniel Kahneman Daniel Kahneman (born March 5, 1934 in Tel Aviv, in the then British Mandate of Palestine, now in Israel), is a key pioneer and theorist of behavioral finance, which integrates economics and cognitive science to explain seemingly irrational risk management behavior in human beings. ... The Jewish National and University Library is Israels national library, based in Jerusalems Hebrew University. ... Mount Scopus (הר הצופים, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic جبل المشارف Jabal al-Mašārif, جبل المشهد Jabal al-Mašhad, جبل ا&#1604... Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital of Hadassah Ein Karem hospital (Hebrew: בית החולים הדסה עין כרם) is a University hospital in Ein Kerem, a suburb of Jerusalem, Israel. ...


Al-Quds University was established in 1984,[149] to serve as a flagship university for the Arab and Palestinian peoples. It describes itself as the "only Arab university in Jerusalem".[150] Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper on a campus encompassing 190,000 square metres (47 acres).[149] Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance[151] and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design,[152] whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University. Al-Quds University (Arabic: جامعه القدس ) is the Arab university in Jerusalem. ... The Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance (Hebrew:האקדמיה למוסיקה ולמחול בירושלים), founded in 1958, though its history dates back to the 1920s, is located on the Givat Ram campus of Hebrew University in Jerusalem. ... Bezalel Academy of Art and Design is Israels national school of art. ...


The Jerusalem College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program.[153] It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot are based in the city, with the Mir yeshiva claiming to be the largest.[154] There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school year.[3] However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests.[3] To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem.[155] The Jerusalem College of Technology (JCT), (Hebrew:בית הספר הגבוה לטכנולוגיה בירושלים), is a religious Orthodox Jewish academic college in the Givat Mordechai neighbourhood of Jerusalem. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... Not to be confused with Mir yeshiva (Brooklyn). ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Look up matriculation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Teudat Bagrut (Hebrew: The entire process of the examination is governed by the the countrys Ministry of Education. ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...


Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students.[156] While many schools in the heavily Arab East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is currently building over a dozen new schools within the East Jerusalem neighborhoods of Sheikh Jarrah, Issawiya, Sur Baher, Umm Lison, Beit Hanina, and Wadi Joz. In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of 4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project.[157] Because Arab high school students take the Bagrut matriculation exams, much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools, including certain Jewish subjects.[156] Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Beit Hanina (Arabic: , ‎) is a Palestinian town located in the seam zone[1] whose newer eastern neighborhood, is part of the Israeli-annexed municipality of Jerusalem, and whose older western part is subject to the Palestinian National Authoritys Jerusalem Governorate. ... Wadi Al-Joz (; Arabic: ), also Wadi Joz, is the Arabic name of the Kidron Valley, meaning valley of the nut. It also refers to the Jerusalem neighborhood located at the head of the valley, north of the Old City. ... Teudat Bagrut (Hebrew: The entire process of the examination is governed by the the countrys Ministry of Education. ...


See also

Yom Yerushalayim - Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim - Iyar 28 יום ירושלים - כח באייר Yom Yerushalayim 2004 at the Western_Wall Jerusalem was divided during the War of Independence and nineteen years later was reunited as a result of the... Neighborhoods Baaka German Colony Greek Colony Katamonim Old Katamon Ramot Rekhavia Qiriat HaYovel Talbieh Talpiot Beit Khanina French Hill Neve Yaaqov Old City Jewish Quarter Western Wall The Cardo Muslim Quarter Temple Mount, site of the former Temple in Jerusalem Dome of the Rock Al Aqsa Mosque Armenian... The Jerusalem Light Rail project consists of initially one and in a later phase possibly multiple light rail lines to provide fast and efficient public transportation in Jerusalem. ... Uri Lupolianski (born 1951) is the current mayor of Jerusalem. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Endnotes

i.   ^ The website for Jerusalem is available in three languages — Hebrew, English, and Arabic.
ii.   ^ Jerusalem in other languages: Arabic Bibles use أورشليم Ûrshalîm (Ûrushalîm); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Ûrshalîm-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names)
iii.   ^ Jerusalem is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are located there. The Palestinian Authority foresees East Jerusalem as the capital of its future state. The United Nations and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv (see CIA Factbook and Map of IsraelPDF (319 KiB)) See Positions on Jerusalem for more information.
iv.   ^ a b Much of the information regarding King David's conquest of Jerusalem comes from Biblical accounts, but modern-day historians have begun to give them credit due to a 1993 excavation.[160]
v.   ^ Statistics regarding the demographics of Jerusalem refer to the unified and expanded Israeli municipality, which includes the pre-1967 Israeli and Jordanian municipalities as well as several additional Palestinian villages and neighborhoods to the northeast. Some of the Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the West Bank de facto by way of the Israeli West Bank barrier,[161] but their legal statuses have not been reverted.
vi.   ^ Sources disagree on the timing of the creation of the Pact of Umar (Omar). Whereas some say the Pact originated during Umar's lifetime but was later expanded,[162][163] others say the Pact was created after his death and retroactively attributed to him.[164] Further still, other historians believe the ideas in the Pact pre-date Islam and Umar entirely.[165]

The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Israel has de facto control over all of Jerusalem. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... The Pact (Covenant) of Umar (c. ...

References

  1. ^ a b 40th Anniversary of the Reunification of Jerusalem. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2007-05-16). Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  2. ^ Largest city:
    • "...modern Jerusalem, Israel's largest city..." (Erlanger, Steven. Jerusalem, Now, The New York Times, April 16, 2006.)
    • "With a population of 701,512 in 2004, Jerusalem is Israel’s largest city. ("Israel (country)", Microsoft Encarta, 2006, p. 3. Retrieved October 18, 2006.)
    • "Since 1975 unified Jerusalem has been the largest city in Israel." ("Jerusalem", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2006.)
    • "Jerusalem is Israel’s largest city." ("Jerusalem", Microsoft Encarta, 2006, p. 1. Retrieved October 18, 2006.)
    • "Jerusalem is the largest city in the State of Israel. It has the largest population, the most Jews and the most non-Jews of all Israeli cities." (Klein, Menachem. Jerusalem: The Future of a Contested City, New York University Press, March 1, 2001, p. 18. ISBN 0-8147-4754-X)
    • "In 1967, Tel Aviv was the largest city in Israel. By 1987, more Jews lived in Jerusalem than the total population of Tel Aviv. Jerusalem had become Israel's premier city." (Friedland, Roger and Hecht, Richard. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, September 19, 2000, p. 192. ISBN 0-520-22092-7)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Press Release: Jerusalem Day (pdf). Central Bureau of Statistics (2006-05-24). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  4. ^ a b Timeline for the History of Jerusalem. Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  5. ^ a b Since the 10th century BCE:[iv]
    • "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some three thousand years ago, when King David seized the crown and united the twelve tribes from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0520220927
    • "The Jewish bond to Jerusalem was never broken. For three millennia, Jerusalem has been the center of the Jewish faith, retaining its symbolic value throughout the generations." Jerusalem- the Holy City, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, February 23, 2003. Accessed March 24, 2007.
    • "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0814650813
    • "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict, Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0028644107
    • "For Jews the city has been the pre-eminent focus of their spiritual, cultural, and national life throughout three millennia." Yossi Feintuch, U.S. Policy on Jerusalem, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1987, p. 1. ISBN 0313257000
    • "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, Jerusalem: Points of Friction - And Beyond, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 9041188436
    • "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Accessed March 28, 2007.
  6. ^ a b Third-holiest city in Islam:
    • Esposito, John L. (2002-11-02). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press, 157. ISBN 0195157133. “The Night Journey made Jerusalem the third holiest city in Islam” 
    • Brown, Leon Carl (2000-09-15). "Setting the Stage: Islam and Muslims", Religion and State: The Muslim Approach to Politics. Columbia University Press, 11. ISBN 0231120389. “The third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the center...” 
    • Hoppe, Leslie J. (August 2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Michael Glazier Books, 14. ISBN 0814650813. “Jerusalem has always enjoyed a prominent place in Islam. Jerusalem is often referred to as the third holiest city in Islam...” 
  7. ^ List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The site of Jerusalem was nominated in 1981 by Jordan. Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls
  8. ^ Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua (1984). Jerusalem in the 19th Century, The Old City. Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & St. Martin's Press, 14. ISBN 0312441878. 
  9. ^ Kollek, Teddy (1977). "Afterword", in John Phillips: A Will to Survive - Israel: the Faces of the Terror 1948-the Faces of Hope Today. Dial Press/James Wade. “about 225 acres” 
  10. ^ a b Segal, Jerome M. (Fall 1997). Negotiating Jerusalem. The University of Maryland School of Public Policy. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  11. ^ Møller, Bjørn (November 2002). "A Cooperative Structure for Israeli-Palestinian Relations" (pdf). Working Paper No. 1. Centre for European Policy Studies. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  12. ^ The Status of Jerusalem. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1999-03-14). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  13. ^ a b Ben-Gurion, David (1949-12-05). Statements of the Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion Regarding Moving the Capital of Israel to Jerusalem. The Knesset. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  14. ^ Kellerman, Aharon (January 1993). Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israel in the Twentieth Century. State University of New York Press, 140. ISBN 0791412954. “[Tel Aviv] also contains most embassies, given the nonrecognition by many countries of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.” 
  15. ^ Bethune, George Washington (1845). The Fruit of the Spirit. Mentz & Rovoudt, 93. “is the New Jerusalem, or "heritage of peace."” 
  16. ^ Allen, Joseph Henry (1879). Hebrew Men and Times: From the Patriarchs to the Messiah. Roberts Brothers, 125. “name it Jerusalem, the "heritage of Peace."” 
  17. ^ Elon, Amos (1996-01-08). Jerusalem. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0006375316. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. “The epithet may have originated in the ancient name of Jerusalem—Salem (after the pagan deity of the city), which is etymologically connected in the Semitic languages with the words for peace (shalom in Hebrew, salam in Arabic).” 
  18. ^ From the King James Version: "And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God." (Genesis 14:18)
  19. ^ Jerusalem, the Old City. al-Quds University. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  20. ^ a b Landau, Yehezkel (1996). "Sharing Jerusalem: The Spiritual And Political Challenges". Service International De Documéntation Judéo-Chrétienne 29 (2–3). Retrieved on 2007-01-14. “I will share another meta-midrash...believers in the One Supreme God.” 
  21. ^ Sitchin, Zecharia, The Cosmic Code, Avon 1998
  22. ^ Wallace, Edwin Sherman (August 1977). Jerusalem the Holy, 16. ISBN 0405102984. “A similar view was held by those who give the Hebrew dual to the word” 
  23. ^ Smith, George Adam (1907). Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. Hodder and Stoughton, 251. “The termination -aim or -ayim used to be taken as the ordinary termination of the dual of nouns, and was explained as signifying the upper and lower cities”  (see here)
  24. ^ a b c Freedman, David Noel (2000-01-01). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing, 694-695. ISBN 0802824005. 
  25. ^ Killebrew Ann E. "Biblical Jerusalem: An Archaeological Assessment" in Andrew G. Vaughn and Ann E. Killebrew, eds., "Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period" (SBL Symposium Series 18; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003)
  26. ^ Vaughn, Andrew G.; Ann E. Killebrew (2003-08-01). "Jerusalem at the Time of the United Monarchy", Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: the First Temple Period, 32–33. ISBN 1589830660. 
  27. ^ Shalem, Yisrael (1997-03-03). History of Jerusalem from Its Beginning to David. Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  28. ^ Greenfeld, Howard (2005-03-29). A Promise Fulfilled: Theodor Herzl, Chaim Weizmann, David Ben-Gurion, and the Creation of the State of Israel. Greenwillow, 32. ISBN 006051504X. 
  29. ^ Timeline. City of David. Ir David Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  30. ^ a b Michael, E.; Sharon O. Rusten, Philip Comfort, and Walter A. Elwell (2005-02-28). The Complete Book of When and Where: In The Bible And Throughout History. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 20–1, 67. ISBN 0842355081. 
  31. ^ Merling, David (1993-08-26). Where is the Ark of the Covenant?. Andrew's University. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  32. ^ Zank, Michael. Capital of Judah I (930–722). Boston University. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  33. ^ a b Zank, Michael. Capital of Judah (930–586). Boston University. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  34. ^ Sicker, Martin (2001-01-30). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Praeger Publishers, 2. ISBN 0275971406. 
  35. ^ Zank, Michael. Center of the Persian Satrapy of Judah (539–323). Boston University. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  36. ^ Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. Ktav Publishing House, 60–79. ISBN 0-88125-371-5. 
  37. ^ Har-el, Menashe. This Is Jerusalem. Canaan Publishing House. 
  38. ^ Zank, Michael. The Temple Mount. Boston University. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  39. ^ Crossan, John Dominic (1993-02-26). The Historical Jesus: the life of a Mediterranean Jewish peasant, Reprinted ed., San Francisco: HarperCollins, 92. ISBN 0060616296. “from 4 BCE until 6 CE, when Rome, after exiling [Herod Archelaus] to Gaul, assumed direct prefectural control of his territories” 
  40. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles. Palestine: People and Places. The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South Dakota. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  41. ^ a b Lehmann, Clayton Miles (2007-02-22). Palestine: History. The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South Dakota. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  42. ^ Cohen, Shaye J. D. (1996). "Judaism to Mishnah: 135–220 C.E", in Hershel Shanks: Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History of their Origins and Early Development, 196. 
  43. ^ Har-el, Menashe. This Is Jerusalem. Canaan Publishing House. 
  44. ^ Zank, Michael. Byzantian Jerusalem. Boston University. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  45. ^ Gil, Moshe (February 1997). A History of Palestine, 634-1099. Cambridge University Press, 70-71. ISBN 0521599849. 
  46. ^ Hoppe, Leslie J. (August 2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Michael Glazier Books, 15. ISBN 0814650813. 
  47. ^ Zank, Michael. Abbasid Period and Fatimid Rule (750–1099). Boston University. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  48. ^ Hull, Michael D. (June 1999). "First Crusade: Siege of Jerusalem". Military History. Retrieved on 2007-05-18. 
  49. ^ a b Main Events in the History of Jerusalem. Jerusalem: The Endless Crusade. The CenturyOne Foundation (2003). Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  50. ^ Elyon, Lili (April 1999). Jerusalem: Architecture in the Late Ottoman Period. Focus on Israel. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  51. ^ Fromkin, David (2001-09-01). A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East, 2nd reprinted, Owl Books e, 312–3. ISBN 0805068848. 
  52. ^ Mendelsson, David. British Rule. Department for Jewish Zionist Education. The Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  53. ^ Tamari, Salim (1999). "Jerusalem 1948: The Phantom City" (Reprint). Jerusalem Quarterly File (3). Retrieved on 2007-02-02. 
  54. ^ a b Eisenstadt, David (2002-08-26). The British Mandate. Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  55. ^ a b History. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  56. ^ Considerations Affecting Certain of the Provisions of the General Assembly Resolution on the "Future Government of Palestine": The City of Jerusalem. The United Nations (1948-01-22). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  57. ^ http://www.mefacts.com/cache/html/wall-ruling_/11362.htm
  58. ^ Mitchell Bard. Myths & Facts Online: Jerusalem. Jewish Virtual Library.
  59. ^ a b Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1980-07-30). Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  60. ^ "No Mid-East advance at UN summit", BBC, 2000-09-07. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  61. ^ Khaled Abu Toameh. "Abbas: Aim guns against occupation", The Jerusalem Post, 2007-01-11. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  62. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 252. Jewish Virtual Library (1968-05-21). Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  63. ^ Cabrera, Enrique; Jorge García-Serra (1998-12-31). Drought Management Planning in Water Supply Systems. Springer, 304. ISBN 0792352947. “The Old City of Jerusalem (760 m) in the central hills” 
  64. ^ a b Bergsohn, Sam (2006-05-15). Geography. Cornell University. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  65. ^ Walvoord, John; Zachary J. Hayes, Clark H. Pinnock, William Crockett, and Stanley N. Gundry (1996-01-07). "The Metaphorical View", Four Views on Hell. Zondervan, 58. ISBN 0310212685. 
  66. ^ Rosen-Zvi, Issachar (June 2004). Taking Space Seriously: Law, Space and Society in Contemporary Israel. Ashgate Publishing, 37. ISBN 0754623513. “Thus, for instance, the distance between the four large metropolitan regions are—39 miles” 
  67. ^ Federman, Josef. "Debate flares anew over Dead Sea Scrolls", AP via MSNBC, 2004-08-18. Retrieved on 2007-02-09. 
  68. ^ Introduction. The Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Expedition. Bar Ilan University. Retrieved on 2007-04-24. (Image located here)
  69. ^ Map of Israel. Eye On Israel. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. (See map 9 for Jerusalem)
  70. ^ ""One more Obstacle to Peace" – A new Israeli Neighborhood on the lands of Jerusalem city", The Applied Research Institute -- Jerusalem, 2007-03-10. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.  (Image located here)
  71. ^ a b Monthly Averages for Jerusalem, Israel. The Weather Channel. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  72. ^ Monthly Averages for Jerusalem, Israel (English). The Weather Channel Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on May 23, 2007.
  73. ^ a b Ma'oz, Moshe; Sari Nusseibeh (March 2000). Jerusalem: Points of Friction-And Beyond. Brill Academic Publishers, 44-6. ISBN 9041188436. 
  74. ^ Rory Kess. "Worst ozone pollution in Beit Shemesh, Gush Etzion", The Jerusalem Post, September 16, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-23. 
  75. ^ Population and Density per km² in Localities Numbering Above 5,000 Residents on 31 XII 2005 (pdf). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  76. ^ Sel, Neta. "Jerusalem: More tourists, fewer Jews", YNet, 2006-05-23. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. 
  77. ^ Hockstader, Lee. "Jewish Drop In Jerusalem Worries Israel", The Washington Post via Cornell University, 1998-08-16. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. 
  78. ^ Laub, Karin. "Jerusalem Barrier Causes Major Upheaval", The Associated Press via The Washington Post, 2006-12-02. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. 
  79. ^ a b Cidor, Peggy. "Corridors of Power: A tale of two councils", The Jerusalem Post, 2007-03-15. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. 
  80. ^ Coker, Margaret. "Jerusalem Becomes A Battleground Over Gay Rights Vs. Religious Beliefs", Cox Newspapers, 2006-11-11. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. 
  81. ^ Safra Square - City Hall. The Municipality of Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  82. ^ Jerusalem and Berlin Embassy Relocation Act of 1998. The Library of Congress (1998-06-25). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  83. ^ Embassies and Consulates in Israel. Israel Science and Technology Homepage. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  84. ^ Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office (1995-11-08). Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  85. ^ Statement on FY 2003 Foreign Relations Authorization Act. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  86. ^ English gateway to the Knesset website. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  87. ^ The State of Israel: The Judicial Authority. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  88. ^ Jerusalem as administrative capital of the British Mandate of Palestine:
    • Orfali, Jacob G. (March 1995). Everywhere You Go, People Are the Same. Ronin Publishing, 25. ISBN 0914171755. “In the year 1923, [Jerusalem] became the capital of the British Mandate in Palestine” 
    • Oren-Nordheim, Michael (September 2001). Jerusalem and Its Environs: Quarters, Neighborhoods, Villages, 1800–1948. Wayne State University Press, 36. ISBN 0814329098. “The three decades of British rule in Palestine (1917/18–1948) were a highly significant phase in the development, with indelible effects on the urban planning and development of the capital – Jerusalem.”  Ruth Kark is a professor in the Department of Geography at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
    • Dumper, Michael (1996-04-15). The Politics of Jerusalem Since 1967. Columbia University Press, 59. ISBN 0231106408. “...the city that was to become the administrative capital of Mandate Palestine...” 
  89. ^ Klein, Menachem (March 2001). "The PLO and the Palestinian Identity of East Jerusalem", Jerusalem: The Future of a Contested City. New York University Press, 189. ISBN 081474754X. 
  90. ^ a b About the Museum. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  91. ^ Shrine of the Book. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  92. ^ The Rockefeller Archaeological Museum. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  93. ^ The Rockefeller Archaeological Museum: About the Museum: The Permanent Exhibition. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  94. ^ Ticho House. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  95. ^ Yad Vashem. The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  96. ^ a b About Yad Vashem. The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  97. ^ a b History. Jerusalem Orchestra. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  98. ^ About Us. The Khan Theatre (2004). Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  99. ^ The Jerusalem Centre for the Performing Arts. Jerusalem Theater. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  100. ^ Jerusalem Music Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  101. ^ History. Palestinian National Theatre. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  102. ^ Mission. Palestinian National Theatre. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  103. ^ Israel Festival: Jerusalem 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  104. ^ About. Israel Festival. Retrieved on 2007-04-24. The necessary information could be found by clicking the "About" link on the homepage that appears.
  105. ^ Guinn, David E. (2006-10-02). Protecting Jerusalem's Holy Sites: A Strategy for Negotiating a Sacred Peace, 1st ed., Cambridge University Press, 142. ISBN 0521866626. 
  106. ^ What is the Western Wall?. The Kotel. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  107. ^ Goldberg, Monique Susskind. Synagogues. Ask the Rabbi. Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  108. ^ a b Segal, Benjamin J. (1987). Returning: The Land of Israel as Focus in Jewish History. Jerusalem, Israel: Department of Education and Culture of the World Zionist Organization, 124. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. 
  109. ^ The Jewish injunction to pray toward Jerusalem comes in the Orach Chayim section of Shulchan Aruch (94:1) — "When one rises to pray anywhere in the Diaspora, he should face towards the Land of Israel, directing himself also toward Jerusalem, the Temple, and the Holy of Holies."
  110. ^ From the King James Version of the Bible: "And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought [Jesus] to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord;" (Luke 2:22)
  111. ^ From the King James Version of the Bible: "And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves;" (Mark 11:15)
  112. ^ Boas, Adrian J. (2001-10-12). "Physical Remains of Crusader Jerusalem", Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades. Routledge, 112. ISBN 0415230004. “The interesting, if not reliable illustrations of the church on the round maps of Jerusalem show two distinct buildings on Mount Zion: the church of St Mary and the Cenacle (Chapel of the Last Supper) appear as separate buildings.” 
  113. ^ Endo, Shusaku (1999). in Richard A. Schuchert: A Life of Jesus. Paulist Press, 116. ISBN 0809123193. 
  114. ^ From the King James Version of the Bible: "This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin." (John 19:20)
  115. ^ a b Stump, Keith W. (1993). Where Was Golgotha?. Worldwide Church of God. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  116. ^ Ray, Stephen K. (October 2002). St. John's Gospel: A Bible Study Guide and Commentary for Individuals and Groups, 340. ISBN 0898708214. 
  117. ^ O'Reilly, Sean (2000-11-30). Pilgrimage: Adventures of the Spirit, 1st ed., Travelers' Tales, 14. ISBN 1885211562. “The general consensus is that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre marks the hill called Golgotha, and that the site of the Crucifixion and the last five Stations of the Cross are located under its large black domes.” 
  118. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (2005-10-30). "The Final Settlement Issues: Asymmetric Values & Asymmetric Warfare", The Israeli-Palestinian War: Escalating to Nowhere. Praeger Security International, 62. ISBN 0275987582. 
  119. ^ Peters, Francis E. (2003-10-20). "Muhammad the Prophet of God", The Monotheists: The Peoples of God. Princeton University Press, 95-6. ISBN 0691114609. 
  120. ^ Sahih Bukhari. Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. Retrieved on 2007-03-11. (from an English translation of Sahih Bukhari, Volume IX, Book 93, Number 608)
  121. ^ From Abdullah Yusuf Ali's English translation of the Qur'an: "Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things)." (17:1)
  122. ^ The Early Arab Period - 638-1099. Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies (March 1997). Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  123. ^ Torstrick, Rebecca L. (2004-06-30). Culture and Customs of Israel. Greenwood Press, 141. ISBN 0313320918. “The two most popular spectator sports in Israel are soccer (Israeli football) and basketball.” 
  124. ^ Griver, Simon. "Betar Jerusalem: A Local Sports Legend Exports Talent to Europe's Top Leagues", Israel Magazine via the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. 
  125. ^ (Hebrew) Home. Beitar Jerusalem F.C.. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. (The listing of championship wins are located on the left side.)
  126. ^ (Hebrew) Home. Hapoel Migdal Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. (The listing of championship wins are located at the bottom after the completion of the Flash intro.)
  127. ^ Eldar, Yishai (2001-12-01). Jerusalem: Architecture Since 1948. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  128. ^ a b c d Dumper, Michael (1996-04-15). The Politics of Jerusalem Since 1967. Columbia University Press, 207–10. ISBN 0231106408. 
  129. ^ a b "Study shows poverty level in Jerusalem double that of other Israeli cities", Israel Insider, 2007-01-11. Retrieved on 2007-03-11. 
  130. ^ Employed Persons, by Industry, District and Sub-District of Residence, 2005 (PDF). Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
  131. ^ Gil Zohar. "Bet your bottom dollar?", The Jerusalem Post, June 28, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
  132. ^ Har Hotzvim Industrial Park. Har Hotzvim Industrial Park. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  133. ^ Smith, Patrick. "Ask the Pilot", Salon, 2006-06-09. Retrieved on 2007-03-14. 
  134. ^ Solomon, Shoshanna. "Facets of the Israeli Economy – Transportation", Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2001-11-01. Retrieved on 2007-03-14. 
  135. ^ General Information: Railway 2000. Israel Railways. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  136. ^ Jerusalem - Malha. Israel Railways. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  137. ^ Passenger Lines Map. Israel Railways. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  138. ^ a b Burstein, Nathan. "Running rings around us", The Jerusalem Post, 2006-01-19. Retrieved on 2007-03-17. 
  139. ^ Gil Zohar. "Their way or the highway?", The Jerusalem Post, May 31, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. 
  140. ^ Solution. Jerusalem Mass Transit System Project. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  141. ^ a b Afra, Orit. "Panacea or pain?", The Jerusalem Post, 2007-02-08. Retrieved on 2007-03-17. 
  142. ^ Life in Jerusalem – Transportation. Rothberg International Station – Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  143. ^ Official site of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: (Hebrew), (Hebrew)
  144. ^ Hershko, Avram. Avram Hershko. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  145. ^ Gross, David. David J. Gross. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  146. ^ Kahneman, Daniel. Daniel Kahneman. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  147. ^ About the Library: Main Collections. Jewish National and University Library. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  148. ^ About the Library: History and Aims. Jewish National and University Library. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  149. ^ a b Science & Technology. al-Quds University. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  150. ^ Urgent Appeal. al-Quds University. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  151. ^ Official site of the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance: (Hebrew), (English)
  152. ^ Official site of Bezalel Academy of Art and Design: (Hebrew), (English)
  153. ^ About JCT. Jerusalem College of Technology. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  154. ^ Wohlgelernter, Elli (2000-12-28). The village of Mir, where Torah once flowed. Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  155. ^ Jonathan Lis. "The best medicine for Jerusalem", May 4, 2005. 
  156. ^ a b Summary. Second Class Discrimination Against Palestinian Arab Children in Israel's Schools. Human Rights Watch (September 2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  157. ^ Or Kashti. "8,000 new classrooms to be built in Arab, ultra-Orthodox schools", March 18, 2007. 
  158. ^ {{cite web|url=http://www.nyc.gov/html/unccp/scp/html/sc/jerusalem_history.shtml
  159. ^ Online Directory: Israel, Middle East. Sister Cities International. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  160. ^ Pellegrino, Charles R. (1995-12-01). Return to Sodom & Gomorrah, Second revised, Harper Paperbacks, 271. ISBN 0380726335. “[see footnote]” 
  161. ^ Laub, Karin. "Jerusalem Barrier Causes Major Upheaval", The Associated Press via The Washington Post, 2006-12-02. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. 
  162. ^ Marcus, Jacob Rader (March 2000). The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315–1791, Revised ed., Hebrew Union College Press, 13–15. ISBN 087820217X. Retrieved on 2007-02-01. 
  163. ^ Jonsson, David J. (2005-02-19). The Clash of Ideologies. Xulon Press, 256. ISBN 1597810398. “During the reign of Umar, the Pact of Umar was established.” 
  164. ^ Goddard, Hugh (2001-04-25). A History of Christian-Muslim Relations. New Amsterdam Books, 46. ISBN 1566633400. “Although the documents are attributed to `Umar, in all probability they actually come from the second Islamic century... The covenant was drawn up in the schools of law, and came to be ascribed, like so much else, to `Umar I” 
  165. ^ Goddard, Hugh (2001-04-25). A History of Christian-Muslim Relations. New Amsterdam Books, 47. ISBN 1566633400. “It has recently been suggested that many of the detailed regulations concerning what the ahl al-dhimma were and were not permitted to do come from an earlier historical precedent, namely the regulations which existed in the Sassanian Persian Empire with reference to its religious minorities in Iraq.” 

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Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Teddy Kollek in Vienna in 2003 Theodor Teddy Kollek (May 27, 1911 – January 2, 2007) was an Israeli politician and Mayor of Jerusalem from 1965 until 1993. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitchell Geoffrey Bard is an American foreign policy analyst who specializes in U.S.-Middle East policy. ... The Jewish Virtual Library is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), notable for its strong pro-Israel views. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Orach Chayim is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Ashers compilation of Jewish Law, Arbaah Turim, that treats all aspects of Jewish Law primarily pertinent to the Jewish calendar (whether the daily, weekly, monthly, or annual calendar). ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shusaku Endō (遠藤 周作 Endō Shusaku, March 27, 1923 - September 29, 1996) was a renowned 20th Century Japanese author who wrote from a unique perspective of being a Roman Catholic Japanese. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthony Cordesman holds the Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, specializing in energy issues, the Middle East and North Africa, defense policy, and terrorism and transnational threats. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Edward Peters is Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, History, and Religion at New York University. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Surat Al-Isra (Arabic: سورة الإسراء ) (ie The Night Journey) is the 17th sura of the Quran . ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה), often abbreviated to CBS, is the Israeli government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Israel. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance (Hebrew:האקדמיה למוסיקה ולמחול בירושלים), founded in 1958, though its history dates back to the 1920s, is located on the Givat Ram campus of Hebrew University in Jerusalem. ... Bezalel Academy of Art and Design is Israels national school of art. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of...

Other resources

Panoramic view on the Western Wall and Dome of the Rock
  • Cheshin, Amir S.; Bill Hutman and Avi Melamed (1999). Separate and Unequal: the Inside Story of Israeli Rule in East Jerusalem Harvard University Press
  • Cline, Eric (2004) Jerusalem Besieged: From Ancient Canaan to Modern Israel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press ISBN 0-472-11313-5.
  • Collins, Larry, and La Pierre, Dominique (1988). O Jerusalem! Simon and Shuster, N.Y. ISBN 0-671-66241-4
  • Gold, Dore (2007) The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical Islam, The West, and the Future of the Holy City Regnery Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59698-029-7
  • Köchler, Hans (1981) The Legal Aspects of the Palestine Problem with Special Regard to the Question of Jerusalem Vienna: Braumüller ISBN 3-7003-0278-9
  • The Holy Cities: Jerusalem produced by Danae Film Production, distributed by HDH Communications; 2006
  • Wasserstein, Bernard (2002) Divided Jerusalem: The Struggle for the Holy City New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09730-1

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2163x742, 406 KB) Jerusalem - Wailing wall and Dome of the Rock Beivushtang 15:21, 29 November 2006 (UTC) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2163x742, 406 KB) Jerusalem - Wailing wall and Dome of the Rock Beivushtang 15:21, 29 November 2006 (UTC) http://www. ... The Western Wall by night. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ...

External links

Find more information on Jerusalem by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Official website of Jerusalem
  • Jerusalemp3, offers free virtual tours in mp3 format from the Jerusalem Municipality
  • City of David
  • Virtual Tour of the Old City of Jerusalem - Panoramic tour of the Old City's historical sites

Government Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

  • The Status of JerusalemPDF (159 KiB), United Nations document related to the recent dispute over Jerusalem
  • Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel, Government of Israel, the Israeli law making Jerusalem the capital of Israel

Culture “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

  • Israel Museum, one of Jerusalem's premier art museums
  • Yad Vashem, Israeli memorial to victims of The Holocaust

Education

  • Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem's foremost institution of higher learning
  • al-Quds University, "the only Arab university in Jerusalem"

Maps

  • Maps and aerial photos for 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.78, 35.22
    • Maps from MapQuest, Multimap and Yahoo! Maps
    • Satellite images and maps from Google Maps and Live Search
    • Enhanced versions of Google Maps from GlobalGuide and WikiMapia
  • Modern-day map of Jerusalem, from the Jerusalem Municipality
  • Ancient Maps of Jerusalem, from the Jewish National Library at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Media

  • The Jerusalem Post, the oldest and largest English-language Israeli newspaper (formerly The Palestine Post)
  • Ha'aretz, major source of Israeli news
  • Ynetnews, major source of Israeli news
  • Arutz Sheva (see also: Arutz Sheva)

Coordinates: 31°47′N, 35°13′E Arutz Sheva Israel National Radio is a right wing Israeli radio station. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The Jerusalem District, highlighted. ... A City council (‎) is the official designation of a city within Israels system of local government. ... Beth-shemesh is the name of ancient Biblical towns. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (262x727, 43 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... In Israel, a local council is a locality similar to a city in structure and way of life, that has not yet achieved a status of a city, which requires a minimum number of residents, among other things. ... Abu Ghosh is an Arab village west of Jerusalem on the road to Tel Aviv whose inhabitants were known for their friendly relations with their Jewish neighbors. ... Kiryat Yearim, also spelled Qiryat Yearim (Hebrew: ‎), is a town (local council) in the Jerusalem District of Israel. ... Mevaseret Zion (Hebrew: מבשרת ציון, literally herald of Zion) is a town (local council) in Israel. ... The Israeli Ministry of Interior recognizes three types of local government in Israel: cities, regional councils, and local councils. ... Matte Yehuda (‎) is a regional council in the Judean Mountains in Israel. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Peking redirects here. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... View of Tashichoedzong, Thimphu Thimphu from Sangey Gang Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུ་) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Malé (Dhivehi: މާލެ), (pronounced: Maa-lay) population 81,647 (2004), is the capital of the Republic of Maldives located at the southern edge of North Male Atoll Kaafu Atoll. ... For the retail store chain, see Kathmandu (company). ... For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ... , District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque Bandar Seri Begawan, estimated population 46,229 (1991), is the capital and the royal town of the Sultanate of Brunei. ... Phnom Penh (Khmer: ; official Romanization: Phnum Pénh; IPA: ) is the largest, most populous and capital city of Cambodia. ... Dili, also spelled Díli, Dilli or Dilly, is the capital of East Timor. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... Naypyidaw (also spelt Nay Pyi Taw, literally Royal City) is currently the national capital of Myanmar, located in Kyatpyae Village, Pyinmana Township of Mandalay Division. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Bahrain from space, June 1996 Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the countrys largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of countrys entire population. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 32,403 (2005 Census), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah governorate. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Classification City Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said Area 3,500 km² [1] Population  - Total (2005)  - Density  - Oman calculated rank 606,024 [2] 184. ... For other uses, see Doha (disambiguation). ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Abu Dhabi or Abu Zaby (Arabic language: أبوظبي) is the largest of the seven emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates and was also the largest of the former Trucial States. ... Building in San‘a’ Clay houses in San‘a’ The residence of Imam Yahya in the Wadi Dhar near San‘a’. Backstreet in Yemen (Arabic: ‎ , sometimes spelled Sanaa or Sanaa) is the capital of Yemen and the centre of San‘a’ Governorate. ...


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