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Encyclopedia > Jerome
Saint Jerome

St. Jerome, by Lucas van Leyden
Doctor of the Church
Born ca. 347, Stridon, Dalmatia
Died 420, Bethlehem, Judea
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Lutheran Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Beatified 1747 by Benedict XIV
Canonized 1767 by Clement XIII
Major shrine Basilica of Saint Mary Major, Rome
Feast September 30 (C, L), June 15 (O)
Attributes lion, cardinal attire, cross, skull, trumpet, owl, books and writing material
Patronage archeologists; archivists; Bible scholars; librarians; libraries; schoolchildren; students; translators
Saints Portal

Jerome (ca. 347September 30, 420; Greek: Ευσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ιερώνυμος, Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. He also was a Christian apologist. Jerome's edition, the Vulgate, is still an important biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church. He is recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as a canonized Saint and Doctor of the Church. He is also recognized as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church, where he is known as St. Jerome of Stridonium or Blessed Jerome ("Blessed" in this context does not have the sense of being less than a saint, as in the West). Jerome is the name of several places in the United States: Jerome, Arizona Jerome, Arkansas Jerome, Idaho Jerome, Illinois Jerome, Pennsylvania Jerome County, Idaho Jerome Township, Michigan St. ... Saint Jerome can refer to: the church father Jerome Saint Jerome Emiliani, founder of the Somaschi Fathers Category: ... Saint Jerome and a skull, by Albrecht Durer The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Lucas van Leyden (b. ... Events Council of Sardica Council of Philippopolis Births John Chrysostom, bishop Eunapius, Greek Sophist and historian Deaths Categories: 347 ... Å trigova on the map of Croatia Å trigova (formerly Stridon) is a village in MeÄ‘imurje County in northern Croatia. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... For other uses, see 420 (disambiguation). ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Scholar Pope, Benedict XIV Benedict XIV, né Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 - Rome, May 3, 1758) was pope from 1740 to 1758. ... Icon of St. ... Clement XIII, né Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693 - Rome, February 2, 1769) was pope from 1758 to 1769. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Events Council of Sardica Council of Philippopolis Births John Chrysostom, bishop Eunapius, Greek Sophist and historian Deaths Categories: 347 ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 420 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...


In the artistic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church it has been usual to represent him, the patron of theological learning, as a cardinal, by the side of the Bishop Augustine, the Archbishop Ambrose, and the Pope Gregory I. Even when he is depicted as a half-clad anchorite, with cross, skull, and Bible for the only furniture of his cell, the red hat or some other indication of his rank is as a rule introduced somewhere in the picture. He is also often depicted with a lion, due to a medieval story in which he removed a thorn from a lion's paw,[1] and, less often, an owl, the symbol of wisdom and scholarship.[2] Writing materials and the trumpet of final judgment are also part of his iconography.[2] The coat of arms of a Cardinal are indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual Cardinal). ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... Anchorite (male)/anchoress (female), from the Greek anachōreō, signifying to withdraw, to depart into the country outside the circumvallated city, denotes someone – prominently in earlier Christian and medieval times – who for religious reasons withdraws from the secular society and leads an intensely prayer-oriented and, circumstances permitting, Mass-focused... In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgment or Judgement Day is the ethical-judicial trial, judgment, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven or to hell) by a divine tribunal at the end of time, following the destruction of humans present earthly existence. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Life

Saint Jerome in his Study, by Domenico Ghirlandaio
Saint Jerome in his Study, by Domenico Ghirlandaio

Jerome was born c. 347 at Strido, on the border between Pannonia and Dalmatia, as is referenced in his De Viris Illustribus Chapter 135 (English translation below). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (516x800, 112 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Jerome ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (516x800, 112 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Jerome ... Štrigova on the map of Croatia Štrigova (formerly Stridon) is a village in Međimurje County in northern Croatia. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Jerome was an Illyrian, born to Christian parents, but was not baptized until about 360, when he had gone to Rome with his friend Bonosus to pursue rhetorical and philosophical studies. He studied under Aelius Donatus, a skillful compiler of language techniques which Donatus called "grammar." Jerome learned Koine Greek, but yet had no thought of studying the Greek Fathers, or any Christian writings. First invasions of the Saxons in Britain. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Bonusus was a Bishop of Sardica, in the latter part of the fourth century, founder of the heresy known after him as Bonosians. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Aelius Donatus (fl. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... Koine redirects here. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ...


After several years in Rome, he travelled with Bonosus to Gaul and settled in Trier "on the semi-barbarous banks of the Rhine" where he seems to have first taken up theological studies, and where he copied, for his friend Rufinus, Hilary of Poitiers' commentary on the Psalms and the treatise De synodis. Next came a stay of at least several months, or possibly years, with Rufinus at Aquileia where he made many Christian friends. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Tyrannius Rufinus or Rufinus of Aquileia (between 340 and 345–410 CE) was a monk, historian, and theologian. ... Hilarius or Hilary (c. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ...


Some of these accompanied him when he set out about 373 on a journey through Thrace and Asia Minor into northern Syria. At Antioch, where he stayed the longest, two of his companions died and he himself was seriously ill more than once. During one of these illnesses (about the winter of 373-374), he had a vision which led him to lay aside his secular studies and devote himself to the things of God. In any case he seems to have abstained for a considerable time from the study of the classics and to have plunged deeply into that of the Bible, under the impulse of Apollinaris of Laodicea, then teaching in Antioch and not yet suspected of heresy. Events The Battle of the Tanais River near the Don where the Huns defeat the Alans. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Events The Battle of the Tanais River near the Don where the Huns defeat the Alans. ... Events 4 May: Spearthrower Owl becomes emperor of Teotihuacan. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Apollinarism or Apollinarianism was a view proposed by Apollinaris of Laodicea that Jesus had a human body but a divine mind. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ...

St. Jerome reading in the countryside, by Giovanni Bellini
St. Jerome reading in the countryside, by Giovanni Bellini

Seized with a desire for a life of ascetic penance, he went for a time to the desert of Chalcis, to the southwest of Antioch, known as the Syrian Thebaid, from the number of hermits inhabiting it. During this period, he seems to have found time for study and writing. He made his first attempt to learn Hebrew under the guidance of a converted Jew; and he seems to have been in correspondence with Jewish Christians in Antioch, and perhaps as early as this to have interested himself in the Gospel of the Hebrews, said by them to be the source of the canonical Matthew. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x899, 148 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Jerome ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x899, 148 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Jerome ... Giovanni Bellini painted his first female nude when he was about 85 years old. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Chalcis was an ancient city in Syria (modern Quinnesrin/Qinnasrin). ... The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ...


Returning to Antioch in 378 or 379, he was ordained by Bishop Paulinus, apparently unwillingly and on condition that he continue his ascetic life. Soon afterward, he went to Constantinople to pursue a study of Scripture under Gregory Nazianzen. He seems to have spent two years there; the next three (382-385) he was in Rome again, attached to Pope Damasus I and the leading Roman Christians. Invited originally for the synod of 382, held to end the schism of Antioch, he made himself indispensable to the pope, and took a prominent place in his councils. Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... The Patriarch of Antioch, is one of the original patriarchs of Early Christianity, who presided over the bishops of Syria, Palestine, Armenia and Mesopotamia. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Saint Gregory Nazianzus (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... Pope Damasus I ( 305-383) was Pope from 366. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ...

St. Jerome, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625–1630
St. Jerome, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625–1630

Among his other duties, he undertook a revision of the Latin Bible, to be based on the Greek New Testament. He also updated the Psalter then at use in Rome based on the Septuagint. Though he did not realize it yet at this point, translating much of what became the Latin Vulgate Bible would take many years, and be his most important achievement (see Writings- Translations section below). Download high resolution version (1780x2320, 784 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1780x2320, 784 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...


In Rome he was surrounded by a circle of well-born and well-educated women, including some from the noblest patrician families, such as the widows Marcella and Paula, with their daughters Blaesilla and Eustochium. The resulting inclination of these women to the monastic life, and his unsparing criticism of the secular clergy, brought a growing hostility against him amongst the clergy and their supporters. Soon after the death of his patron Damasus (December 10, 384), Jerome was forced to leave his position at Rome after an inquiry by the Roman clergy into allegations that he had improper relations with the widow Paula. This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... For the song by The Beach Boys, see Marcella (song). ... Saint Jerome, Saint Paula, and Saint Eustochium, by Francisco de Zurbarán Saint Paula (347-404) is the patron saint of widows. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Forum of Theodosius I built in Constantinople. ...


In August 385, he returned to Antioch, accompanied by his brother Paulinianus and several friends, and followed a little later by Paula and Eustochium, who had resolved to end their days in the Holy Land. In the winter of 385, Jerome acted as their spiritual adviser. The pilgrims, joined by Bishop Paulinus of Antioch, visited Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and the holy places of Galilee, and then went to Egypt, the home of the great heroes of the ascetic life. Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ...


At the Catechetical School of Alexandria, Jerome listened to the blind catechist Didymus the Blind expounding the prophet Hosea and telling his reminiscences of Anthony the Great, who had died thirty years before; he spent some time in Nitria, admiring the disciplined community life of the numerous inhabitants of that "city of the Lord," but detecting even there "concealed serpents," i.e., the influence of Origen. Late in the summer of 388 he was back in Palestine, and spent the remainder of his life in a hermit's cell near Bethlehem, surrounded by a few friends, both men and women (including Paula and Eustochium), to whom he acted as priestly guide and teacher. The Catechetical School of Alexandria (founded c. ... Didymus (?309-?394), surnamed the Blind, was an ecclesiastical writer of Alexandria, was born about the year 309. ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... For the 13th century saint, see Saint Anthony of Padua. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi...

Painting by Niccolò Antonio Colantonio, showing St. Jerome's removal of a thorn from a lion's paw.
Painting by Niccolò Antonio Colantonio, showing St. Jerome's removal of a thorn from a lion's paw.

Amply provided by Paula with the means of livelihood and of increasing his collection of books, he led a life of incessant activity in literary production. To these last thirty-four years of his career belong the most important of his works -- his version of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text, the best of his scriptural commentaries, his catalogue of Christian authors, and the dialogue against the Pelagians, the literary perfection of which even an opponent recognized. To this period also belong most of his polemics, which distinguished him among the orthodox Fathers, including the treatises against the Origenism of Bishop John II of Jerusalem and his early friend Rufinus. As a result of his writings against Pelagianism, a body of excited partisans broke into the monastic buildings, set them on fire, attacked the inmates and killed a deacon, forcing Jerome to seek safety in a neighboring fortress (416). Image File history File links Colantonio. ... Image File history File links Colantonio. ... Niccolò Antonio Colantonio (born c. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John II was patriarch of Jerusalem during the 4th century, from 386 to 417. ... Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... Events Krakatoa undergoes a massive explosion. ...


Jerome died near Bethlehem on September 30, 420. The date of his death is given by the Chronicon of Prosper of Aquitaine. His remains, originally buried at Bethlehem, are said to have been later transferred to the church of Santa Maria Maggiore at Rome, though other places in the West claim some relics -- the cathedral at Nepi boasting possession of his head, which, according to another tradition, is in the Escorial. Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 420 (disambiguation). ... Saint Prosper of Aquitaine (c. ... Saint Mary Major, in Italian, Santa Maria Maggiore, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ... Nepi (anciently Nepet or Nepete) is a town and comune in Italy in the province of Viterbo, region of Latium. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the...


Writings

Translations

Jerome was a scholar at a time when that statement implied a fluency in Greek. He knew some Hebrew when he started his translation project, but moved to Jerusalem to perfect his grasp of the language and to strengthen his grip on Jewish scripture commentary. A wealthy Roman aristocrat, Paula, founded a monastery for him in Bethlehem - rather like a research institute - and he completed his translation there. He began in 382 by correcting the existing Latin language version of the New Testament, commonly referred to as the Itala or Vetus Latina (the "Italian" or "Old Latin" version). By 390 he turned to the Hebrew Bible, having previously translated portions from the Septuagint Greek version. He completed this work by 405. Before Jerome's translation, all Old Testament translations were based on the Septuagint. Jerome's decision to use the Hebrew Old Testament instead of the Septuagint went against the advice of most other Christians, including Augustine, who considered the Septuagint inspired. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... // Events Japanese court officially adopts the Chinese writing system (approximate date). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ...



For the next fifteen years, until he died, he produced a number of commentaries on Scripture, often explaining his translation choices. His knowledge of Hebrew, primarily required for this branch of his work, gives also to his exegetical treatises (especially to those written after 386) a value greater than that of most patristic commentaries. The commentaries align closely with Jewish tradition, and he indulges in allegorical and mystical subtleties after the manner of Philo and the Alexandrian school. Unlike his contemporaries, he emphasizes the difference between the Hebrew Bible "apocrypha" (most of which are now in the deuterocanon) and the Hebraica veritas of the canonical books. Evidence of this can be found in his introductions to the Solomonic writings, to the Book of Tobit, and to the Book of Judith. Most notable, however, is the statement from his Prologus Galeatus (introduction to the Books of the Kings): Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them. ... Patristics is the study of early Christian writers, known as the Church Fathers. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Protocanonical books is a term used to describe those scriptural texts contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence) The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ...

This preface to the Scriptures may serve as a "helmeted" introduction to all the books which we turn from Hebrew into Latin, so that we may be assured that what is not found in our list must be placed amongst the Apocryphal writings.[1]

Jerome's commentaries fall into three groups:

  • His translations or recastings of Greek predecessors, including fourteen homilies on Jeremiah and the same number on Ezekiel by Origen (translated ca. 380 in Constantinople); two homilies of Origen on the Song of Solomon (in Rome, ca. 383); and thirty-nine on Luke (ca. 389, in Bethlehem). The nine homilies of Origen on Isaiah included among his works were not done by him. Here should be mentioned, as an important contribution to the topography of Palestine, his book De situ et nominibus locorum Hebraeorum, a translation with additions and some regrettable omissions of the Onomasticon of Eusebius. To the same period (ca. 390) belongs the Liber interpretationis nominum Hebraicorum, based on a work supposed to go back to Philo and expanded by Origen.
  • Original commentaries on the Old Testament. To the period before his settlement at Bethlehem and the following five years belong a series of short Old Testament studies: De seraphim, De voce Osanna, De tribus quaestionibus veteris legis (usually included among the letters as 18, 20, and 36); Quaestiones hebraicae in Genesin; Commentarius in Ecclesiasten; Tractatus septem in Psalmos 10-16 (lost); Explanationes in Mich/leaeam, Sophoniam, Nahum, Habacuc, Aggaeum. About 395 he composed a series of longer commentaries, though in rather a desultory fashion: first on the remaining seven minor prophets, then on Isaiah (ca. 395-ca. 400), on Daniel (ca. 407), on Ezekiel (between 410 and 415), and on Jeremiah (after 415, left unfinished).
  • New Testament commentaries. These include only Philemon, Galatians, Ephesians, and Titus (hastily composed 387-388); Matthew (dictated in a fortnight, 398); Mark, selected passages in Luke, the prologue of John, and Revelation. Treating the last-named book in his cursory fashion, he made use of an excerpt from the commentary of the North African Tichonius, which is preserved as a sort of argument at the beginning of the more extended work of the Spanish presbyter Beatus of Liébana. But before this he had already devoted to the Book of Revelation another treatment, a rather arbitrary recasting of the commentary of Saint Victorinus (d. 303), with whose chiliastic views he was not in accord, substituting for the chiliastic conclusion a spiritualizing exposition of his own, supplying an introduction, and making certain changes in the text.

The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Events All Pagan buildings in Alexandria, including the library, are destroyed Births Geiseric, king of the Vandals and Alans (approximate date) Deaths Gregory Nazianzus, theologian Categories: 389 ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... Events The widowed Roman Emperor Theodosius I marries Galla, sister of his colleague Valentinian II Births Deaths Flaccilla, wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. Categories: 387 ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Events John Chrysostom becomes bishop of Constantinople. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Ticonius, also spelled Tyc(h)onius (370 – 390 AD) was an African Donatist writer who introduced the postmillennial view of eschatology which St. ... The world map from the Saint-Sever Beatus measuring 37 X 57 cm. ... An ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who suffered martyrdom probably in 303, under Diocletian. ... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years. Primarily a belief in some Christian denominations, literature and folk religion, that at some point in the future there will be a Golden Age, a Paradise on earth when universal peace will reign, when all people will dwell in prosperity...

Historical writings

  • One of Jerome's earliest attempts in the department of history was his Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber), composed ca. 380 in Constantinople; this is a translation into Latin of the chronological tables which compose the second part of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a supplement covering the period from 325 to 379. Despite numerous errors taken over from Eusebius, and some of his own, Jerome produced a valuable work, if only for the impulse which it gave to such later chroniclers as Prosper, Cassiodorus, and Victor of Tunnuna to continue his annals.
  • Three other works of a hagiological nature are:
    • the Vita Pauli monachi, written during his first sojourn at Antioch (ca. 376), the legendary material of which is derived from Egyptian monastic tradition;
    • the Vita Malchi monachi captivi (ca. 391), probably based on an earlier work, although it purports to be derived from the oral communications of the aged ascetic Malchus originally made to him in the desert of Chalcis;
    • the Vita Hilarionis, of the same date, containing more trustworthy historical matter than the other two, and based partly on the biography of Epiphanius and partly on oral tradition.
  • The so-called Martyrologium Hieronymianum is spurious; it was apparently composed by a western monk toward the end of the sixth or beginning of the seventh century, with reference to an expression of Jerome's in the opening chapter of the Vita Malchi, where he speaks of intending to write a history of the saints and martyrs from the apostolic times.
  • But the most important of Jerome's historical works is the book De viris illustribus, written at Bethlehem in 392, the title and arrangement of which are borrowed from Suetonius. It contains short biographical and literary notes on 135 Christian authors, from Saint Peter down to Jerome himself. For the first seventy-eight authors Eusebius (Historia ecclesiastica) is the main source; in the second section, beginning with Arnobius and Lactantius, he includes a good deal of independent information, especially as to western writers.

The Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber) was one of Jeromes earliest attempts in the department of history. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... The Chronicon or Chronicle of Eusebius (Greek, Pantodape historia, Universal History) is divided into two parts. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Prosper may refer to: Prosper, Texas Prosper of Aquitaine also known as Prosper Tiro, Christian writer and disciple of St Augustine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cassiodorus at his Vivarium library ( in Codex Amiatinus, 8th century). ... Victor of Tunnuna (d. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... In the New Testament of the Bible, Malchus was the name of a servant of the high priest who helped try to arrest Jesus. ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520—535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... St. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... The term Apostolic Times refers to the time encapsulating the lives of the Apostles of Jesus of Nazareth, during the 1st century AD. They were the best of times, yet they were the worst of times. ... Jerome De viris illustribus (On Illustrious Men) is a collection of short biographies of 135 authors, written in Latin, by the 4th century Illyrian author Jerome. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Emperor, after assassinating Valentinian II in response to Valentinians removal of Arbogast as military leader in Gaul. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... “St Peter” redirects here. ... Arnobius of Sicca (died c. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...

Letters

Jerome's letters or epistles, both by the great variety of their subjects and by their qualities of style, form the most interesting portion of his literary remains. Whether he is discussing problems of scholarship, or reasoning on cases of conscience, comforting the afflicted, or saying pleasant things to his friends, scourging the vices and corruptions of the time, exhorting to the ascetic life and renunciation of the world, or breaking a lance with his theological opponents, he gives a vivid picture not only of his own mind, but of the age and its peculiar characteristics. An epistle (Greek επιστολη, epistolē, letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ...


The letters most frequently reprinted or referred to are of a hortatory nature, such as Ep. 14, Ad Heliodorum de laude vitae solitariae; Ep. 22, Ad Eustochium de custodia virginitatis; Ep. 52, Ad Nepotianum de vita clericorum et monachorum, a sort of epitome of pastoral theology from the ascetic standpoint; Ep. 53, Ad Paulinum de studio scripturarum; Ep. 57, to the same, De institutione monachi; Ep. 70, Ad Magnum de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis; and Ep. 107, Ad Laetam de institutione filiae. Pastoral theology is the branch of theology concerned with the practical application of theology in the pastoral context. ...


Theological writings

Practically all of Jerome's productions in the field of dogma have a more or less violently polemical character, and are directed against assailants of the orthodox doctrines. Even the translation of the treatise of Didymus the Blind on the Holy Spirit into Latin (begun in Rome 384, completed at Bethlehem) shows an apologetic tendency against the Arians and Pneumatomachoi. The same is true of his version of Origen's De principiis (ca. 399), intended to supersede the inaccurate translation by Rufinus. The more strictly polemical writings cover every period of his life. During the sojourns at Antioch and Constantinople he was mainly occupied with the Arian controversy, and especially with the schisms centering around Meletius of Antioch and Lucifer Calaritanus. Two letters to Pope Damasus (15 and 16) complain of the conduct of both parties at Antioch, the Meletians and Paulinians, who had tried to draw him into their controversy over the application of the terms ousia and hypostasis to the Trinity. At the same time or a little later (379) he composed his Liber Contra Luciferianos, in which he cleverly uses the dialogue form to combat the tenets of that faction, particularly their rejection of baptism by heretics. For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Didymus (?309-?394), surnamed the Blind, was an ecclesiastical writer of Alexandria, was born about the year 309. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... Forum of Theodosius I built in Constantinople. ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. ... Meletius Of Antioch (died 381) was a Patriarch of Antioch from 360 to his death, and saint. ... Lucifer Calaritanus (unknown - 371) a bishop of Cagliari, Sardinia, was a fierce opponent of Arianism, which followed the Alexandrian presbyter Arius in teaching that Christ is not truly divine but a created being. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


In Rome (ca. 383) he wrote a passionate counterblast against the teaching of Helvidius, in defense of the doctrine of The perpetual virginity of Mary, the Mary, and of the superiority of the single over the married state. An opponent of a somewhat similar nature was Jovinianus, with whom he came into conflict in 392 (Adversus Jovinianum, (Against Jovinianus) and the defense of this work addressed to his friend Pammachius, numbered 48 in the letters). Once more he defended the ordinary Catholic practices of piety and his own ascetic ethics in 406 against the Spanish presbyter Vigilantius, who opposed the cultus of martyrs and relics, the vow of poverty, and clerical celibacy. Meanwhile the controversy with John II of Jerusalem and Rufinus concerning the orthodoxy of Origen occurred. To this period belong some of his most passionate and most comprehensive polemical works: the Contra Joannem Hierosolymitanum (398 or 399); the two closely-connected Apologiae contra Rufinum (402); and the "last word" written a few months later, the Liber tertius seu ultima responsio adversus scripta Rufini. The last of his polemical works is the skilfully-composed Dialogus contra Pelagianos (415). Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ... Helvidius was the author of a work written before 383 against the belief in the perpetual virginity of Mary (mother of Jesus). ... The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary is an apologetic work of St. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... Jovinian, or Jovinianus, the Epicurus of Christianity according to his enemy Jerome, was condemned as a heretic at a synod convened in Milian by Ambrose, in 390. ... August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Emperor, after assassinating Valentinian II in response to Valentinians removal of Arbogast as military leader in Gaul. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... The ancient Latin name Pammachius can refer to: Saint Pammachius, a friend of the Church Fathers St. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ... Vigilantius, (fl. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ... Events John Chrysostom becomes bishop of Constantinople. ... Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. ... Events Stilicho recalls troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire to defend Italy against the Visigoths. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ...


Jerome's reception in later Christianity

Jerome is the second most voluminous writer (after St. Augustine) in ancient Latin Christianity. In the Roman Catholic Church, he is recognized as the patron saint of translators, librarians and encyclopedists. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Look up Translator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ...


He acquired a knowledge of Hebrew by studying with a Jew who converted to Christianity, and took the unusual position (for that time) that the Hebrew, and not the Septuagint, was the inspired text of the Old Testament. He used this knowledge to translate what became known as the Vulgate, and his translation was slowly but eventually accepted in the Catholic church.[3] Obviously, the later resurgence of Hebrew studies within Christianity owes much to him.


Jerome sometimes seemed arrogant, and occasionally despised or belittled his literary rivals, especially Ambrose. It is not so much by absolute knowledge that he shines, as by a certain poetical elegance, an incisive wit, a singular skill in adapting recognized or proverbial phrases to his purpose, and a successful aiming at rhetorical effect. For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ...


He showed more zeal and interest in the ascetic ideal than in abstract speculation. It was this strict asceticism that made Martin Luther judge him so severely. In fact, Protestant readers are not generally inclined to accept his writings as authoritative. The tendency to recognize a superior comes out in his correspondence with Augustine (cf. Jerome's letters numbered 56, 67, 102-105, 110-112, 115-116; and 28, 39, 40, 67-68, 71-75, 81-82 in Augustine's). Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ...


Despite of the criticisms already mentioned, Jerome has retained a rank among the western Fathers. This would be his due, if for nothing else, on account of the great influence exercised by his Latin version of the Bible upon the subsequent ecclesiastical and theological development. This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


Quotes

I praise marriage, but it is because they give me virgins. (Jerome's Letter XXII to Eustochium, section 20 on-line)
Be ever engaged, so that whenever the devil calls he may find you occupied.
Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ. (Jerome's Prologue to the “Commentary on Isaiah”: PL 24,17)

See also

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... Saint Genesius of Arles was a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The lion episode, in Vita Divi Hieronymi (Migne Pat. Lat. XXII, c. 209ff.) was translated by Helen Waddell Beasts and Saints (NY: Henry Holt) 1934) (on-line retelling).
  2. ^ a b The Collection: St. Jerome, gallery of the religious art collection of New Mexico State University, with explanations. Accessed August 10, 2007.
  3. ^ Stefan Rebenich, Jerome (New York: Routlage, 2002), pp. 52-59

Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 25 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers. ... New Mexico State University, or NMSU, is a land-grant university that has its main campus in Las Cruces, New Mexico. ...

External links

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References

Footnotes

  1. ^ The lion episode, in Vita Divi Hieronymi (Migne Pat. Lat. XXII, c. 209ff.) was translated by Helen Waddell Beasts and Saints (NY: Henry Holt) 1934) (on-line retelling).
  2. ^ a b The Collection: St. Jerome, gallery of the religious art collection of New Mexico State University, with explanations. Accessed August 10, 2007.
  3. ^ Stefan Rebenich, Jerome (New York: Routlage, 2002), pp. 52-59

Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 25 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers. ... New Mexico State University, or NMSU, is a land-grant university that has its main campus in Las Cruces, New Mexico. ...

General references

  • Biblia Sacra Vulgata Stuttgart, 1994. ISBN 3-438-05303-9
  • This article uses material from Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religion.
  • birth/death dates from Cameron, A (1993). The Later Roman Empire. London: Fontana Press, 203. ISBN 0-00-686172-5. 
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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Jerome (2871 words)
During this period the exegetical vocation of St. Jerome asserted itself under the influence of Pope Damasus, and took definite shape when the opposition of the ecclesiastics of Rome compelled the caustic Dalmatian to renounce ecclesiastical advancement and retire to Bethlehem.
Jerome recognizes the legitimacy of marriage, but he uses concerning it certain disparaging expressions which were criticized by contemporaries and for which he has given no satisfactory explanation.
Jerome was involved in one of the most violent episodes of that struggle, which agitated the Church from Origen's lifetime until the Fifth Ecumenical Council (553).
Jerome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2872 words)
Jerome was born at Stridon, on the border between Pannonia and Dalmatia (most likely modern Grahovopolje in Bosnia and Herzegovina), in the second quarter of the fourth century.
Jerome was born to Christian parents, but was not baptized until about 360, when he had gone to Rome with his friend Bonosus to pursue his rhetorical and philosophical studies.
Jerome's letters or epistles, both by the great variety of their subjects and by their qualities of style, form the most interesting portion of his literary remains.
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