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Encyclopedia > Jellyfish
Jellyfish
Sea nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha
Sea nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Goette, 1887
Orders

Stauromedusae
Coronatae
Semaeostomeae
Rhizostomae Look up jellyfish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x853, 310 KB) Summary A jellyfish at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. ... Binomial name Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor, 1848) The stinging sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) is a species of jellyfish occurring particularly in Atlantic estuaries. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphylum/Classes[1] Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones Medusozoa:[2] Cubozoa — sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa — hydroids, hydra-like animals Polypodiozoa Scyphozoa — jellyfish Staurozoa — stalked jellyfish unranked: Myxozoa - parasites Cnidaria[3] (IPA: [4]) is a phylum containing some 11,000 species of apparently simple animals found exclusively in aquatic... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Cleistocarpidae Eleutherocarpidae Kyopodidae Tesseranthidae Stauromedusae, or the stalked jellyfishes, is an order of jellyfish within the Cnidaria phylum that are unique in that they do not enter the medusa stage, instead remaining polyps throughout their lives. ... Families See text Crown Jellyfishes (Coronatae) is an order of jellyfish. ... Families See text Semaeostomeae is an order of jellyfish. ... Families See text. ...

Jellyfish are marine invertebrates belonging to the class Scyphozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They can be found in every ocean in the world and in some fresh waters. The term "jellyfish" is a common name, and therefore does not imply any systematic relationship to vertebrate fish -- jellyfish are cnidarians. The term "jellyfish" is also applied to some close relatives of true scyphozoans, snb.Hydrozoa and the Cubozoa. Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... For other uses, see phyla. ... Subphylum/Classes[1] Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones Medusozoa:[2] Cubozoa — sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa — hydroids, hydra-like animals Polypodiozoa Scyphozoa — jellyfish Staurozoa — stalked jellyfish unranked: Myxozoa - parasites Cnidaria[3] (IPA: [4]) is a phylum containing some 11,000 species of apparently simple animals found exclusively in aquatic... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Classes Anthozoa - Corals and sea anemones Cubozoa - Sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa - Hydroids, hydra-like animals Scyphozoa - Jellyfish Cnidaria is a phylum containing some 10,000 species of relatively simple animals found exclusively in aquatic environments (most species are marine). ... Subclasses Anthomedusae Laingiomedusae Leptomedusae Limnomedusae Siphonophorae Actinulidae Narcomedusae Trachymedusae Polypodiozoa Organisms of the Class Hydrozoa belong to the phylum Cnidaria. ... Orders see text Box jellyfish, also known as sea wasps, are jellyfish-like creatures found in Australia and the Philippines, which can be extremely deadly, with venom in their tentacles. ...

Contents

Anatomy and morphology

A typical medusoid-phase jellyfish.
A typical medusoid-phase jellyfish.

The body of an adult jellyfish consists of a bell shape producing jelly and enclosing its internal structure, from which tentacles are suspended. Each tentacle is covered with cells called cnidocytes, that can sting or kill other animals. Most jellyfish use these cells to secure prey or for defense. Others, such as the Rhizostomae, do not have tentacles at all. Image File history File links Scyphoillustration. ... Image File history File links Scyphoillustration. ... Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Nomarski micrograph of a Ruthenium-red stained nematocyst from Aiptasia pallida, the pale anemone. ... Families See text. ...


Jellyfish lack basic sensory organs and a brain, but their nervous systems and rhopalia allow them to perceive stimuli, such as light and odor, and respond quickly. They feed on small fish and zooplankton that become caught in their tentacles. Most jellyfish are passive drifters and slow swimmers, as their shape is not hydrodynamic. Instead, they move so as to create a current forcing the prey within reach of their tentacles. They do this by rhythmically opening and closing their bell-like body. Their digestive system is incomplete: the same orifice is used to take in food and expel waste. The body of an adult is made up of 94–98% water. The bell consists of a layer of epidermis, gastrodermis, and a thick, intervening layer called mesoglea that produces most of the jelly. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... Rhopalia (singular: rhopalium) are small sensory structures of scyphozoan and cubozoan jellyfish; in Aurelia they lie in marginal indententions around the bell and are flanked by rhopalial lappets. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The gastrodermis is the inner layer of cells that lines a gastrovascular cavity. ... Mesoglea is the clear, inert, jellylike substance that makes up most of the bodies of jellyfish, rubber band, comb jellies and certain other primitive sea creatures. ...


Body systems

A jellyfish detects the touch of other animals using a nervous system called a "nerve net", located in its epidermis. Touch stimuli are conducted by nerve rings, through the rhopalial lappet, located around the animal's body, to the nerve cells. Jellyfish also have ocelli: light-sensitive organs that do not form images but are used to determine up from down, responding to sunlight shining on the water's surface. A nerve net is a type of simple nervous system that is found in members of the phylum cnidaria. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rhopalia (singular rhopalium) are sensory structures of jellyfish of the class Scyphozoa. ... An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ...


Jellyfish don't have a specialized digestive, osmoregulatory, central nervous, respiratory, or circulatory systems. They digest using the gastrodermal lining of the gastrovascular cavity, where nutrients are absorbed. They do not need a respiratory system since their skin is thin enough that the body is oxygenated by diffusion. They have limited control over movement and mostly free-float, but can use the hydrostatic skeleton of the water pouch to accomplish vertical movement through pulsations of the disc-like body. Gut redirects here. ... Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the bodys water content; that is it keeps the bodys fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... The gastrodermis is the inner layer of cells that lines a gastrovascular cavity. ... Gastrovascular cavity, as the name indicates, functions in both digestion and the transport of nutrients to all parts of an animal body. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... A hydrostatic skeleton is one in which the bodys shape and/or function is maintained by an incompressible fluid such as blood or hemolymph. ...


The outer side of a jellyfish is lined with a jelly-like material called ectoplasm (ecto meaning outer and plasma meaning cytoplasm). The ectoplasm typically contains a smaller amount of protein granules and other organic compounds than inner cytoplasm, also referred to as endoplasm (endo meaning inner). Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... A granule is a small grain. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ...

Many species of jellyfish are capable of congregating into large swarms or "blooms", consisting of hundreds of individuals. The formation of these blooms is a complex process that depends on ocean currents, nutrients, temperature and ambient oxygen concentrations. Jellyfish sometimes mass breed during blooms. During such times of rapid population expansion, some people will raise ecological concerns about the potential noxious effects of a jellyfish "outbreak". Flower hat jellyfish Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits : Dennnis Mojado File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Flower hat jellyfish Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits : Dennnis Mojado File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Two flower hat jellies. ... School of juvenile herring - many fish have the opercula wide open for ram feeding and you can see the red gills The term swarm (schooling or swarming) is applied to fish, birds and insects and describes a behavior of an aggregation (school) of animals of similar size and body orientation... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ...


According to Claudia Mills of the University of Washington, the frequency of jellyfish blooms may be attributed to man's impact on marine systems. She says that the breeding jellyfish may merely be filling ecological niches formerly occupied by overfished creatures. Jellyfish researcher Marsh Youngbluth further clarifies that "jellyfish feed on the same kinds of prey as adult and young fishes, so if fish are removed from the equation, jellyfish are likely to move in." The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ...


Increased nutrients in the water, ascribed to agricultural runoff, have also been cited as an antecedent to the proliferation of jellyfish. Monty Graham, of the Dauphin Island Sea Lab in Alabama, says that "ecosystems in which there are high levels of nutrients ... provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate. The fact that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."[1] Run-off, composed of a mixture of water and soil along with any other organic or inorganic substances that may exist in the land, is the product of precipitation, snowmelt, over-irrigation, or other water coming in contact with the earth and carrying matter to streams, rivers, lakes, and other... The Dauphin Island Sea Lab (DISL), founded by the State Legislature in 1971, is Alabamas marine education and research center. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ...


By sampling sea life in a heavily fished region off the coast of Namibia, researchers found that jellyfish have overtaken fish in terms of biomass. The findings represent a careful, quantitative analysis of what has been called a "jellyfish explosion" following intense fishing in the area in the last few decades. The findings were reported by Andrew Brierley of the University of St. Andrews and his colleagues in the July 12, 2006 issue of the journal Current Biology. For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ...


Areas which have been seriously affected by jellyfish blooms include the northern Gulf of Mexico. In that case, Graham states, "Moon jellies have formed a kind of gelatinous net that stretches from end to end across the gulf."[1] Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


Life history

The developmental stages of jellyfish.
The developmental stages of jellyfish.

Most jellyfish pass through two distinct life history phases (body forms) during their life cycle. The first is the polypoid stage, when the jellyfish takes the form of either a sessile stalk which catches passing food, or a similar free-floating configuration. The polyp's mouth and tentacles face upwards, reminiscent of the hydroid stage of the somewhat closely related anthozoan polyps, also of the phylum Cnidaria. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1042, 137 KB) Die Entwicklung der Meduse. In: Das Meer by Matthias Jacob Schleiden (1804-1881). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1042, 137 KB) Die Entwicklung der Meduse. In: Das Meer by Matthias Jacob Schleiden (1804-1881). ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... Anatomy of a coral polyp. ... Look up sessile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthozoa is a class within the phylum Cnidaria that contains the sea anemones and corals. ...


In the second stage, the jellyfish is known as a medusa. Medusae have a radially symmetric, umbrella-shaped body called a bell. The medusa's tentacles are fringe-like protrusions from the border of the bell. (Medusa is also the Hebrew, Spanish, Italian, Hungarian, Russian and Bulgarian word for jellyfish.) In biology, a medusa (also known as a hydromedusa) is a form of cnidarian in which the body is shortened on its principal axis and broadened, sometimes greatly, in contrast with the hydroid or polyp. ... The elaborate patterns on the wings of butterflies are one example of bilateral symmetry. ...


Jellyfish are dioecious; that is, they are either male or female. In most cases, to reproduce, a male releases his sperm into the surrounding water. The sperm then swims into the mouth of the female, allowing the fertilization of the ova. However, moon jellies use a different process. The eggs become lodged in pits on the oral arms, which form a temporary brood chamber to accommodate fertilization. Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ...


After fertilization and initial growth, a larval form, called the planula, develops from the egg. The planula is a small larva covered with cilia. It settles onto a firm surface and develops into a polyp. The polyp is cup-shaped with tentacles surrounding a single orifice, resembling a tiny sea anemone. After an interval of growth, the polyp begins reproducing asexually by budding and is called a segmenting polyp, or a scyphistome. New scyphistomae may be produced by budding or new, immature jellies called ephyra may be formed. Many jellyfish species are capable of producing new medusae by budding directly from the medusan stage. A planula is the free-swimming, flattened, ciliated, bilaterally symmetrical larva of a hydrozoan cnidarian. ... Not to be confused with Psyllium. ... Anatomy of a coral polyp. ... Families Many, see text. ... High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ... Kichyros (Cichorus, Cichyrus), later called Ephyra, was the capital of ancient Thesprotia build by the Pelasgian leader Thesprotos. ...


Most jellyfish have a lifespan of two and a half months; few live longer than six months but one species can live as long as 30 years and another species, T. nutricula, is effectively immortal. Binomial name McCrady, 1858 Turritopsis nutricula is a hydrozoan (jellyfish) with a life cycle in which it reverts back to the polyp stage after becoming sexually mature. ...


Etymology and taxonomic history

Since jellyfish are not fish, some people consider the term "jellyfish" a misnomer, and instead use the term "jellies" or "sea jellies". The word "jellyfish" is also often used to denote either hydrozoans or the box jellyfish, the cubozoans. The class name, Scyphozoa, comes from the Greek word skyphos, denoting a kind of drinking cup and alluding to the cup shape of the organism. For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Look up Misnomer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Subclasses Anthomedusae Laingiomedusae Leptomedusae Limnomedusae Siphonophorae Actinulidae Narcomedusae Trachymedusae Polypodiozoa Organisms of the Class Hydrozoa belong to the phylum Cnidaria. ... Families see text Jellyfish net enclosure at Ellis Beach, Queensland Box jellyfish are water-dwelling invertebrates belonging to the class Cubozoa, named for their cube-shaped medusae. ... Corinthian skyphos with birds, ca. ...


A group of jellyfish is often called a "smack". [2]


Importance to humans

Culinary uses

Jellyfish are an important source of food to the Chinese community and in many Asian countries.[3] Only jellyfish belonging to the order Rhizostomeae are harvested for food. Rhizostomes, especially Rhopilema esculentum in China (Chinese name: 海蜇 hǎizhē) and Stomolophus meleagris (cannonball jellyfish) in the United States, are favoured because they are typically larger and have more rigid bodies than other scyphozoans. Furthermore, their toxins are innocuous to humans.[3] In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Species Rhopilema is a genus of jellyfishes. ...


Traditional processing methods, carried out by a Jellyfish Master, involve a 20 to 40 day multi-phase procedure in which the umbrella and oral arms are treated with a mixture of table salt and alum, and compressed.[3] The gonads and mucous membranes are removed prior to salting. Processing reduces liquidation, off-odors and the growth of spoilage organisms, and makes the jellyfish drier and more acidic, producing a "crunchy and crispy texture."[3] Jellyfish prepared this way retain 7-10% of their original, raw weight, and the processed product contains approximately 95% water and 4-5% protein, making it a relatively low calorie food.[3] Freshly processed jellyfish has a white, creamy color and turns yellow or brown during prolonged storage. Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ... A crystal of alum Alum, (IPA: ) a nonexistent compound that was imagined by Mary Daly, which serves no purpose than to supply highscool students with work. ... See also Negative calorie diet, very low calorie diet CRON redirects here. ...


In China, processed jellyfish are desalted by soaking in water overnight and eaten cooked or raw. It is often served shredded with a dressing of oil, soy sauce, vinegar and sugar, or as a salad with vegetables.[3] In Japan, cured jellyfish are rinsed, cut into strips and served with vinegar as an appetizer.[3][4] Desalted, ready-to-eat products are also available.[3]


Fisheries have begun harvesting cannonball jellyfish along the southern Atlantic coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico for export to Asian nations.[3]


In biotechnology

In 1961, green fluorescent protein was discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria by scientists studying bioluminescence. This protein has since become a quite useful tool in biology. Its use is mainly for scientists studying in which tissues genes are expressed. The technique uses genetic engineering fuse the gene of interest to the gene of GFP. the fused DNA is then put into a cell, to generate either a cell line or (via IVF techniques) an entire animal bearing the gene. In the cell or animal, the artificial gene gets turned on the same tissues and the same time as the normal gene. But instead of making the normal protein, the gene makes GFP. You can then find out what tissues express that protein, or at what stage of development - by shining light on the animal or cell, and looking for the green fluorescence. The fluorescence shows you where the gene you are interested in is expressed. [5] Jellyfish are also harvested for their collagen, which can be used for a variety of scientific applications including the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It has been suggested that mGFP be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Aequorea victoria (Murbach and Shearer, 1902) Aequorea victoria is a luminescent jellyfish found off the west coast of North America. ... Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...


In captivity

A group of Sea Nettle jellyfish in an aquarium.
A group of Sea Nettle jellyfish in an aquarium.

Jellyfish are commonly displayed in aquaria in many countries; among them the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Long Beach Aquarium of the Pacific, Vancouver Aquarium, New York Aquarium,Seattle Aquarium, New England Aquarium, Newport Aquarium, National Aquarium in Baltimore, Tennessee Aquarium, Georgia Aquarium and Maui Ocean Center. Often the tank's background is blue and the animals are illuminated by side light to produce a high contrast effect. In natural conditions, many jellies are so transparent that they are almost impossible to see. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ... Binomial name Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor, 1848) The stinging sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) is a species of jellyfish occurring particularly in Atlantic estuaries. ... The Monterey Bay Aquarium, which is located in a former sardine cannery on Cannery Row in Monterey, California, is one of the largest and most respected aquariums in the world. ... Blue Cavern Habitat at the Aquarium of the Pacific. ... The Vancouver Aquarium is a public aquarium located in Stanley Park in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Entrance to the territory of the New York Aquarium from ocean. ... The Seattle Aquarium is a public aquarium located on Pier 59 on Seattles Elliot Bay waterfront. ... The New England Aquarium is a major aquarium located in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article is about the aquarium in Newport, Kentucky. ... The National Aquarium in Baltimore (angular building, rear right, and 2005 extension to its left) lies near historic ships in the Inner Harbor area of Baltimore, including USS Torsk and Lightship Chesapeake. ... The Tennessee Aquarium is a public aquarium in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, that opened its first exhibit in 1992. ... The Georgia Aquarium, located in Atlanta, Georgia at Pemberton Place, is billed as the worlds largest aquarium with more than 8 million US gallons (30,000 m³; 30,000,000 liters) of marine and fresh water, 1. ... The Maui Ocean Center is an aquarium and marine science center located in Maalaea, Hawaii on the island of Maui. ...


Holding jellyfish in captivity presents other problems. For one, they are not adapted to closed spaces. They depend on currents to transport them from place to place. To compensate for this, professional exhibits feature precise water flows, typically in circular tanks to prevent specimens from becoming trapped in corners. The Monterey Bay Aquarium uses a modified version of the kreisel (German for "spinning top") for this purpose.


Toxicity to humans

When stung by a jellyfish, first aid may be needed immediately. The stings of true Scyphozoan jellyfish are not generally deadly, though species of the completely separate phylum Cubozoa (box jellyfish) such as the famous and especially toxic Irukandji can be fatal. However, even nonfatal jellyfish stings are known to be extremely painful. Serious stings may cause anaphylaxis and may result in death. Hence, people stung by jellyfish must get out of the water to avoid drowning. In serious cases, advanced professional care must be sought. This care may include administration of an antivenin and other supportive care such as required to treat the symptoms of anaphylactic shock. First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Orders see text Box jellyfish, also known as sea wasps, are jellyfish-like creatures found in Australia and the Philippines, which can be extremely deadly, with venom in their tentacles. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Antivenin (or antivenom, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ...


There are three goals of first aid for uncomplicated jellyfish stings: prevent injury to rescuers, inactivate the nematocysts, and remove any tentacles stuck on the patient. To prevent injury to rescuers, barrier clothing should be worn. This protection may include anything from panty hose to wet suits to full-body sting-proof suits. Inactivating the nematocysts, or stinging cells, prevents further injection of venom into the patient. Nomarski micrograph of a Ruthenium-red stained nematocyst from Aiptasia pallida, the pale anemone. ... It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ...


Vinegar (3 to 10% aqueous acetic acid) should be applied for box jellyfish stings.[6][7] Vinegar, however, is not recommended for Portuguese Man o' War stings.[6] In the case of stings on or around the eyes, vinegar may be placed on a towel and dabbed around the eyes, but not in them. Salt water may also be used in case vinegar is not readily available.[6][8] Fresh water should not be used if the sting occurred in salt water, as a change in pH can cause the release of additional venom. Rubbing the wound, or using alcohol, spirits, ammonia, or urine will encourage the release of venom and should be avoided.[9] Though often not available, a shower or bath as hot as can be tolerated can neutralize stings. However, if hypothermia is suspected this method may cause other serious complications. Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Families see text Jellyfish net enclosure at Ellis Beach, Queensland Box jellyfish are water-dwelling invertebrates belonging to the class Cubozoa, named for their cube-shaped medusae. ... This article is about the marine invertebrate. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable...


Once deactivated, the stinging cells must be removed. This can be accomplished by picking off tentacles left on the body.[9] First aid providers should be careful to use gloves or another readily available barrier device to prevent personal injury, and to follow standard universal precautions. After large pieces of the jellyfish are removed, shaving cream may be applied to the area and a knife edge, safety razor, or credit card may be used to take away any remaining nematocysts.[10] Universal precautions is the term used to describe the practice in medicine of avoiding contact with patients bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields. ... Nomarski micrograph of a Ruthenium-red stained nematocyst from Aiptasia pallida, the pale anemone. ...


Beyond initial first aid, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) may be used to control skin irritation (pruritus).[10] To remove the venom in the skin, apply a paste of baking soda and water and apply a cloth covering on the sting. If possible, reapply paste every 15-20 minutes. Ice can be applied to stop the spread of venom until either of these is available. An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl®, or Dimedrol outside the US) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine and sedative. ... For other uses, see Itch (disambiguation). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Scyphozoa
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Binomial name McCrady, 1858 Turritopsis nutricula is a hydrozoan (jellyfish) with a life cycle in which it reverts back to the polyp stage after becoming sexually mature. ... Binomial name Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor, 1848) The stinging sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) is a species of jellyfish occurring particularly in Atlantic estuaries. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Binomial name Aurelia aurita Linnaeus, 1758 Moon Jelly (Aurelia aurita) are the most common Jellyfish species found in the genus Aurelia. ... Binomial name Phacellophora camtaschatica (Brant, 1835) Phacellophora camtschatica, known as the fried egg jellyfish or egg-yolk jellyfish, is a very large jellyfish, with a bell up to two feet in diameter and sixteen clusters of up to a few dozen tentacles, each up to twenty feet long. ... Orders see text Box jellyfish, also known as sea wasps, are jellyfish-like creatures found in Australia and the Philippines, which can be extremely deadly, with venom in their tentacles. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Portuguese Man O War (Physalia physalis), also known as the bluebottle, is commonly thought of as a jellyfish but is actually a siphonophore—a colony of four sorts of polyps. ... Cotylorhiza tuberculata is a species of jellyfish, also known as the Mediterranean jelly or fried egg jellyfish. ... Binomial name Pelagia noctiluca Forsskal, 1775 Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskal, 1775) is a jellyfish, belonging to the family Pelagiidae. ... Binomial name Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester 1880 Craspedacusta sowerbyi (alternatively ), or freshwater jellyfish, are freshwater animals in the Class hydrozoa. ... Binomial name Cyanea capillata (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lions mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) is the largest known species of jellyfish. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The ocean sunfish (Mola mola) or common mola is the heaviest bony fish in the world, with an average weight of 1000 kilograms. ...

References

  1. ^ a b The Washington Post, republished in the European Cetacean Bycatch Campaign, Jellyfish “blooms” could be sign of ailing seas, May 6, 2002. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  2. ^ collective nouns : Java Glossary
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Y-H. Peggy Hsieh, Fui-Ming Leong, and Jack Rudloe (2004). "Jellyfish as food". Hydrobiologia 451 (1-3): 11-17. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. 
  4. ^ Firth, F.E. (1969). The Encyclopedia of Marine Resources. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York. ISBN 0442223994. 
  5. ^ Pieribone, V. and D.F. Gruber (2006). Aglow in the Dark: The Revolutionary Science of Biofluorescence. Harvard University Press, 288p. 
  6. ^ a b c Fenner P, Williamson J, Burnett J, Rifkin J (1993). "First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia. Response to a newly differentiated species". Med J Aust 158 (7): 498-501. PMID 8469205. 
  7. ^ Currie B, Ho S, Alderslade P (1993). "Box-jellyfish, Coca-Cola and old wine". Med J Aust 158 (12): 868. PMID 8100984. 
  8. ^ Yoshimoto C (2006). "Jellyfish species distinction has treatment implications". Am Fam Physician 73 (3): 391. PMID 16477882. 
  9. ^ a b Hartwick R, Callanan V, Williamson J (1980). "Disarming the box-jellyfish: nematocyst inhibition in Chironex fleckeri". Med J Aust 1 (1): 15-20. PMID 6102347. 
  10. ^ a b Perkins R, Morgan S (2004). "Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures". Am Fam Physician 69 (4): 885-90. PMID 14989575. 

... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


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These jellyfish, the lion's mane, moon jellyfish, and sea nettle, all have tentacles loaded with stinging cells.
Jellyfish in Chesapeake Bay and Nearby Waters - by Dr. Jennifer Purcell, UMCES
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