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Encyclopedia > Jefferson Memorial
Thomas Jefferson Memorial
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Location Washington, D.C., USA
Coordinates 38°52′53″N 77°2′12″W / 38.88139, -77.03667
Area 18.36 acres (74,300 m²)
Established April 13, 1943
Visitors 2,312,726 (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service
The Jefferson Memorial from outside

The Thomas Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C. that is dedicated to Thomas Jefferson, an American Founding Father and the third president of the United States. The neoclassical building was designed by John Russell Pope. It was built by Philadelphia contractor John McShain and was completed in 1943. When completed, the memorial occupied one of the last significant sites left in the city. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Jefferson Monument, crop of Image:Jfmhelicoptor. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 655 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 655 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... United States presidential memorials are created to honor and perpetuate the legacy of United States presidents. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... The Jefferson Memorial, built 1939 — 1943 John Russell Pope (April 24, 1874 – August 27, 1937) was an architect most known for his designs of the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941) in Washington, DC. Pope was born in... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... John McShain (December 21, 1898 - September 9, 1989) was a highy successful United States building contractor known as The Man Who Built Washington. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Composed of circular marble steps, a portico, a circular colonnade of Ionic order columns, and a shallow dome, the building is open to the elements. Pope made references to the Roman Pantheon and Jefferson's own design for the Rotunda at the University of Virginia. It is situated in West Potomac Park, on the shore of the Tidal Basin of the Potomac River. The Jefferson Memorial and the White House located directly north, form one of the main anchor points in the area of the National Mall in D.C. The Washington Monument just east of the axis on the national Mall was intended to be located at the intersection of the White House and the site for the Jefferson Memorial to the south but soft swampy ground which defied nineteenth century engineering required it be sited to the east. The Jefferson Memorial is managed by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks division. Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... Jeffersons Rotunda, University of Virginia. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Looking north from West Potomac Park across the Tidal Basin, showing cherry trees in flower West Potomac Park adjoins the National Mall in Washington, DC. It includes the parkland that extends south of the Reflecting Pool, from the Lincoln Memorial to the grounds of the Washington Monument. ... This article is about the basin in Washington, DC.. For other uses of the term, see Tidal Basin. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... National Mall and Memorial Parks (also known as National Capital Parks-Central) is an administrative unit of the National Park Service encompassing many national memorials and other areas in Washington, D.C. They include: African American Civil War Memorial Constitution Gardens East Potomac Park Fords Theatre National Historic Site...

Contents

History

By 1930, there were monuments in Washington D.C. commemorating great United States presidents, including Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. President Franklin Roosevelt thought that Thomas Jefferson also deserved a monument. On June 26, 1934, following his initiative, Congress passed a resolution to create a monument commemorating Jefferson. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...

Jefferson Memorial at dusk, illuminated
Under construction in 1940, as seen from the top of the Washington Monument.
Rudulph Evans' statue of Thomas Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence preamble to the right
The front steps of the Jefferson Memorial
The Jefferson Memorial at night, reflected on the Tidal Basin.
Memorial as seen from across the Tidal Basin

The memorial was designed by John Russell Pope — also the architect of the original (west) building of the National Gallery of Art. The memorial's design reflects characteristics of buildings designed by Jefferson such as Monticello and the Rotunda, which reflect his fascination with Roman architecture. The Jefferson Memorial bears some resemblance to the Pantheon of Rome. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jefferson_Memorial_under_construction. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jefferson_Memorial_under_construction. ... For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2610 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2610 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3051x4814, 9675 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Jefferson Memorial User:Jawed ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3051x4814, 9675 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Jefferson Memorial User:Jawed ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3164x2039, 2235 KB) Summary This photo was taken by the submitter, User:Micahmn. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3164x2039, 2235 KB) Summary This photo was taken by the submitter, User:Micahmn. ... The Tidal Basin is a partially man-made inlet adjacent to the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. It is part of West Potomac Park and is surrounded by the Jefferson Memorial and the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1390 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jefferson Memorial Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1390 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jefferson Memorial Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... The Jefferson Memorial, built 1939 — 1943 John Russell Pope (April 24, 1874 – August 27, 1937) was an architect most known for his designs of the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941) in Washington, DC. Pope was born in... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... This is about the Jefferson residence. ... Jeffersons Rotunda, University of Virginia. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Pantheon, Rome The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely...


Construction

The cornerstone was laid on November 15, 1939 — two years after Pope's death. Daniel P. Higgins and Otto R. Eggers took over construction of the memorial. The memorial was constructed with Danby Imperial marble (Vermont) for the exterior walls and columns, Tennessee pink marble for the interior floor, Georgian white marble for the interior wall panels, and Missouri gray marble for the pedestal. Indiana limestone was used in construction of the ceiling. [1] The cost of construction was slightly more than $3 million. Look up cornerstone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ...


The Jefferson Memorial was officially dedicated on April 13, 1943 — the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birthday. One of the last American public monuments in the Beaux-Arts tradition, it was severely criticized even as it was being built, by those who adhered to the modernist argument that dressing 20th century buildings like Greek and Roman temples constituted a "tired architectural lie." More than 60 years ago, Pope responded with silence to critics who dismissed him as part of an enervated architectural elite practicing "styles that are safely dead". As a National Memorial it was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... In the United States, National Memorial is a designation for a protected area that is commemorative of an historic person or episode. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


Interior

The interior of the memorial has a 19 foot (5.8 m) tall, 10,000 pound (5 ton) bronze statue of Jefferson by sculptor Rudulph Evans which was added four years after the dedication, and the interior walls are engraved with passages from Jefferson's writings. Most prominent are the words which are inscribed in a frieze below the dome: "I have sworn upon the altar of god eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." This sentence is taken from a September 23, 1800, letter by Jefferson to Dr. Benjamin Rush. Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Rudulph Evans (February 1, 1878-January 16, 1960), sculptor, was born in Washington, D.C., and grew up in Virginia. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ...


Inscriptions in the Statue Chamber

I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.
Appears on the interior frieze below the dome. Excerpted from a letter to Dr. Benjamin Rush, September 23, 1800.

We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, that to secure these rights governments are instituted among men. We...solemnly publish and declare, that these colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states...And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.
Appears on the panel of the southwest interior wall. Excerpted from the Declaration of Independence, 1776. A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ...

Almighty God hath created the mind free...All attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burthens...are a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of our religion...No man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship or ministry or shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief, but all men shall be free to profess and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion. I know but one code of morality for men whether acting singly or collectively.
Appears on the panel of the northwest interior wall. Excerpted from two sources: first, "A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, 1777"; the last sentence beginning "I know but one..." is taken from a letter to James Madison, August 28, 1789.

God who gave us life gave us liberty. Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just, that his justice cannot sleep forever. Commerce between master and slave is despotism. Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than these people are to be free. Establish the law for educating the common people. This it is the business of the state to effect and on a general plan.
Appears on the panel of the northeast interior wall. Excerpted from multiple sources:
The first sentence, beginning "God who gave...", is from "A Summary View of the Rights of British America".
The second, third and fourth sentences, beginning "Can the liberties...", "Indeed I tremble..." and "Commerce between master...", are from Notes on the State of Virginia.
The fifth sentence, beginning "Nothing is more...", is from Jefferson's autobiography.
The sixth sentence, beginning "Establish the law...", is from a Letter to George Wythe, August 13, 1790.
The final sentence, beginning "This it is", is from a letter to George Washington, January 4, 1786.
Notes was the only full-length book authored by Thomas Jefferson. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...

I am not an advocate for frequent changes in laws and constitutions. But laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind. As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, new truths discovered and manners and opinions change, with the change of circumstances, institutions must advance also to keep pace with the times. We might as well require a man to wear still the coat which fitted him when a boy as civilized society to remain ever under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors.
Appears on the panel of the southeast interior wall. Redacted and excerpted from a letter to Samuel Kercheval, July 12, 1816.

The Jefferson Memorial has a room filled with his accomplishments and a 5 foot tall bio inscribed in granite.


Location

The Jefferson Memorial seen from across the Tidal Basin on a foggy night.

The site of the monument in Washington D.C West Potomac Park, on the shore of the Potomac River Tidal Basin, is enhanced with the massed planting of Japanese cherry trees, the gift of the people of Japan in 1912. The monument is not as prominent in popular culture as other Washington, D.C. buildings and monuments, possibly due to its location well removed from the National Mall and the Washington Metro. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1152 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1152 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Looking north from West Potomac Park across the Tidal Basin, showing cherry trees in flower West Potomac Park adjoins the National Mall in Washington, DC. It includes the parkland that extends south of the Reflecting Pool, from the Lincoln Memorial to the grounds of the Washington Monument. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... The Tidal Basin is a partially man-made inlet adjacent to the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. It is part of West Potomac Park and is surrounded by the Jefferson Memorial and the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. ... This article is about cherry blossoms and their cultural significance to the Japanese. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... The Washington Metro, or simply Metro, is the rapid transit system of Washington, D.C., and neighboring suburban communities in Maryland and Virginia, both inside and outside the Capital Beltway. ...

Satellite View of the Jefferson Memorial.

The Jefferson Memorial hosts many events and ceremonies each year, including memorial exercises, the Easter Sunrise Service, and the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Washington, D.C. Tidal Basin showing cherry trees in flower The National Cherry Blossom Festival is an annual celebration in Washington, D.C., commemorating the March 27, 1912, gift to the city of 3,000 Japanese cherry trees from Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo to enhance the growing friendship between...


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Bob Roberts is a 1992 film written and directed by Tim Robbins. ... Mr. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Lisa Marie Simpson is a character in the animated television series The Simpsons, voiced by Yeardley Smith; Lisa is the only character Smith voices on a regular basis. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  • Bedford, Steven McLeod, John Russell Pope: Architect of Empire, Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York, NY 1998
  • Goode, James M. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington D.C., Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington D.C. 1974
  • The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior.
  1. ^ - Stones and Mortar - National Park Service

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ...

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External links

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Jefferson Memorial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (612 words)
The memorial was constructed with Danby Imperial marble (Vermont) for the exterior walls and columns, Tennessee pink marble for the interior floor, Georgian white marble for the interior wall panels, and Missouri gray marble for the pedestal.
The Jefferson Memorial was officially dedicated on April 13, 1943 — the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birth.
The interior of the memorial has a 19 foot (5.8 m) tall, 10,000 pound (4.5 t) bronze statue of Jefferson by sculptor Rudolph Evans which was added four years after the dedication, and the interior walls are engraved with passages from Jefferson's writings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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