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Encyclopedia > Jericho
Jericho

A street in Jericho
Arabic أريحا
Name Meaning moon in hebrew
Founded in 9000 BC
Government City (from 1994)
Also Spelled Ariha (officially)
Governorate Jericho
Population 20,400 (2006)
Jurisdiction  dunams
Head of Municipality Hassan Saleh[1]

Jericho (Arabic أريحا , ʼArīḥā; Hebrew יְרִיחוֹ , Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô / Yərîḥô; Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in the West Bank of the Palestinian territories, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. Its name may be derived from the word meaning "moon" in Hebrew and Canaanite, as the city was an early center of worship for lunar deities.[2] Despite the city's long history, Jericho was first mentioned in the Book of Numbers. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up Jericho in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Jerico1. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This is a list of cities in on the territory of the Palestinian National Authority (yet not necessarily under its jurisdiction). ... Map showing governorates and areas of formal Palestinian control (green) After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided into three areas and 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The Jericho Governorate is one of 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip (administrative districts) within the Palestinian Territories. ... A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum is a unit of area. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links ArJericho. ... Hebrew language most commonly refers to Modern Hebrew; in historical contexts, it commonly refers to the Biblical Hebrew language. ... Image File history File links He-Jericho. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... The Jericho Governorate is one of 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip (administrative districts) within the Palestinian Territories. ... This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ...


Jericho is believed to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world,[3] and archaeologists have unearthed the remains of over 20 successive settlements there, dating back to 11,000 years ago (9000 BC).[4] This is a list of the oldest, still surviving, towns and cities in the world. ...


Jericho has a population of approximately 25,000 Palestinians.[5] The current mayor is Hassan Saleh, a former lawyer. Three separate settlements have existed at or near the current location for more than 11,000 years. The position is on an east-west route north of the Dead Sea. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


The first archaeological excavations of the site were made by Charles Warren in 1868. Ernst Sellin and Carl Watzinger excavated Tell es-Sultan and Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq between 1907-1909 and in 1911. John Garstang excavated between 1930 and 1936. Extensive investigations using more modern techniques were made by Kathleen Kenyon between 1952 and 1958. Lorenzo Nigro and Nicolo Marchetti conducted a limited excavation in 1997. Later that same year, Dr. Bryant Wood also made a visit to the site to verify the findings of the earlier 1997 team. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... General Sir Charles Warren, GCMG, KCB, FRS, RE (7 February 1840–21 January 1927) was an officer in the British Royal Engineers, and in later life was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack... Ernst Sellin Ernst Sellin (May 26, 1867 in Altschwerin - January 1, 1946 in Epichnellen bei Eisenach) was a German theologian. ... John Garstang (May 5, 1876–September 12, 1956, Beirut) was a British archaeologist of the ancient Near East, especially Anatolia and the southern Levant. ... Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon (5 January 1906 – 24 August 1978), important English archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent and excavator of Jericho in Jordan from 1952 to 1958. ... Bryant G. Wood is currently the Creationist Director of the Associates for Biblical Research. ...

Contents

Archaeology

Tell es-Sultan

Hisham's Palace archaeological site just north of central Jericho
Hisham's Palace archaeological site just north of central Jericho

The earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan (or Sultan's Hill), a couple of kilometers from the current city. In Arabic and in Hebrew, tell means "mound" -- consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East and Anatolia. Jericho is the type site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPN A) and B. Image File history File links Hisham's_palace_Jericho. ... Image File history File links Hisham's_palace_Jericho. ... Hishams Palace in 1996 Hishams Palace is an archaeological site located 5 km north of Jericho in Palestine, also known as the West Bank. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... In archaeology a type site (also known as a type-site or typesite) is a site that is considered the model of a particular archaeological culture. ... The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ...


The habitation has been classed into several phases:


Natufian

Epipaleolithic — construction at the site apparently began before the invention of agriculture, with construction of stone of the Natufian culture structures beginning earlier than 9000 BC, virtually at the very beginning of the Holocene epoch in geologic history. The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ...

Greek Orthodox monastery overlooking modern Jericho.
Greek Orthodox monastery overlooking modern Jericho.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1443x1154, 541 KB) Cliffs overlooking Jericho. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1443x1154, 541 KB) Cliffs overlooking Jericho. ...

PPN A

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, 8350 BC to 7370 BC. Sometimes it is called Sultanian. The site is a 40,000 square metre settlement surrounded by a stone wall, with a stone tower in the centre of one wall. This is so far the oldest wall ever to be discovered, thus suggesting some kind of social organization. The town contained round mud-brick houses, yet no street planning.[6] The 2000-3000 dwellers[7] (population weighed to the former value) used domesticated emmer wheat, barley and pulses and hunted wild animals. The true population of Jericho during the PPN A period is still under debate. The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ... The PPNA Wall of Jericho dates back to approximately 8000 B.C.[1][2] and is thought to be the first wall ever built. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The PPNA Wall of Jericho dates back to approximately 8000 B.C.[1][2] and is thought to be the first wall ever built. ... Binomial name triticum dicoccoides Emmer Grain is an ancient grain officially known as Triticum dicoccoides. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ...


PPN B

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, 7220 BC to 5850 BC (but carbon-14-dates are few and early). Expanded range of domesticated plants. Possible domestication of sheep. Apparent cult involving the preservation of human skulls, with facial features reconstructed from plaster and eyes set with shells in some cases. Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the southern Levant region. ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... Sheep redirects here. ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... This article is about the building material. ...


After the PPN A settlement-phase there was a settlement hiatus of several centuries, then the PPN B settlement was founded on the eroded surface of the tell. The architecture consisted of rectilinear buildings made of mudbricks on stone foundations. The mudbricks were loaf-shaped with deep thumb prints to facilitate bounding. No building has been excavated in its entirety. Normally, several rooms cluster around a central courtyard. There is one big room (6.5 x 4 m and 7 x 3 m) with internal divisions, the rest are small, presumably used for storage. The rooms have red or pinkish terrazzo-floors made of lime. Some impressions of mats made of reeds or rushes have been preserved. The courtyards have clay floors. Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... Terrazzo with adapted Native-American design at the Hoover Dam Terrazzo is a faux-marble flooring or countertopping material. ...


Kathleen Kenyon interpreted one building as a shrine. It contained a niche in the wall. A chipped pillar of volcanic stone that was found nearby might have fit into this niche. Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon (5 January 1906 – 24 August 1978), important English archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent and excavator of Jericho in Jordan from 1952 to 1958. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ...


The dead were buried under the floors or in the rubble fill of abandoned buildings. There are several collective burials. Not all the skeletons are completely articulated, which may point to a time of exposure before burial. A skull cache contained seven skulls. The jaws were removed and the faces covered with plaster; cowries were used as eyes. A total of ten skulls were found. Modelled skulls were found in Tell Ramad and Beisamoun as well. For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ...


Other finds
  • Flints: arrowheads (tanged or side-notched), finely denticulated sickle-blades, burins, scrapers, a few tranchet axes. 1% obsidian, Ciftlik and green obsidian from unknown source.
  • Ground stone: querns, hammerstones, a few ground-stone axes made of greenstone. Dishes and bowls carved from soft limestone. Spindle whorls made of stone and maybe loom weights.
  • Bone Tools: Spatulae and drills
  • Stylised anthropomorphic plaster figures, almost life-size
  • Anthropomorphic and theriomorphic clay figurines
  • Shell and malachite beads

In lithic reduction, a burin is a special type of lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which prehistoric humans may have used for engraving or for carving wood or bone. ... In archaeology, a tranchet flake is a characteristic type of flake removed by a flintknapper during lithic reduction. ... Quern-stones are a pair of stone tools for hand grinding a wide variety of materials. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... Therianthropy (from n. ...

Pottery Neolithic A and B

In the late 4th millennium BC, Jericho was occupied during Neolithic 2 and the general character of the remains on the site link it culturally with Neolithic 2 sites in the West Syrian and Middle Euphrates groups. There are the characteristic rectilinear mud-brick buildings and plaster floors.


Bronze age

During the Middle Bronze Age Jericho was a small prominent city of the Kna'an region, reaching its greatest Bronze Age extent in the period from 1700 to 1550 BC. It seems to have reflected the greater urbanization in the area at that time, and has been linked to the rise of the Maryannu, a class of chariot-using aristocrats linked to the rise of the Mitannite state to the north. Kathleen Kenyon reported “...the Middle Bronze Age is perhaps the most prosperous in the whole history of Kna'an. ... The defenses ... belong to a fairly advanced date in that period” and there was “a massive stone revetment... part of a complex system” of defenses (pp.213-218).[8] This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted nobility which dominated many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ...


Walls of Jericho

Main article: Battle of Jericho

The Biblical account of the destruction of Jericho is found in the Book of Joshua. The Bible describes the destruction as having proceeded from the actions of Joshua, Moses' successor. The Exodus is usually dated to the 13th century BC (based on Ussherian calculation) − according to interpretation of archaeological evidence from the Merneptah Stele. That was followed by new settlements in the next century. At that time the Pharaoh of Egypt would have been Ramses II. Alternatively, the exodus is dated to the 15th century BC according to a prevailing Christian reckoning of biblical chronology, which is synchronized with several ancient calendars with astronomical observation. At that time the Pharaoh would have been Thutmose III (1490-1430). Neither biblical chronology matches the popular interpretation of the archaeological evidence at Jericho. Combatants Israelites Kingdom of Jericho Commanders Joshua King of Jericho † Strength 40,000 warriors ? Casualties ? entire city destroyed The Battle of Jericho was the first battle of the Israelites during their conquest of Canaan. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Combatants Israelites Kingdom of Jericho Commanders Joshua King of Jericho † Strength 40,000 warriors ? Casualties ? entire city destroyed The Battle of Jericho was the first battle of the Israelites during their conquest of Canaan. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) James Ussher (sometimes spelled Usher) (4 January 1581–21 March 1656) was Anglican Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625–1656 and a prolific religious scholar who most famously published a chronology which calculated the date of Creation as 4004 BC. // Ussher... The Merneptah Stele is the reverse of a stela erected by Amenhotep III written by Merneptah. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu...


Joshua instructs his spies to "Go, view the Land, especially Jericho" לכו ראו את-הארץ ואת-יריחו(Joshua 2:1). Archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon commented that this order "is an illustration of the position of Jericho in the age-long process of penetration by nomads and seminomads from the desert area in the east into the fertile coastal lands," due to the town's position in the Jordan valley at the foot of a passage through the Judean hills to the west. Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon (5 January 1906 – 24 August 1978), important English archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent and excavator of Jericho in Jordan from 1952 to 1958. ...

The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet
The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet

A destruction of Jericho's walls dates archaeologically to around 1550 BC in the 16th century BC at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, by a siege or an earthquake in the context of a burn layer, called City IV destruction. Opinions differ as to whether they are the walls referred to in the Bible. According to one biblical chronology, the Israelites destroyed Jericho after its walls fell out around 1407 BC: the end of the 15th century. Originally, John Garstang's excavation in the 1930s dated Jericho's destruction to around 1400 BC, in confirmation, but like much early biblical archaeology, his work became criticised for using the Bible to interpret the evidence rather than letting the facts on the ground draw their own conclusions. Kathleen Kenyon's excavation in the 1950s redated it to around 1550 BC, a date that most archaeologists support.[9][10] In 1990, Bryant Wood critiqued Kenyon's work after her field notes became fully available. Observing ambiguities and relying on the only available carbon dating of the burn layer, which yielded a date of 1410 BC plus or minus 40 years, Wood dated the destruction to this carbon dating, confirming Garstang and the biblical chronology. Unfortunately, this carbon date was itself the result of faulty calibration. In 1995, Hendrik J. Bruins and Johannes van der Plicht used high-precision radiocarbon dating for eighteen samples from Jericho, including six samples of charred cereal grains from the burn layer, and overall dated the destruction to an average 1562 BC add or subtract 38 years.[11][12][13] Kenyon's date of around 1550 BC is widely accepted based on this methodology of dating. Notably, many other Canaanite cities were destroyed around this time. Image File history File links Prise_de_Jéricho. ... Image File history File links Prise_de_Jéricho. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ... John Garstang (May 5, 1876–September 12, 1956, Beirut) was a British archaeologist of the ancient Near East, especially Anatolia and the southern Levant. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon (5 January 1906 – 24 August 1978), important English archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent and excavator of Jericho in Jordan from 1952 to 1958. ... Bryant G. Wood is currently the Creationist Director of the Associates for Biblical Research. ...


If the dates of certain schools of archaeology are to be accepted, then scholars who link these walls to the biblical account must explain how the Israelites arrived around 1550 BC but settled four centuries later and devise a new biblical chronology that corresponds. The current opinion of many archaeologists is in stark contradiction to the biblical account.


The widespread destructions of the 16th century BC are often linked with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt around this time. The 1st-century historian Josephus, in Against Apion, identified the Exodus of Israelites according to the Bible as the Expulsion of the Hyksos according to the Egyptian texts. An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Against Apion was a work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy, stressing its antiquity against the relatively more recent traditions of the Greeks. ...


A few scholars follow the controversial new chronology of David Rohl, which postulates that the entire mainstream Egyptian chronology is 300 years misplaced; with the consequence that, among other things, the exodus would be dated to the 16th or 17th century BC, and hence the archaeological record on Jericho would be much more aligned with the biblical account. Despite this, a number of literalist Christians, most prominently the respected Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen, have vehemently attacked Rohl's chronology, since it introduces a number of other problems and issues (such as identifying the biblical Shishak as Ramses II, rather than the far more obviously named Shoshenq). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... David M. Rohl is a British Egyptologist and historian who has put forth several controversial theories concerning the chronology of Ancient Egypt and Palestine. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The archaeological record is a term used in archaeology to denote the physical remains of past human activities which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyise and reconstruct the past. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ... nomen or birth name Shoshenq I [alt. ... Shoshenq (also commonly spelled Sheshonq, Sheshonk, or Shoshenk) is the name given in English transliteration to a number of Egyptian pharaohs of Libyan (, Berber) origin who ruled during the Third Intermediate Period: 22nd Dynasty Shoshenq I: some Egyptologists identify as the Shishaq of the Hebrew Bible (though others dispute this...


Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq

A later settlement spanned the Hellenistic, New Testament, and Islamic periods, leaving mounds located at Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq, 2 km west of modern Ariha. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Synagogues

For more details on this topic, see Shalom Al Israel synagogue.
For more details on this topic, see Na'aran synagogue.

An ancient synagogue was discovered in Jericho in 1936, named Shalom Al Israel, or "peace unto Israel", after the central Hebrew motto in its mosaic floor. It was controlled by Israel after the 1967 Six Day War, but after the handover to Palestinian Authority control per the Oslo Accords, and especially during the Al-Aqsa Intifada it has been a source of conflict, and it was partially destroyed by Palestinian forces during the latter. The Shalom Al Israel synagogue(Hebrew: שלום על ישראל), is Jerichos ancient synagogue. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


The ancient Na'aran synagogue was discovered on the northern outskirts of Jericho in 1918. While less is known of it than Shalom Al Israel, it has a larger mosaic and is in similar condition.


Biblical references

Jericho is mentioned in the Jewish Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament), over 70 times. Here are some examples: This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism...

  • Prior to Moses' death, God is described as showing him the Promised Land in the Book of Deuteronomy with Jericho as a point of reference: "And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the Lord showed him all the land, even Gilead as far as Dan" (Deuteronomy 34:1). [1]. The word "Jericho" also happens to be the final word in the entire Book of Numbers[14].
The walls of Jericho crumble as the priest blows his horn in this illustration from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript.
The walls of Jericho crumble as the priest blows his horn in this illustration from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript.
  • The Book of Joshua describes the famous siege of Jericho, claiming that it was circled seven times by the ancient Children of Israel until its walls came tumbling down [2], after which Joshua cursed the city: "And Joshua charged the people with an oath at that time, saying: 'Cursed be the man before the Lord that riseth up and buildeth this city, even Jericho; with the loss of his first-born shall he lay the foundation thereof, and with the loss of his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it'". (Joshua 6:26). According to the First Book of Kings, centuries later, a man named Hiel of Bethel rebuilt Jericho- and just as Joshua had foretold, he lost his eldest and youngest sons as a result. (1 Kings 16:34)
  • The Book of Jeremiah describes the end of the Judean king Zedekiah when he is captured in the area of Jericho: "But the army of the Chaldeans pursued after them, and overtook Zedekiah in the plains of Jericho; and when they had taken him, they brought him up to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon to Riblah in the land of Hamath, and he gave judgment upon him." [3] (Jeremiah 39:5).

Jericho is also mentioned several times in the New Testament books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Hebrews. For example: Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Map of the Land of Israel as defined in the Bible The Promised Land (Hebrew: הארץ המובטחת, translit. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... A sculpture on Mount Nebo based around the biblical story of Moses staff and the snake // Geography Mount Nebo (Arabic: Jebel Nebo) is an elevated ridge that is approximately 817 metres (2680 feet) above sea level, in what is now western Jordan. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Image File history File links The walls of Jericho crumble. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Combatants Israelites Kingdom of Jericho Commanders Joshua King of Jericho † Strength 40,000 warriors ? Casualties ? entire city destroyed The Battle of Jericho was the first battle of the Israelites during their conquest of Canaan. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Tzidkiyahu (‎, Åžidhqiyyāhû; Greek: ζεδεκιας, Zedekias; traditional English: Zedekiah; Arabic: صدقيا, Åžidqiyyā) was the last king of Judah. ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ...

  • According to Matthew 20:29-30, Jesus healed two blind men as he and his disciples were leaving Jericho.
  • In Mark 10:46-52, Mark tells the same story, except he only mentions one of the men, Bartimaeus.
  • Like Mark, Luke only mentions one man, but he differs in his account by saying that Jesus and his apostles were approaching Jericho. Some versions reconcile this by translating it as "near".
  • In the Epistle to the Hebrews, the author mentions the Old Testament story of the destruction of Jericho as an outward display of faith. (Hebrews 11:30)
  • In the story of the Good Samaritan (the experience is not told by Jesus as a parable, but as a narrative; Luke 10:30), Jesus mentions that a certain man was on his way to Jericho.

This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism...

Recent history

The present city was captured from Jordan by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967 along with the rest of the West Bank. It was one of the first cities handed over to Palestinian Authority control in 1994, in accordance with the Oslo accords, which saw construction of the Oasis casino. The other city handed over to the Palestinians was Gaza. Jericho was re-occupied by Israel during the Al-Aqsa Intifada of 2001. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


Jericho prison siege

On March 14, 2006, the Israel Defense Forces took captive six inmates from a Jericho prison following a 10-hour siege. Israel's reason for the siege was to capture PFLP general secretary, Ahmad Sa'adat and five other inmates for the alleged assassination of Israeli tourist minister Rehavam Zeevi because of announcements of their upcoming release. Both sides of the siege were armed and at least two people were killed and 35 wounded in the incident. Before the siege British and American monitors were guarding the prison but withdrew, citing lax security arrangements. The siege caused an uproar amongst the PFLP members and supporters as well as other PLO factions, and as a result Palestinian militants raided and kidnapped British and European citizens in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The event is considered controversial and somewhat hampered Palestinian relations with the UK and US.[15] is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Ahmad Saadat (also transliterated from Arabic as Ahmed Sadat/Saadat, Arabic: احمد سعدات) is a Palestinian politician, and Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). ... Rehavam Zeevi (רחבעם זאבי-גנדי) (June 20, 1926 - October 17, 2001) was an Israeli general, politician and historian who founded the right-wing nationalist Moledet party. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic Al-Jabhah al-Shabiyyah Li-Tahrir Filastin الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين) is a secular, Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian organization, founded after the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


Sister cities

For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French city. ...

See also

For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The history of pottery in the Southern Levant describes the discovery and cultural development of pottery in the archaeological area of the Southern Levant, which includes the modern day polities of Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority administered areas of the West Bank of the Jordan and the Gaza strip. ... The Jericho Governorate is one of 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip (administrative districts) within the Palestinian Territories. ... Mevoot Yericho Mevoot Yericho (Hebrew: ), founded in 1999, is an Israeli settlement located in the West Banks southern Jordan Valley just north of Jericho. ...

References

  1. ^ Elected City Council Municipality of Jericho accessed 2008-03-08
  2. ^ Strong's Bible Dictionary
  3. ^ Gates, Charles (2003). "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities", Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge, 18. ISBN 0415018951. “Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in Palestine, inahbited from ca. 9000 BCE to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East.”
  4. ^ "Jericho", Encyclopedia Britannica
  5. ^ "Jericho", Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Old Testament Jericho
  7. ^ "Jericho", Encyclopedia Britannica
  8. ^ Kenyon, Kathleen "Digging up Jericho"(London, 1957)
  9. ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed
  10. ^ Sturgis, Matthew; with McCarthy, John (2001). It Ain't Necessarily So. London:Hodder Headline, pp 56-59. ISBN 0-7472-4506-1. 
  11. ^ (Radiocarbon Vol. 37, Number 2, 1995.)
  12. ^ Is Bryant Wood's chronology of Jericho valid?
  13. ^ Ebon Musings: Let the Stones Speak
  14. ^ Num. 36:13
  15. ^ Israel holds militant after siege March 14, 2006 BBC News
  • Kenyon, Kathleen (1957). Digging Up Jericho. 
  • Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002). The Bible Unearthed. Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-86913-6. 
  • Gates, Charles (2003). Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome.. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... The Bible Unearthed: Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (Free Press, New York, 2001, 385 pp. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ...

External links

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Coordinates: 31°51′N, 35°28′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... al-Bireh or el-Bira (Arabic: ; ‎) is a Palestinian city adjacent to Ramallah in the central West Bank, 15 kilometers (9 mi) north of Jerusalem. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... Arabic رام الله Founded in 16th century Government City (from 1995) Governorate Ramallah & Al-Bireh Population 23,347 (2006) Jurisdiction 16,344 dunams (16. ... Tubas is a city in the Israeli administered West Bank. ... Tulkarm or Tulkarem (Arabic: Ṭūlkarm; ‎) is a Palestinian city in the Tulkarm Governorate in the northwestern West Bank. ... Yatta or Yattah (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian city located in the Hebron Governorate on a high approximately 8km south of the city of Hebron in the West Bank. ... A neighbourhood in Ariel Hebrew אריאל Arabic اريئيل Name Meaning Lion of God Founded in 1978 Government City (from 1998) District Judea and Samaria Area Population 16,900 (2004) Jurisdiction 30,000 dunams (30 km²) Mayor Ron Nachman The city of Ariel (‎; Arabic: ) is an Israeli city, located in the seam zone... Beitar Illit (‎; officially also spelled Betar Illit - Illit is pronounced: Eeleet) is an Israeli settlement and city west of Gush Etzion in the northern Judea region of the West Bank. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jericho - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1478 words)
The casino/hotel was supposed to be the first stage of the Jericho Resort Village including a convention center, golf course, a cultural activities center and a cable car to the Mount of Temptation.
Jericho was occupied during Neolithic 2 and the general character of the remains on the site link it culturally with Neolithic 2 sites in the West Syrian and Middle Euphrates groups.
Jericho is mentioned in the Jewish Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament), over 70 times.
Jericho (1110 words)
Jericho sits between Mt. Nebo in the east, the Central Mountains to the west and the Dead Sea to the south.
For Christians, Jericho took on importance because of its association with John the Baptist, who was said to have been baptized by the banks of the Jordan on the eastern boundary of the city (Matthew 3:13-15), and the story of the temptation of Christ (Matthew 4:1-4).
At the foot of the mountain are the remains of the sugar mills built by the Crusaders in the 11th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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