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Encyclopedia > Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown

Jerry Brown from when he was Mayor of Oakland


Incumbent
Assumed office 
2007
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Preceded by Bill Lockyer

In office
January 4, 1999 – January 8, 2007
Preceded by Elihu M. Harris
Succeeded by Ronald V. Dellums

In office
January 6, 1975 – January 3, 1983
Lieutenant Mervyn M. Dymally
(1975 - 1979)
Michael Curb
(1979 - 1983)
Preceded by Ronald Reagan
Succeeded by George Deukmejian

In office
1971 – 1975
Governor Ronald Reagan
Preceded by H.P. Sullivan
Succeeded by March Fong Eu

Born April 7, 1938 (1938-04-07) (age 70)
San Francisco, California
Political party Democratic
Spouse Anne Gust
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley
Profession Politician
Religion Roman Catholic

Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown, Jr. (born April 7, 1938), is the current Attorney General and former governor of the State of California. Brown has had a lengthy political career spanning terms on the Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees (1969-1971), as California Secretary of State (1971-1975), as Governor of California (1975-1983), as chair of the California Democratic Party (1989-1991), the Mayor of Oakland (1998-2006), and the Attorney General of California (2007-present). He unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nominations for president in 1976, 1980 and 1992, and was an unsuccessful Democratic nominee for the United States Senate in 1982. Since Brown's terms in office are not covered by term limits that came into effect in 1990, he is not barred from running for Governor again. The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of the government of the state of California in the USA. The officers duty is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... Open seat redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... William Westwood Bill Lockyer (born May 8, 1941) is the current State Treasurer of California. ... List of mayors of Oakland, California, founded in 1852. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Ronald Vernie Dellums (born November 24, 1935), U.S. Democratic Party politician, was a U.S. Representative from California from 1971 until 1999. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... California State Assemblyman Mervyn Dymally Mervyn Malcolm Dymally, Ph. ... Michael Curb (born December 24, 1944 in Savannah, Georgia) is an American musician, record company executive, race car owner (in both NASCAR and IRL), and politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of California from 1979 until 1983. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Courken George Deukmejian, Jr. ... The Secretary of State of California is the states chief elections officer. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reagan redirects here. ... H.P. Sullivan was the California Secretary of State from 1970-1971 after Frank M. Jordan departed office. ... March Fong Eu March Fong Eu (江月桂, pinyin: Jiāng Yuègùi) (born 1922 in Oakdale, California) is an American politician and a member of the Democratic Party. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... Whistleblower Gerald W. Brown. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of the government of the state of California in the USA. The officers duty is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... This article is about the U.S state. ... The Secretary of State of California is the states chief elections officer. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... The California Democratic Party is the local branch of the Democratic Party in the state of California. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Oakland redirects here. ... The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of the government of the state of California in the USA. The officers duty is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The California gubernatorial election, 2010 will be held on November 2, 2010, and will include the races for the Governor of California, Lieutenant Governor of California, Secretary of State of California, Attorney General of California, California State Controller, California State Treasurer and California State Superintendent of Public Instruction. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Brown was born in San Francisco, the only son of former San Francisco lawyer, District attorney and later Democratic governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown Sr. He graduated from St. Ignatius High School and studied at Santa Clara University. In 1958, he entered Sacred Heart Novitiate, a Jesuit seminary, intending to become a Catholic priest. San Francisco redirects here. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... St. ... Santa Clara University is a private, co-educational Jesuit-affiliated university located in Santa Clara, California. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ... This article is about religious workers. ...


However, Brown left the seminary and entered the University of California, Berkeley, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Classics in 1961. Brown went on to Yale Law School and graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1964. Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... B. A. redirects here. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... J.D. redirects here. ...


After law school, Brown worked as a law clerk for Mathew Tobriner, who was a justice for the Supreme Court of California, and studied in Mexico and Latin America. In the United States, Canada and Brazil, a law clerk is a person who provides assistance to a judge in researching issues before the court and in writing opinions. ... Mathew O. Tobriner was an associate justice on the California Supreme Court from 1962 – 1982. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Legal career and entrance into politics

Brown returned to California but initially failed the bar exam.[1] After passing the bar Brown settled in Los Angeles and joined the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor. In the late 1960s, he entered politics by organizing migrant workers and anti-Vietnam War groups. In 1969, he ran for the newly created Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees, which oversaw community colleges in the city, and placed first in a field of 124, helped by the alphabetical placement of names on the ballot and his family's name recognition. A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law. ... Migrant farm worker, New York A migrant worker is someone who regularly works away from home, if they even have a home. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and had spread to the United Kingdom by May of 1965 [1]. By the end of 1968, as U.S. troop casualties mounted and the... A community college is a type of educational institution. ...


In 1970, Brown was elected California Secretary of State. Brown used the position, which was historically limited in power, to bring suits against corporations such as Standard Oil of California, International Telephone and Telegraph, Gulf Oil, and Mobil for violation of campaign-finance laws and argued in person before the California Supreme Court. Secretary of State is an official in the state governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from the 1900s to the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... Campaign finance in the United States is the financing of electoral campaigns at the federal, state, and local levels. ... The Supreme Court of California is the state supreme court in California. ...


Brown also enforced laws requiring members of the California State Legislature to disclose sources of campaign funds and investigated allegedly falsely-notarized documents that had allowed Richard Nixon to claim a large tax deduction. Brown also played an important role in the drafting and passage of the California Fair Political Practices Act. These highly-publicized actions resulted in statewide acclaim, and led to his election as governor in the next statewide election. Californias Capitol, where the State Legislature meets California State Assembly chamber California state Senate chamber The California Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ... Nixon redirects here. ... A tax deduction or a tax-deductible expense represents an expense incurred by a taxpayer that is subtracted from gross income and results in a lower overall taxable income. ...


Governorship

Jerry Brown's official gubernatorial portrait
Jerry Brown's official gubernatorial portrait

In 1974, Brown was elected governor of California, succeeding the Republican Governor Ronald Reagan, who was retiring from office after serving two terms, and who, himself, had become governor after defeating Brown's father, Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, Sr., in the 1966 election. Jerry Brown took office in 1975. Official portrait of Jerry Brown as Governor of California, from the California State Capitol Museum. ... Official portrait of Jerry Brown as Governor of California, from the California State Capitol Museum. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... GOP redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ...


Strongly opposed to the Vietnam War, Brown had a broad base of support from California's young liberals who dominated the political scene. Upon election, he refused many of the privileges and trappings of the office, forgoing the grand California Governor's Mansion (which was sold under Brown in 1983) and instead rented a modest apartment at the coner of 14th and N Streets, adjacent to Capitol Park in downtown Sacramento. Instead of riding as a passenger in chauffeured limousines as previous governors had done, Brown was driven to work in a compact sedan, a Plymouth Satellite from the state vehicle pool. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Historic Governors Mansion of California is the former official home of the Governor of California and a National Historic Landmark. ... For the song from the band: Brand New, see Limousine (MS Rebridge). ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ... The Plymouth Satellite was an automobile introduced in 1965 as the top model in Plymouths mid-size Belvedere line. ...


During his two-term, eight-year governorship, Brown had a strong interest in environmental issues, which were being highlighted during the decade. Brown appointed J. Baldwin to work in the newly-created California Office of Appropriate Technology, Sim Van der Ryn as State Architect, and Stewart Brand as Special Advisor. He appointed John Bryson, the CEO of Southern California Electric Company and a founding member of the Natural Resources Defense Council, chairman of the California State Water Board in 1976. Brown reorganized the California Arts Council, boosting its funding by 1300 percent and appointing artists such as environmentalist and poet Gary Snyder. James Tennant Baldwin (whose books and articles have been published under the names J. Baldwin, Jay Baldwin, and James T. Baldwin) is an American industrial designer and writer born in 1934. ... Sim Van der Ryn is acknowledged as a leader in sustainable architecture. ... Stewart Brand speaking September 5, 2004 Stewart Brand (born December 14, 1938 in Rockford, Illinois) is an author, editor, and creator of The Whole Earth Catalog and CoEvolution Quarterly. ... John E. Bryson is chairman, president and chief executive officer of Edison International, based in Rosemead, California. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ...


In 1975, Brown obtained the repeal of the "depletion allowance," a tax break for the state's oil industry, despite the efforts of the lobbyist Joe Shell, a former intraparty rival to Richard M. Nixon. Brown aimed his fire at "big oil" in an era of popular environmental activism on the West Coast. The decisive vote against the allowance was cast in the California State Senate by the usually pro-business Republican Senator Robert S. Stevens. Shell claimed that Stevens had promised him that he would support keeping the allowance: "He had shaken my hand and told me he was with me." recalled Shell. Brown later rewarded Stevens with a judicial appointment, but Stevens was driven from the bench for making salacious telephone calls.[2] Lobbying is the practice of private advocacy with the goal of influencing a governing body, in order to ensure that an individuals or organizations point of view is represented in the government. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Brown appointed the first black (Wiley Manuel), female (Rose Bird), and Latino (Cruz Reynoso) judges to the California Supreme Court. Wiley W. Manuel (1927 - 1981) was an associate justice on the Supreme Court of California from 1977-1981 and the first African American to serve on the high court. ... Rose Elizabeth Bird (November 2, 1936–December 4, 1999) served for 10 years as the 25th Chief Justice (and first female Chief Justice)of the California Supreme Court until removed from that office by the voters. ... Cruz Reynoso (born May 2, 1931) was the first Hispanic person to serve on the California Supreme Court. ...


Like his father, Brown strongly opposed the death penalty and, as Governor, vetoed death penalty, but legislature overrode the veto in 1977. He also appointed judges who opposed capital punishment. As presidential candidate he also states his opposition. In 1960 he lobbied his father, then Governor, to spare the life of Caryl Chessman and reportedly won a 60-day stay for him[3][4]. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Caryl Whittier Chessman (May 27, 1921 – May 2, 1960) was a convicted robber and rapist who gained fame as a Death Row inmate in California. ...


Currently, as Attorney General, he is obligated to represent the state in fighting death penalty appeals and stated that he will follow the law, regardless of his personal beliefs[5].


1976 presidential campaign

While serving as governor, Brown twice ran for the Democratic nomination for president. The first time, in 1976, Brown entered the race very late in the primary season as the focus of a movement to stop the nomination of former Governor of Georgia Jimmy Carter, who many in the party felt was unelectable because of a perceived limited record as a one-term governor. This is a list of Governors of the state of Georgia, including governors of the British colony of Georgia. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Citing his record of having curbed his state's spending and balanced its budget while expanding services in the area of welfare, employment, and consumer and environmental protection, Brown proclaimed his belief that there would soon be a voter backlash against expansive and costly government policies. "This is an era of limits, and we had all better get used to it," he declared. Brown's name began appearing on primary ballots in May and he won a big victory in Maryland, followed by Nevada, and his home state of California. Brown missed the deadline in Oregon, but he ran as a write in candidate and finished a strong third behind Carter and Senator Frank Church of Idaho, another late candidate. Brown is often credited with winning the New Jersey and Rhode Island primaries, but in reality, uncommitted slates of delegates that Brown advocated in those states finished first. Despite this success, he was unable to stall Carter's momentum, and his rival was nominated on the first ballot at the 1976 Democratic National Convention. Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Frank Forrester Church III (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984) was a four-term U.S. Senator representing Idaho as a Democrat (1957-1981). ... -1... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The 1976 Democratic National Convention in New York City nominated Jimmy Carter of Georgia for President and Walter F. Mondale of Minnesota for Vice President. ...


1980 presidential campaign

In 1980, Brown challenged Carter for renomination. His candidacy had been anticipated by the press ever since he won reelection in 1978 over the Republican Evelle Younger, the biggest margin in California history, 1.3 million votes, but he had trouble gaining traction in both fundraising and polling. This was widely believed to be the result of the more prominent candidacy of liberal icon, Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts. Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For other persons named Ted Kennedy, see Ted Kennedy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


As his campaign that year was much longer, Brown's 1980 platform, which he declared to be the natural result of combining Buckminster Fuller's visions of the future and E.F. Schumacher's theory of "Buddhist economics", was much expanded from 1976. Gone was his "era of limits" slogan, replaced by a promise to, in his words, "Protect the Earth, serve the people, and explore the universe." Three main planks of his platform were a call for a constitutional convention to ratify the Balanced Budget Amendment, a promise to increase funds for the space program, and, in the wake of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident, opposition to nuclear power. Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ... Ernst Friedrich Fritz Schumacher (16 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential economic thinker with a professional background as a statistician and economist in Britain. ... Buddhist economics is a set of economic principles that is based on the belief that individuals ought to do good work in order to ensure proper human development. ... hi:Alternative meaning: Constitutional convention (political custom) this is random:Alternative meaning: Constitutional convention (political custom) A constitutional convention is a gathering of delegates for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. ... Balanced Budget Amendment is any one of various proposed amendments to the United States Constitution which would require a balance in the projected revenues and expenditures of the United States government. ... Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... For details on this station, see Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


On the subject of the 1979 energy crisis, Brown decried the "Faustian bargain" that he claimed Carter had entered into with the oil industry, and declared that he would greatly increase federal funding of research into solar power. He endorsed the idea of mandatory non-military national service for the nation's youth, and suggested that the Defense Department cut back on support troops while beefing-up the number of combat troops. He described the health care industry as a "high priesthood" engaged in a "medical arms race" and called for a market-oriented system of universal health care. Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... For other uses, see Faust (disambiguation). ... The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... Universal health care, or universal healthcare, is health care coverage which is extended to all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region. ...


As his campaign began to attract more and more members of what some more conservative commentators described as "the fringe", including activists like Jane Fonda, Tom Hayden, and Jesse Jackson, Brown's polling numbers began to suffer. He received only 10% of the vote in the New Hampshire primary and he was soon forced to announce that his decision to remain in the race would hinge on a good showing in the Wisconsin primary. Although he had polled well there throughout the primary season, a disastrous and bizarre attempt at filming a live, special effects-filled, thirty-minute commercial (produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola) led to the melt-down of his candidacy. He received just 12% of the vote in the primary. He withdrew from the race the next day, having spent $2 million, won no primaries, and received exactly one delegate to the convention. Jane Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model, and fitness guru. ... Tom Hayden outside the 2004 Democratic National Convention Thomas Emmett Tom Hayden (born December 11, 1939) is an American social and political activist and politician, most famous for his involvement in the anti-war and civil rights movements of the 1960s. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of choosing the Democratic and Republican nominees for the presidential elections to be held the subsequent November. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ...


Defeat and return

In 1982, Brown chose not to seek a third term as Governor, which was allowed at that time. Instead he ran for the U.S. Senate for the seat held by Republican S.I. Hayakawa. That year, his alleged mishandling of a medfly infestation of the state's fruit farms sent his approval ratings into a nosedive, and he was defeated by Republican Pete Wilson by a margin of 51 to 45 percent. Republican George Deukmejian won the governorship in 1982, succeeding Brown, and was reelected in 1986. After his Senate defeat in 1982, many considered Brown's political career to be over. During the 1980s, Brown traveled to Japan to study Buddhism, studying with Christian/Zen practitioner Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle under Yamada Koun-roshi. He also visited Mother Teresa in Calcutta, India, where he ministered to the sick in one of her hospices. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (July 18, 1906-February 27, 1992) was an English professor and academic who served as a United States Senator from California from 1977 to 1983. ... Binomial name (Wiedemann, 1824) Synonyms Ceratitis citripeda Efflatoun, 1924 Ceratitis citriperda Macleay, 1829 Ceratitis hispanica Breme, 1842 Pardalaspis asparagi Bezzi, 1924 Tephritis capitata Wiedemann, 1824 Trypeta capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, or medfly for short, is a species of fruit fly capable of wreaking extensive damage... For others named Pete Wilson, see Peter Wilson. ... Courken George Deukmejian, Jr. ... Aiun-ken Hugo Makibi Enomiya-Lassalle (1898-1990) was one of the foremost teachers to embrace both Roman Catholic Christianity and Zen Buddhism. ... Yamada Koun-roshi (1907 - 1989) was born in Nihonmatsu, Japan. ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


Upon his return from abroad in 1988, he announced that he would stand as a candidate to become chairman of the California Democratic Party. Brown won the position in 1989 against the less experienced Steve Westly. Westly criticized Brown as the candidate of moneyed interests. Westly later went on to be enormously successful with eBay, served as California's State Controller from 2002-2006, and in 2006 ran in the Democratic primary for Governor, but lost to Phil Angelides. A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... The California Democratic Party is the local branch of the Democratic Party in the state of California. ... Steve Westly Steven Paul Westly (born August 27, 1957 in Arcadia, California) is an American businessman and politician, who is currently the State Controller of California and was one of the top two candidates in the Democratic primary for Governor of California in the 2006 election. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... California State Treasurer Phil Angelides Philip Nicholas Phil Angelides (IPA: æn. ...


Brown experienced an abbreviated tenure that could best be described as controversial. He greatly expanded the party's donor base and enlarged its coffers, with a focus on grassroots organizing and get out the vote drives, but was criticized for not spending enough money on TV ads, which was felt to have contributed to Democratic losses in several close races in 1990. In early 1991, Brown abruptly resigned his post and announced that he would run for the Senate seat held by the retiring Alan Cranston. Although Brown consistently led in the polls for both the nomination and the general election, he quickly abandoned the campaign, deciding instead to run for the presidency for a third time. A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a political movement) is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... Get out the vote, sometimes GOTV, is a term used to describe two categories of political activity, both aimed at increasing the number of votes cast in one or more elections. ... Alan MacGregor Cranston (June 19, 1914 – December 31, 2000) was a U.S. journalist and politician. ...


1992 presidential campaign

When he announced his intention to run for president against President George H.W. Bush, many in the media and his own party dismissed his campaign as an ego-trip with little chance of gaining significant support. Ignoring them, Brown embarked on an ultra-grassroots campaign to, in his words, "take back America from the confederacy of corruption, careerism, and campaign consulting in Washington". To the surprise of many, Brown was able to tap a populist streak in the Democratic Party. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organizations lowest geographic level of organization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Consultant (disambiguation). ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In his stump speech, first used while officially announcing his candidacy on the steps of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Brown told listeners that he would only be accepting campaign contributions from individuals and that he would accept no contribution over 100 dollars. Continuing with his populist reform theme, he assailed what he dubbed "the bipartisan Incumbent Party in Washington" and called for term limits for members of Congress. Citing various recent scandals on Capitol Hill, particularly the recent House banking scandal and the large congressional pay-raises from 1990, he promised to put an end to Congress being a "Stop-and-Shop for the monied special interests". A political stump speech is a document of collective ideas used to keep the author on message. ... Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In a two-party system (such as in the United States or Australia), bipartisan refers to any bill, act, resolution, or any other action of a political body in which both of the major political parties are in agreement. ... This article is about constitutional law; for the book by Vince Flynn see Term Limits (novel). ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Capitol Hill is the name of a district in the following cities: Capitol Hill, Denver, Colorado Capitol Hill, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Capitol Hill, Seattle, Washington Capitol Hill, Washington, DC It is also a common nickname for the United States Congress and the politicians who serve it (e. ... Rubbergate was the name given to a scandal that broke in early 1992 when it was revealed that members of the United States House of Representatives were knowingly writing bad checks, and not being penalized by the House Bank. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A special interest is a person or political organization established to influence governmental policy or legislators in a specific area of policy. ...


As he campaigned in various primary states, Brown would eventually expand his platform beyond a policy of strict campaign finance reform. Although he would focus on a variety of issues throughout the campaign, most especially his endorsement of living wage laws and his opposition to free trade agreements such as North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), he mostly concentrated on his tax policy, which had been created specifically for him by Arthur Laffer, the famous supporter of supply-side economics who created the Laffer curve. This plan, which called for the replacement of the progressive income tax with a flat tax and a value added tax, both at a fixed 13% rate, was decried by his opponents as regressive. Nevertheless, it was endorsed by The New York Times, The New Republic, and Forbes, and its raising of taxes on corporations and elimination of various loopholes, which tended to favor the very wealthy, proved to be popular with voters. This was, perhaps, not surprising, as various opinion polls taken at the time found that as many as three-quarters of all Americans believed the current tax code to be unfairly biased toward the wealthy. Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... Living wage refers to the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve a basic standard of living. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... Arthur Betz Laffer, Sr. ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created using incentives for people to produce (supply) goods and services, such as adjusting income tax and capital gains tax rates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A progressive tax is a tax imposed so that the effective... A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ... Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic        Value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... An Opinion poll is a survey of public opinion from a particular sample or pool. ...


Quickly realizing that his campaign's limited budget meant that he could not afford to engage in conventional advertising, Brown began to use a mixture of alternative media and unusual fundraising techniques which was derided at the time as "silly", but would later be dubbed "revolutionary".[citation needed] Unable to pay for actual commercials, Brown used frequent cable television and talk radio interviews as a form of free media to get his message to the voters. In order to raise funds, he purchased a toll-free telephone number, which adorned all of his campaign paraphernalia. During the campaign, Brown's constant repetition of this number (at rallies, during interviews, and in the middle of debates), combined with the ultra-moralistic language he used, led some to describe him as a "political televangelist". Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ... Fundraising is the process of soliciting and gathering money or other gifts in-kind, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. ... Cable TV redirects here. ... For other uses, see Talk Radio. ... A toll-free, Freecall, Freephone, or 800 number is a special telephone number, in that the called party is charged the cost of the calls by the telephone carrier, instead of the calling party. ... discussion redirects here. ... Moralism is the philosophy of adherence to morality, created by Max Shapiro, of 20th century Los Angeles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Despite poor showings in the Iowa caucus (1.6%) and the New Hampshire primary (8.0%), Brown soon managed to win narrow victories in Maine, Colorado, Nevada, Alaska, and Vermont, but he continued to be considered an also-ran for much of the campaign. It was not until shortly after Super Tuesday, when the field had been narrowed to Brown, former Senator Paul Tsongas of Massachusetts, and frontrunning Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas, that Brown began to emerge as a major contender in the eyes of the press. Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of choosing the Democratic and Republican nominees for the presidential elections to be held the subsequent November. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ... Paul Efthemios Tsongas Paul Efthemios Tsongas (February 14, 1941 – January 18, 1997) was a United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the United States Democratic Party. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


On March 17, Brown forced Tsongas from the race when he received a strong third-place showing in the Illinois primary and then defeated the senator for second place in the Michigan primary by a wide margin. Exactly one week later, he cemented his position as a major threat to Clinton when he eked out a narrow win in the bitterly-fought Connecticut primary. is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km...


As the press now focused on the primaries in New York and Wisconsin, which were both to be held on the same day, Brown, who had taken the lead in polls in both states, made a serious gaffe: he announced to an audience of various leaders of New York City's Jewish community that, if nominated, he would consider the Reverend Jesse Jackson as a vice-presidential candidate. Jackson, who had made a pair of anti-Semitic comments about Jews in general and New York City's Jews in particular while running for president in 1984, was still a widely hated figure in that community and Brown's polling numbers suffered. On April 7, he lost narrowly to Bill Clinton in Wisconsin (37-34), and dramatically in New York (41-26). This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A gaffe is a verbal mistake made by a company or individual, usually in a social environment. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This article is about the year. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ...


Although Brown continued to campaign in a number of states, he won no further primaries. Despite this, he still had a sizable number of delegates, and a big win in his home state of California would deprive Clinton of sufficient support to win the nomination, which Brown apparently thought would revert to him by default. After nearly a month of intense campaigning and multiple debates between the two candidates, Clinton managed to defeat Brown in this final primary by a margin of 48% to 41%. Although he did not win the nomination, Brown was able to boast of one accomplishment: At the following month's Democratic National Convention, he received the votes of 596 delegates on the first ballot, more than any other candidate but Clinton. The 1992 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas for President and Senator Al Gore of Tennessee for Vice President; Clinton announced Gore as his running-mate on July 9, 1992. ...


Radio show host

Beginning in 1995, Brown hosted a daily call-in talk show on the local Pacifica Radio station, KPFA-FM, in Berkeley. Both the radio program and Brown's political action organization, based in Oakland, were called We the People. His programs, usually featuring invited guests, generally explored alternative views on a wide range of social and political issues, from education and health care to spirituality and the death penalty. He strongly critiqued both the Democratic and Republican parties, often referring to himself as a "recovering politician" (a phrase intended as an analogy to the term "recovering alcoholic"). Pacifica Radio Network. ... KPFA is a listener-sponsored radio station located in Berkeley, California, broadcasting to the San Francisco Bay area on 94. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... Oakland redirects here. ... AA meeting sign Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal meeting society for recovering alcoholics. ...


Mayor of Oakland

In early 1998, Brown announced that he was leaving the Democratic Party and changed his party registration to "Decline To State". He terminated his radio show that same year in order to run for the nonpartisan office of Mayor of Oakland. (All municipal and county offices in California are by law nonpartisan, but candidates can be registered with any party they wish.) Decline To State (DTS) is an affiliation designation on the California voter registration form that allows voters to register to vote without choosing a party affiliation. ...


In June 1998, he was elected mayor of the city of Oakland, and took office in January 1999. Prior to taking office, Brown also campaigned to get the approval of the electorate to convert Oakland's weak mayor political structure (the mayor as chairman of the city council and official greeter) to a strong mayor structure (the mayor as chief executive over the nonpolitical city manager and thus the various city departments and not a council member). This strong mayor structure in many ways is similar to that of the nearby city of San Francisco. Within a few weeks of his inauguration, one of his first acts as Mayor of Oakland was to invite the United States Marine Corps to stage war games titled Urban Warrior in the defunct Oakland Army Base and on the closed grounds of the Oak Knoll Naval Hospital after the National Park Service rejected the Marines' request to use Crissy Field in San Francisco. Hundreds of Oakland citizens and anti-military activists rallied against the exercise. Other efforts included acquiring millions of dollars in state and federal funding to open two charter schools that are now among the top-ranked in Oakland. Brown also formulated the 10k Plan to attract 10,000 new residents to the City's downtown and this was a Major campaign bullet for his re election. Brown was reelected with over 60 percent of the vote in 2002. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments in the United States. ... The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Operation Urban Warrior is a United States Marine Corps (USMC) program and exercise meant to test Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT), and Urban warfare in general. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... A park in San Francisco, Crissy Field was originally a rich salt marsh, and a gathering ground for the native people. ... The 10K Plan is a plan by Oakland, California Mayor Jerry Brown to attract 10,000 new residents to the citys downtown and Jack London Square areas. ...


Much to the dismay and anger of his progressive supporters, Brown's politics as Mayor of Oakland were more centrist. He explained this ideological shift as dealing with the realities of being a big-city mayor with real problems. After having left the Democratic Party because he felt that it no longer stood up for progressive ideals, Brown re-registered as a Democrat shortly thereafter. In 2000, Brown endorsed Al Gore for President shortly before the California primary. This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ...


In 2003, Brown and fellow Democratic Mayor Jim Hahn of Los Angeles praised Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger for his decisive actions regarding the suppression of the reinstitution of portions of the vehicle license fee (labeled by opponents as the "car tax") and some restoration of state funding for city governments, implying that Gray Davis (who had been Governor Brown's Chief of Staff in the 1970s) had acted poorly in this regard. James Kenneth Jim Hahn (born July 3, 1950) is an American politician from the Democratic Party. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ...


Attorney General

Election

In early 2004, Brown expressed his interest to be a candidate for the Democratic nomination for Attorney General of California in the 2006 election. On May 18, 2004, he formally filed the necessary papers to begin his campaign for the nomination, including a sworn declaration with the statement "I meet the statutory and constitutional qualifications for this office (including, but not limited to, citizenship, residency, and party affiliation, if required)". The duty of California Attorney General is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Brown had an active Democratic primary opponent, Los Angeles City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo. Delgadillo put most of his money into TV ads attacking Brown and spent $4.1 million on the primary campaign. Brown defeated Delgadillo, 63% to 37%. In the general election, Brown defeated Republican State Senator Charles Poochigian 56.3% to 38.2%, which was the largest margin of victory in any statewide race except the US Senate in which Dianne Feinstein's opponent did not mount a strong challenge.[6] Rockard John Rocky Delgadillo (born July 15, 1960) is the current City Attorney of Los Angeles, California. ... GOP redirects here. ... A State Senator is a member of a state Senate, the upper legislative chamber in the government of a U.S. state. ... Poochigian Charles S. Poochigian (born 1949) is a Republican California State Senator. ...


In the final weeks leading up to Election Day, Brown's eligibility to run for Attorney General was challenged in what Brown called a "political stunt by a Republican office seeker" (Contra Costa County Republican Central Committee chairman and state GOP vice-chair candidate Tom Del Beccaro). Republican plaintiffs claimed Brown did not meet California's eligibility requirements for the office of Attorney General: according to California Government Code §12503, "No person shall be eligible to the office of Attorney General unless he shall have been admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of the state for a period of at least five years immediately preceding his election or appointment to such office." Legal analysts called the lawsuit "frivolous" because Brown was admitted to practice law in the State of California on June 14, 1965, and had been so admitted to practice ever since. Although ineligible to practice law because of his voluntary "inactive status" in the State Bar of California from January 1, 1997 to May 1, 2003, he was nevertheless still "admitted to practice". Because of this difference the case was eventually thrown out.[7][8] Contra Costa County is a suburban county in Californias San Francisco Bay Area. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The State Bars main office in San Francisco is housed on several floors of this office building The State Bar of California is Californias official bar association. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Norman Hsu affair

Attorney General Brown's office played a role in events surrounding prominent Democratic Party fundraiser Norman Hsu in 2007. Hsu had voluntarily returned to California in response to a 1992 warrant for failing to appear for sentencing in a fraud conviction.[9] Brown's office negotiated a 50% reduction in bail with Hsu's attorneys, but the court did not accept the agreement and imposed the full $2 million bail specified in the arrest warrant.[10][11] Additionally, Brown's office did not challenge releasing Hsu on bail without turning in his passport. After being released on bail, Hsu fled the state with his passport.[12] Hsu was quickly apprehended by federal authorities in Colorado.[13] For other uses, see Norman Hsu (disambiguation). ...


Brown received a $3,000 political contribution from an associate of Norman Hsu in 2005,[14] and a lawsuit filed against Hsu by an Orange County investment company alleged that Brown praised Hsu at a 2006 Democratic Party event.[15] Brown's spokesman stated that Brown may have stopped briefly at the event but did not praise Hsu "or in any way vouch for him."[15]


Future political plans

Amid speculation that he may run for a third term as Governor in 2010, following the expiry of Schwarzenegger's current term, Brown has indicated he is open to the prospect.[16]


Electoral history

Main article: Electoral history of Jerry Brown

Personal life

A bachelor as governor and mayor, Brown achieved some prominence in gossip columns for dating high-profile women, the most notable of whom was the singer Linda Ronstadt. Linda Marie Ronstadt (born July 15, 1946 in Tucson, Arizona) is an American popular vocalist and entertainer who has earned multiple Grammy Awards, an Emmy Award, numerous certified gold, platinum and multiplatinum albums, and Tony Award and Golden Globe nominations. ...


In March 2005, Brown announced his engagement to his partner since 1990, Anne Gust, former chief counsel for Gap. They were married on June 18 in a ceremony officiated by Senator Dianne Feinstein in the Rotunda Building in downtown Oakland. They had a second, religious ceremony later in the day in the Roman Catholic church in San Francisco where Brown's parents had been married. Brown and Gust live near downtown Oakland, at the former Sears Roebuck Building, with their black Labrador, Dharma. This article is about the retail clothing company. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (IPA: ) (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company (NYSE: S) was founded in Chicago, Illinois as a catalog merchandiser in 1886 by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck. ...


Political criticism of Brown

As Governor, Brown proposed the establishment of a state space academy and the purchasing of a satellite that would be launched into orbit to provide emergency communications for the state—a proposal similar to one that would indeed eventually be adopted by the state. In 1978, Mike Royko, at the time a Chicago Sun-Times columnist, nicknamed Brown "Governor Moonbeam" because of the latter idea. The nickname quickly became associated with his quirky politics, which were considered eccentric by some in California and the rest of the nation. In 1992, almost 15 years later, Royko would disavow the nickname, proclaiming Brown to be "just as serious" as any other politician. This article is about artificial satellites. ... Mike Royko (September 19, 1932 – April 29, 1997) was a long-running newspaper columnist in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ...


In 2006, the murder rate in Oakland in the first two months was triple the same period in 2005,[17] leading some critics to suggest that Brown had failed to make the city safer.[18] Violent crime decreased by a third during his tenure,[citation needed] however, and he attempted to enact several innovative anti-crime programs, including a night curfew for convicted felons. His campaigns to fix the schools, fill downtown with residents, create an "arts" city and curb crime have had mixed success.


References

  1. ^ http://www.mercurynews.com/search/ci_6320555
  2. ^ http://www.sacbee.com/111/v-print/story/844451.html
  3. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/06/02/BAGOTJ685P1.DTL
  4. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE2DE1F3CF933A1575BC0A96F948260&sec=&spon=
  5. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/06/02/BAGOTJ685P1.DTL
  6. ^ McPherson, Bruce. ""Statement of Vote", 2006" (PDF). Elections & Voter Information. California Secretary of State's Office. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  7. ^ "Editorial: GOP Volunteers Disgrace Party by Opposition to Kennard, Suit Against Brown", Metropolitan News-Enterprise (October 23, 2006), p. 6. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. 
  8. ^ Richman, Josh (February 10, 2007). "Judge dismisses suit against Brown", InsideBayArea.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. 
  9. ^ Chuck Neubauer, Robin Fields (2007-08-29). "Democratic fundraiser is a fugitive in plain sight", Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  10. ^ "Top Democratic fundraiser Norman Hsu in custody after turning himself in", Associated Press (2007-08-31). Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  11. ^ John Wildermuth (2007-09-01). "Hsu what? Big-time Democratic donor faces prison after surrender", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  12. ^ Dan Morain, Chuck Neubauer (2007-09-06). "Democratic donor skips day in court", Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  13. ^ Joseph M. Schadler (2007-09-06). "Fugitive Fraudster Norman Hsu Arrested by the FBI", U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved on 2007-09-12. 
  14. ^ Office of California Secretary of State, documentation of contribution by Winkle Paw to Jerry Brown (2005-11-23). "Contributor Search page". Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
  15. ^ a b Robin Fields, Dan Morain, Chuck Neubauer (2007-09-22). "O.C. suit accuses fundraiser Hsu of $23-million fraud", Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-22. 
  16. ^ "The Anti-Governator: Jerry Brown wants to be governor of California again", The Economist, 12 June 2008
  17. ^ Lee, Vic (July 11, 2006). "Oakland's Murder Rate Is Soaring", ABC7 (KGO-TV). Retrieved on 2007-06-12. 
  18. ^ Johnson, Chip (November 25, 2002). "Killings take big toll on Oakland", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. 

Bruce A. McPherson (born January 7, 1944) is a California politician, currently serving as the 30th California Secretary of State. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... KGO-TV (ABC7) is an owned-and-operated television station of The Walt Disney Company-owned ABC, based in San Francisco, California. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Bollins, John C. and Robert G. Williams. Jerry Brown: In a Plain Brown Wrapper (Pacific Palisades, California: Palisades Publishers, 1978). ISBN 0-913530-12-3
  • Rapaport, Roger. California Dreaming: The Political Odyssey of Pat & Jerry Brown (Nolo Press Berkeley CA 1982) ISBN 0-917316-48-7
  • Brown, Jerry. Dialogues (Berkeley, California: Berkeley Hills Books, 1998). ISBN 0-9653774-9-0
  • Lorenz, J. D. Jerry Brown: The Man on the White Horse (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1978). ISBN 0-395-25767-0
  • McDonald, Heather. "Jerry Brown’s No-Nonsense New Age for Oakland", City Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, Autumn 1999.
  • Pack, Robert. Jerry Brown, The Philosopher-Prince (New York: Stein and Day, 1978). ISBN 0-8128-2437-7
  • Schell, Orville. Brown (New York: Random House, 1978). ISBN 0-394-41043-2

City Journal is a quarterly magazine, published by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, a conservative think tank based out of New York City. ...

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Jerry Brown
Political offices
Preceded by
H.P. Sullivan
California Secretary of State
19711975
Succeeded by
March Fong Eu
Preceded by
Ronald Reagan
Governor of California
19751983
Succeeded by
George Deukmejian
Preceded by
Elihu Harris
Mayor of Oakland, California
19992007
Succeeded by
Ronald V. Dellums
Preceded by
Bill Lockyer
California Attorney General
2007–present
Incumbent
California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government, the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other elected constitutional officers, the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate, and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (IPA: ) (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ... State seal of California File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of the government of the state of California in the USA. The officers duty is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... The Secretary of State of California is the states chief elections officer. ... The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California. ... The California State Treasurer is responsible for the states investment and finance. ... California Insurance Commissioners ... California Superintendent of Public Instruction is a nonpartisan elected executive office position who is in charge of the California Department of Education. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... John Raymond Garamendi (born January 24, 1945) is a U.S. politician and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Debra Bowen (born October 27, 1955) has been a California State Senator of the 28th State Senate District since 1998, and is the Democratic California Secretary of State-elect. ... John Chiang (born July 31, 1962 in New York City) is a Democratic politician and has been California State Controller since January 8, 2007. ... William Westwood Bill Lockyer (born May 8, 1941) is the current State Treasurer of California. ... Stephen L. Steve Poizner (born January 4, 1957) is a California businessman and Republican politician, who has been the elected State Insurance Commissioner of California since January 8, 2007. ... Jack T. OConnell (born October 8, 1951) is a California politician. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... Don Perata (born April 30, 1945) is a California Democratic politician, who is the current President Pro Tempore of the California State Senate. ... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... This is a list of Speakers of the California State Assembly. ... Karen Bass is a California State Assemblywoman from the 47th district. ... Alberto Torrico has been a member of the California State Assembly since December of 2004 after Assemblyman John Dutra was term limited. ... Michael Villines has been in the California State Assembly since 2004. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jerry Brown - California Dept. of Justice - Office of the Attorney General (855 words)
Brown was elected Governor in 1974 and reelected in 1978, by over one million votes.
Brown was re-elected in 2002 with 64% of the vote.
Brown has fought for tougher laws to keep criminals off the streets by imposing a strict curfew for those who have committed serious crimes at night and was a leader in the campaign to defeat Proposition 66 - an attempt to dismantle California's three strikes law.
Ivan Illich with Jerry Brown (4825 words)
Brown: So you get a precise definition of where you are in the social hierarchy by how much schooling your had or how much schooling you don't have, so you didn't know you needed fourteen years and a postgraduate degree or to get out of high school depending upon where you lived.
Brown: So basically what you have is we're getting a world that more and more makes people dependent and the dependency isn't on nature or on their friends but on those who run the institution, whether it's a school or a...
Brown: So now in your earlier period you were more engaged in thinking about and writing about things like medicine or the medical world or the schools or tools or energy or transportation and now what you're just saying that you really have to focus on friendship, on people, around a table.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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