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Encyclopedia > Jeremy Bentham
Western Philosophers
19th-century philosophy

Name In the 18th century the philosophies of The Enlightenment would begin to have dramatic effect, and the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau would have an electrifying effect on a new generation of thinkers. ... Jeremy Bentham, British philosopher, 1748-1832 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...

Jeremy Bentham

Birth

February 15, 1748 London, England is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Death

June 6, 1832 London, England is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

School/tradition

Utilitarianism, Legal Positivist This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... Legal positivism is a school of thought in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. ...

Main interests

Political philosophy, Ethics, Economics The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...

Notable ideas

greatest happiness principle What is it? The Greatest Happiness Principle was developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) as a way to spread happiness or moral good to the largest amount of people. ...

Influences

John Locke, David Hume, Baron de Montesquieu, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Thomas Hobbes For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (January 18, 1689 - February 10, French political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment and is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Hobbes redirects here. ...

Influenced

John Stuart Mill, Michel Foucault, Peter Singer, Iain King, John Austin John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Iain King (born 1971) is a contemporary British moral philosopher. ... John Austin (1790 - 1859) was a jurist, served in the army in Sicily and Malta, but, selling his commission, studied law, and was called to the Bar 1818. ...

Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ['benθəm]) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He was a political radical and a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law. He is best known as an early advocate of utilitarianism and fair treatment of animals who influenced the development of liberalism. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make a change in certain aspects of the society rather than fundamental changes. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Bentham was one of the most influential utilitarians, partially through his writings but particularly through his students all around the world. These included his secretary and collaborator on the utilitarian school of philosophy James Mill, James Mill's son John Stuart Mill, and several political leaders (and Robert Owen, who later became a founder of socialism). James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), Scottish historian, economist and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Angus, Scotland, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


He argued in favour of individual and economic freedom, including:

He was in support of: Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

Contents

The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article is about the economic term. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Health insurance is a form of group insurance, where individuals pay premiums or taxes in order to help protect themselves from high or unexpected healthcare expenses. ...

Life

Bentham was born in Spitalfields, London, into a wealthy Tory family. He was a child prodigy and was found as a toddler sitting at his father's desk reading a multi-volume history of England. He began his study of Latin at the age of three.[3] Christ Church, Spitalfields Spitalfields, an area in Tower Hamlets, east London near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane which gets its name from a contraction of hospital fields, as there used to be a major hospital in the area. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Wunderkind redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


He went to Westminster School, and in 1760 his father sent him to The Queen's College, Oxford, where he took his Bachelor's degree in 1763 and his Master's degree in 1766. He trained as a lawyer and (though he never practised) was called to the bar in 1769. He became deeply frustrated with the complexity of the English legal code, which he termed the "Demon of Chicane". For other uses, see Westminster School (disambiguation). ... College name The Queens College Collegii Reginae Named after Queen Philippa of Hainault Established 1341 Sister College Pembroke College Provost Sir Alan Budd JCR President Vishal Mashru Undergraduates 350 MCR President Matthias Range Graduates 133 Homepage Boatclub High Street entrance to Queens College from the main quad. ... A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ...


Among his many proposals for legal and social reform was a design for a prison building he called the Panopticon. Although it was never built, the idea had an important influence upon later generations of thinkers. Twentieth-century French philosopher Michel Foucault argued that the Panopticon was paradigmatic of a whole raft of nineteenth-century 'disciplinary' institutions. Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, 1791 The Panopticon is a type of prison building designed by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham in the late eighteenth century. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ...


Bentham was in correspondence with many influential people. Adam Smith, for example, had opposed free interest rates before Bentham's arguments convinced him on the subject. As a result of his correspondence with Mirabeau and other leaders of the French Revolution, he was declared an honorary citizen of France, but Bentham was an outspoken critic of the revolutionary discourse of natural rights, and of the violence which arose after the Jacobins took power (1792). In between 1808 and 1810 he held a personal friendship with Latin American Independence Precursor Francisco de Miranda, and paid visits to Miranda's Grafton Way house in London. For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) (March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... The term Latin American revolutions refers to the various revolutions that took place during the early 1800s that resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in the Latin American region. ... A precursor is something that existed before and was incorporated into something that came later. ... Francisco de Miranda Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez (commonly known as Francisco de Miranda March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816) was a South American revolutionary whose own plan for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, but who is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bol...


In 1823, he co-founded the Westminster Review with James Mill as a journal for the "Philosophical Radicals" - a group of younger disciples through whom Bentham exerted considerable influence in British public life.[4] The Westminster Review was founded in 1823 by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill as a journal for philosophical radicals, and was published from 1824 to 1914. ... James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), Scottish historian, economist and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Angus, Scotland, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) has been used since the late 18th century as a label in political science for those favoring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to a greater or lesser extent. ...

Jeremy Bentham's Auto-Icon in University College London

Bentham is frequently associated with the foundation of the University of London, specifically University College London (UCL), though in fact he was 78 years old when UCL opened in 1826, and played no active part in its establishment. However, it is likely that without his inspiration, UCL would not have been created when it was. Bentham strongly believed that education should be more widely available, particularly to those who were not wealthy or who did not belong to the established church, both of which were required of students by Oxford and Cambridge. As UCL was the first English university to admit all, regardless of race, creed, or political belief, it was largely consistent with Bentham's vision, and he oversaw the appointment of one of his pupils, John Austin, as the first Professor of Jurisprudence in 1829. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 78 KB)Jeremy Benthams Auto-Icon at University College London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 78 KB)Jeremy Benthams Auto-Icon at University College London. ... The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... John Austin (1790 - 1859) was a jurist, served in the army in Sicily and Malta, but, selling his commission, studied law, and was called to the Bar 1818. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ...


As requested in his will, his body was preserved and stored in a wooden cabinet, termed his "Auto-icon". Originally kept by his disciple Dr. Southwood Smith,[5] it was acquired by University College London in 1850. The Auto-Icon is kept on public display at the end of the South Cloisters in the main building of the College. For the 100th and 150th anniversaries of the college, the Auto-Icon was brought to the meeting of the College Council, where he was listed as "present but not voting"[6]. Tradition holds that if the council's vote on any motion is tied, the auto-icon always breaks the tie by voting in favor of the motion. In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Thomas Southwood Smith (December 21, 1788 - December 10, 1861), English physician and sanitary reformer, was born at Martock, Somersetshire. ...


The Auto-Icon has always had a wax head, as Bentham's head was badly damaged in the preservation process. The real head was displayed in the same case for many years, but became the target of repeated student pranks including being stolen on more than one occasion. It is now locked away securely. candle wax This page is about the substance. ...


There is a plaque on Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster commemorating the house where Bentham lived, which at the time was called Queen's Square Place.


An insight into his character is given in Michael St. John Packe's, The Life of John Stuart Mill (1952), p. 16:

During his youthful visits to Bowood, the country seat of his patron Lord Lansdowne, he had passed his time at falling unsuccessfully in love with all the ladies of the house, whom he courted with a clumsy jocularity, while playing chess with them or giving them lessons on the harpsichord. Hopeful to the last, at the age of eighty he wrote again to one of them, recalling to her memory the far-off days when she had 'presented him, in ceremony, with the flower in the green lane' [citing Bentham's memoirs]. To the end of his life he could not hear of Bowood without tears swimming in his eyes, and he was forced to exclaim, 'Take me forward, I entreat you, to the future -- do not let me go back to the past.'

The title of Marquess of Lansdowne was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1784 for William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, the former Prime Minister. ...

Works

Bentham has a complicated publishing history. Most of his writing was never published in his own lifetime; much of that which was published (see this list of published works) was prepared for publication by others.


Works published in Bentham's lifetime included:

  • Fragment on Government (1776). This was an unsparing criticism of some introductory passages relating to political theory in William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. The book, published anonymously, was well-received and credited to some of the greatest minds of the time. Bentham disagreed with Blackstone's defence of judge-made law, his defence of legal fictions, his theological formulation of the doctrine of mixed government, his appeal to a social contract and his use of the vocabulary of natural law. Bentham's "Fragment" was only a small part of a "Commentary on the Commentaries", which remained unpublished until the twentieth century.
  • Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation (printed for publication 1780, published 1789)
  • Defence of Usury (1787)
  • Panopticon (1787, 1791). The proposed Panopticon was a prison-house, the architectural principles of which incorporated novel principles of prison discipline and administration.
  • Emancipate your Colonies (1793)
  • Traité de Législation Civile et Penale (1802, edited by Étienne Dumont. 3 vols)
  • Punishments and Rewards (1811)
  • A Table of the Springs of Action (1815)
  • Parliamentary Reform Catechism (1817)
  • Church-of-Englandism (printed 1817, published 1818)
  • Elements of the Art of Packing (1821)
  • The Influence of Natural Religion upon the Temporal Happiness of Mankind (1822, written with George Grote and published under the pseudonym Philip Beauchamp)
  • Not Paul But Jesus (1823, published under the pseudonym Gamaliel Smith)
  • Book of Fallacies (1824)
  • A Treatise on Judicial Evidence (1825)

The essay Offences Against One's Self, argued for the liberalisation of laws prohibiting homosexuality.[7] The essay remained unpublished during his lifetime for fear of offending public morality. It was finally published for the first time in 1931.[8] William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, 1791 The Panopticon is a type of prison building designed by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham in the late eighteenth century. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Several of Bentham's works appeared first in French translation, prepared for the press by Étienne Dumont. Some made their first appearance in English in the 1820s as a result of back-translation from Dumont's 1802 collection (and redaction) of Bentham's writing on civil and penal legislation. Pierre Étienne Louis Dumont (July 18, 1759 - September 29, 1829), French political writer, was born at Geneva, of which his family had been citizens of good repute from the days of Calvin. ...


John Bowring, a British politician who had been Bentham's trusted friend, was appointed his literary executor and charged with the task of preparing a collected edition of his works. This appeared in 11 volumes in 1838-1843: Bowring based his edition on previously published editions (including those of Dumont) rather than Bentham's own manuscripts, and did not reprint Bentham's works on religion at all. Sir John Bowring Sir John Bowring (Chinese translated name 寶寧 or 包令) (October 17, 1792 - November 23, 1872) was an English political economist, traveller, miscellaneous writer and polyglot, and the 4th Governor of Hong Kong. ... A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of a literary estate. ...


In 1952-54 Wilhelm Stark published a three-volume set, "Jeremy Bentham's Economic Writings," in which he attempted to bring together all of Bentham's writings on economic matters, including both published and unpublished material. Not trusting Bowring's edition, he painstakingly reviewed thousands of Bentham's original manuscripts and notes, a task made monumentally more difficult due to the manner in which they had been left by Bentham and organized by Bowring.


Bentham left manuscripts amounting to some 5,000,000 words. Since 1968, the Bentham Project at University College London have been busy working on an edition of his collected work. So far, 25 volumes have appeared; there may be as many still to come before the project is completed.


Utilitarianism

Bentham's ambition in life was to create a "Pannomion", a complete Utilitarian code of law. Bentham not only proposed many legal and social reforms, but also expounded an underlying moral principle on which they should be based. This philosophy, utilitarianism, argued that the right act or policy was that which would cause "the greatest happiness of the greatest number" — a phrase of which he is generally, though erroneously, regarded as the author — though he later dropped the second qualification and embraced what he called "the greatest happiness principle," often referred to as the principle of utility. This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... What is it? The Greatest Happiness Principle was developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) as a way to spread happiness or moral good to the largest amount of people. ...

Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne. They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think...

 
— Jeremy Bentham , The Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) Ch I, p 1

He attributed his theory to Joseph Priestley: "Priestley was the first (unless it was Beccaria) who taught my lips to pronounce this sacred truth:- That the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation."[9] Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ...


He also suggested a procedure for estimating the moral status of any action, which he called the Hedonistic or felicific calculus. Utilitarianism was revised and expanded by Bentham's student, John Stuart Mill. In Mill's hands, "Benthamism" became a major element in the liberal conception of state policy objectives. The felicific calculus was an algorithm formulated by Jeremy Bentham for calculating the degree or amount of happiness that a specific action is likely to cause, and hence its degree of moral rightness. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam...


It is often said that Bentham's theory, unlike Mill's, faces the problem of lacking a principle of fairness embodied in a conception of justice. In "Bentham and the Common Law Tradition", Gerald J. Postema states, "No moral concept suffers more at Bentham's hand than the concept of justice. There is no sustained, mature analysis of the notion ..." (ibid, p. 148). Thus, some critics object, it would be moral, for example, to torture one person if this would produce an amount of happiness in other people outweighing the unhappiness of the tortured individual - cf. "The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas". However, as P. J. Kelly argued in his book, Utilitarianism and Distributive Justice: Jeremy Bentham and the Civil Law, Bentham had a theory of justice that prevented such consequences. According to Kelly, for Bentham the law "provides the basic framework of social interaction by delimiting spheres of personal inviolability within which individuals can form and pursue their own conceptions of well-being." (ibid, p. 81). They provide security, a precondition for the formation of expectations. As the hedonic calculus shows "expectation utilities" to be much higher than natural ones, it follows that Bentham does not favour the sacrifice of a few to the benefit of the many. This article is about the concept of justice. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas is a story by Ursula K. Le Guin. ... A qualification introduced by Bentham, to distinguish between two different types of utilities, or, rather, sources of utility (for utility, being identical to pleasure, remains always qualitatively the same). ...


Economics

His opinions about monetary economics were totally different from those of Ricardo; however, they had some similarities to those of Thornton. He focused on monetary expansion as a means of helping to create full employment. He was also aware of the relevance of forced saving, propensity to consume, the saving-investment relationship and other matters that form the content of modern income and employment analysis. His monetary view was close to the fundamental concepts employed in his model of utilitarian decision making. Bentham stated that pleasures and pains can be ranked according to their value or “dimension” such as intensity, duration, certainty of a pleasure or a pain. He was concerned with maxima and minima of pleasures and pains, and they set a precedent for the future employment of the maximization principle in the economics of the consumer, the firm and the search for an optimum in welfare economics (Spiegel, p. 341-343). For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...


Animal welfare

Bentham is widely recognised as one of the earliest proponents of animal welfare, although his scepticism about moral rights in general would technically lead him to reject the notion of animal rights. He argued that animal pain is very similar to human pain, and that "[t]he day may come when the rest of the animal creation may acquire those rights which never could have been witholden from them but by the hand of tyranny."[10] Bentham argued that the ability to suffer, not the ability to reason, must be the benchmark of how we treat other beings. If the ability to reason were the criterion, many human beings, including babies and disabled people, would also have to be treated as though they were things. He wrote: Animal liberation redirects here. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...

It may one day come to be recognised that the number of the legs, the villosity of the skin, or the termination of the os sacrum are reasons equally insufficient for abandoning a sensitive being to the same fate. For the record label, see Sacrum Torch. ...


What else is it that should trace the insuperable line? Is it the faculty of reason or perhaps the faculty of discourse? But a full-grown horse or dog is beyond comparison a more rational, as well as more conversable animal, than an infant of a day or a week or even a month old. But suppose they were otherwise, what would it avail? The question is not, Can they reason?, nor Can they talk? but, Can they suffer? Why should the law refuse its protection to any sensitive being? The time will come when humanity will extend its mantle over everything which breathes ...[10] Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ...

Collectivism

Bentham's ideas were severely criticised by, among others, free market economist Murray Rothbard in his essay, Jeremy Bentham: The Utilitarian as Big Brother published in his work, Classical Economics. The Canadian author Brebner wrote in 1948 that "British laissez faire was a political and economic myth...Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, who have been commonly represented as typical, almost fundamental, formulators of laissez faire, were in fact the opposite, that is, the formulator of state intervention for collectivist ends and his devout apostle."[11] The liberal economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek claimed that Bentham's utilitarianism was superficially individualist but led to collectivism: A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ...

Bentham and his Utilitarians did much to destroy the beliefs which England had in part preserved from the Middle Ages, by their scornful treatment of most of what until then had been the most admired features of the British constitution. And they introduced into Britain what had so far been entirely absent—the desire to remake the whole of the law and institutions on rational principles.[12]

See also

Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Mummified cat from Ancient Egypt. ...

References

  1. ^ Bentham, Defence of Usury
  2. ^ Boralevi, Bentham and the Oppressed. p. 37
  3. ^ Jeremy Bentham. University College London. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  4. ^ Joseph Hamburger, Intellectuals in politics: John Stuart Mill and the Philosophical Radicals (Yale University Press, 1965); William Thomas, The philosophic radicals: nine studies in theory and practice, 1817-1841 (Oxford, 1979)
  5. ^ C.F.A. Marmoy, The 'Auto-Icon' of Jeremy Bentham at University College, London. University College London. Retrieved on 2007-03-03. "It seems that the case with Bentham's body now rested in New Broad Street; Southwood Smith did not remove to 38 Finsbury Square until several years later. Bentham must have been seen by many visitors, including Charles Dickens."
  6. ^ History-Chemical History of UCL-The Autoicon. University College London. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  7. ^ Boralevi, Bentham and the Oppressed. p. 40
  8. ^ Boralevi, Bentham and the Oppressed. p. 37
  9. ^ Bentham, quoted in article: Joseph Priestley. Utilitarianism.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  10. ^ a b Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1789. Latest edition: Adamant Media Corporation, 2005.
  11. ^ Brebner, John Bartlet. "Laissez Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain", Journal of Economic History, volume 8, 1948, pp. 59-73.
  12. ^ F. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (London: Routledge, 1960), p. 174.
  • Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. Icon Books. ISBN 1-84046-450-X.
  • Spiegel (1991). "The growth of Economic Thought", Ed.3. Duke University. ISBN 0-8223-0973-4.
  • Murray N. Rothbard (1995).Classical Economics: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-85278-962-X

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Dickens” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Lea Campos Boralevi (1980). 'Bentham and the Oppressed'. Walter De Gruyter Inc, 1984 ISBN 3110099748
  • J. H. Burns (1989). 'Bentham and Blackstone: A Lifetime's Dialectic'. Utilitas 1, 22-40
  • John Dinwiddy (1989), Bentham, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 287622 8.
  • J. A. W. Gunn (1989). 'Jeremy Bentham and the Public Interest'. In J. Lively & A. Reeve (eds.) 'Modern Political Theory from Hobbes to Marx: Key Debates, London, pp. 199-219
  • Jonathan Harris (1998),'Bernardino Rivadavia and Benthamite "discipleship"', Latin American Research Review 33, pp. 129-49
  • R. Harrison (1983) Bentham. London.
  • P. J. Kelly (1990). Utilitarianism and Distributive Justice: Jeremy Bentham and the Civil Law. Oxford.
  • F. Rosen (1983). Jeremy Bentham and Representative Democracy: A Study of the "Constitutional Code". Oxford.
  • F. Rosen (1990) 'The Origins of Liberal Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham and Liberty'. In R. Bellamy, ed., Victorian Liberalism: Nineteenth-century Political Thought and Practice, London, pp. 5870

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NAME Bentham, Jeremy
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer
DATE OF BIRTH February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.)
PLACE OF BIRTH Spitalfields, London
DATE OF DEATH June 6, 1832
PLACE OF DEATH London

 
 

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