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Encyclopedia > Jean Marie Le Pen
Portrait of Jean-Marie Le Pen.
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Portrait of Jean-Marie Le Pen.

Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928) is a controversial French politician. He is the president of the nationalist and Front National. Much of the liberal media outlets consider the National Front and Le Pen to be far-right. Le Pen disputes the far-right qualification; at times, he has declared that his party was "neither Right, neither Left, but French"; at other times, he has stated that his party was right-wing and that the French parties generally considered to be right-wing were not truly so. He claims that most of the French political and media class are corrupt and out of touch with the real needs of the common people, and conspire to exclude Le Pen and his party from mainstream politics. le pen Taken from the website of the Front National, specifically from a poster that says fier dêtre français (proud to be french) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... le pen Taken from the website of the Front National, specifically from a poster that says fier dêtre français (proud to be french) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... This article is about the French political party, not the WWII French resistance movement Front National. ...


Le Pen is known for advocating tough law enforcement policies, possibly including the reinstatement of the death penalty; strong restrictions on immigration to France from countries outside Europe; and withdrawal or at least far greater independence from the European Union. Jean-Marie Le Pen has, at times, made remarks considered to be racist and antisemitic, though, in recent years, he has been careful not to use controversial rhetoric prior to elections. Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ...


He has run in several French presidential elections, qualifying for the second-round of the 2002 election, where he challenged current president Jacques Chirac. // Second Round First Round General Summary On May 1, Labour Day, the yearly demonstrations for workers rights were compounded by protests against Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... Jacques René Chirac ▶(?), (born November 29, 1932 in Paris) is a French politician who is currently President of the French Republic. ...

Contents


Biography

Le Pen was born at La Trinité-sur-Mer, a small Breton harbour, as the son of a fisherman. Le Pen was orphaned as an adolescent; his father's boat was blown up by a mine. Nowadays he is a wealthy businessman, mostly because of a large inheritance received in 1977 from a political supporter. Traditional coat of arms This article is about the historical duchy and French province, as well as the cultural area of Brittany. ... An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (or animal), one or both of whose parents have died. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


Le Pen studied political science and law, and was at one time the president of an association of law students in Paris. His graduate studies thesis, presented in 1971 by Jean-Marie Le Pen and Jean-Loup Vincent, is titled Le courant anarchiste en France depuis 1945 or "The anarchist movement in France since 1945". Political science is a social science discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Aphorism Critical legal studies Jurisprudence Law (principle) Legal research Legal code Natural justice Natural law Philosophy of law Religious law External links Find more information on Law by searching one of Wikipedias sibling projects: Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law The Australian Institute of Comparative... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ...


From his first marriage (June 29, 1960 - 1985 or 1986) to Pierrette Lalanne, he has three daughters and nine granddaughters. The youngest of his daughters, Marine Le Pen, is a ranking officer of the Front National. Marine le Pen (born August 5, 1968) is a French politician. ... This article is about the French political party, not the WWII French resistance movement Front National. ...


On May 31, 1991, Jean-Marie Le Pen married Jeanne-Marie Paschos ("Jany"). Born in 1933, JM Paschos was previously married to Belgian businessman Jean Garnier. Pascho's father was a Greek merchant, and her mother is partly of Dutch descent.


Political career

A decorated veteran of the French paratroops in Indochina (1953), Suez (1956), and Algeria (1957), Le Pen started his political career in Toulouse when he became the head of the students union. In 1953 he called Vincent Auriol, President of the Republic at the time, and by using his former status he got approval for a volunteer rescue project to carry out disaster relief after a flood in the Netherlands. Within two days there were forty volunteers from his university, a group that would go on to help victims of an earthquake in Italy. In Paris, 1956, he became the youngest member of the French National Assembly, with the party of Pierre Poujade. Organization The French armed forces are divided into four branches: French Army, including Chasseurs Alpins Foreign Legion Marine troops light aviation engineers Navy, including Naval Air naval fusiliers and naval commandos Air Force, including territorial Air Defense air fusiliers National Gendarmerie (military police force) Every year on Bastille Day, a... French Indochina was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Suez is a port town (population ca. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Capitole, the 18th century city hall of Toulouse and best known landmark in the city; in the foreground is the Place du Capitole, a hub of urban life at the very center of the city Toulouse (pronounced in standard French, in local Toulouse accent) (Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced ) is a... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... French statesman Vincent Auriol Vincent Auriol (27 August 1884 - 1 January 1966) was a French politician who served as first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. ... The North Sea Flood of 1953 and the associated storm combined to create a major natural disaster which affected the coastlines of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands on the night of 31 January 1953 – 1 February 1953. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Pierre Poujade (December 1, 1920–August 27, 2003) was a French populist politician after whom the Poujadist movement was named. ...


In 1957, he became the General Secretary of the National Front of Combatants (FNC) as well as the first French politician to present a candidate of Muslim confession, Ahmed Djebbour, and to achieve his election. The next year, he was re-elected as deputy to the National Assembly and adhered to the parliamentary party National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNIP), led by Antoine Pinay. During this period, Le Pen actively followed issues of the war and defense budget. In 1965 Le Pen became the director of the presidential campaign of Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour. 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also pronounced Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The National Center of Independents and Peasants (Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans) is a political party in France. ... Antoine Pinay, French prime minister Antoine Pinay (December 30, 1891 - December 13, 1994) served as Prime Minister of France from 1952 - 1953 (technically, president of the Council). One of Frances most spirited leaders after World War II, Pinay is today remembered as the longest lived Prime Minister. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ...


In 1972, he founded the nationalist, far-right party Front National. The electoral results of the Front National have been on the rise since the municipal elections of 1983. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Far Right, Radical Right, or Hard Right are terms used by many scholars to discuss political groups, movements, and political parties that are located to the right of mainstream electoral conservatism. ... This article is about the French political party, not the WWII French resistance movement Front National. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1984 and 1999 Le Pen won a seat in the European Parliament. He was deprived of his seat by the European Court of Justice on April 10, 2003 (see below). In 1992 and 1998 he was elected to the regional council of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. His political career has been most successful in the south of France. This page is about the year 1984. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... is divided into 26 régions, further subdivided into départements. ... Capital Marseilles Area 31,400 km² Regional President Michel Vauzelle (PS) (since 1998) Population   - 2004 estimate   - 1999 census   - Density (Ranked 3rd) 4,666,000 4,506,151 149/km² (2004) Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Départements Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes...


Le Pen ran in the French presidential elections in 1974, 1988, 1995 and 2002. In the presidential elections of 2002, Le Pen obtained 16.86% of the votes in the first round of voting. This was enough to qualify him for the second round, as a result of the poor showing by the Socialist candidate and incumbent prime-minister Lionel Jospin and the scattering of votes among fifteen other candidates. This was a major political event, both nationally and internationally, as it was the first time a far right-wing candidate had qualified for the second round of the French presidential elections. There was a widespread stirring of national public opinion, and more than one million people in France took part in street rallies, in an expression of fierce opposition to Le Pen's ideas. Le Pen was then soundly defeated in the second round when incumbent president Jacques Chirac obtained 82% of the votes. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Second Round First Round General Summary On May 1, Labour Day, the yearly demonstrations for workers rights were compounded by protests against Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... Socialist Party is the name of several different socialist political parties around the world. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ... Jacques René Chirac ▶(?), (born November 29, 1932 in Paris) is a French politician who is currently President of the French Republic. ...


In the 2004 regional elections, Jean-Marie Le Pen intended to run for office in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur région but was prevented from doing so because he did not meet the conditions for being a voter in that region: he neither lived there, nor was registered as a taxpayer there. Le Pen complained of a government plot to prevent him from running. Some argue that this event was merely a scheme of Le Pen's to avoid defeat in the election. Regional elections were held in France on March 21 and March 28, 2004. ... Capital Marseilles Area 31,400 km² Regional President Michel Vauzelle (PS) (since 1998) Population   - 2004 estimate   - 1999 census   - Density (Ranked 3rd) 4,666,000 4,506,151 149/km² (2004) Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Départements Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common...


In recent years, Le Pen has tried to soften his image, with mixed success. He has maneuvered his daughter Marine into a prominent position, a move that angered many inside the National Front, concerned with the grip of the Le Pen family on the party. Marine le Pen (born August 5, 1968) is a French politician. ...


Controversy

See National Front for a summary of Le Pen's political proposals. This article is about the French political party, not the WWII French resistance movement Front National. ...


Le Pen is a controversial figure in France, but he consistently receives about 15%-18% of the vote. Opinions regarding Le Pen tend to be quite strong; a 2002 IPSOS poll showed that while 22% of the electorate have a good or very good opinion of Mr Le Pen, and 13% a favorable opinion, 61% have a very unfavorable opinion [1]. Le Pen and former National Front leader Bruno Mégret top the unfavorable ratings, with 74% and 75% respectively. Bruno Mégret (born April 4, 1949) is a French politician. ...


As described above, at the 2002 French presidential election, Jean-Marie Le Pen reached the second round of balloting. On May 1st, millions of people walked the streets protesting in opposition to Le Pen, in an unprecedented move against a presidential candidate. Le Pen was then soundly defeated at the second round, with voters from the whole political spectrum, aside National Front voters, voting for his opponent Jacques Chirac — including a high proportion of voters who did not support Chirac, and even those who disliked him. Slogans such as "vote for the crook, not the fascist" were heard. // Second Round First Round General Summary On May 1, Labour Day, the yearly demonstrations for workers rights were compounded by protests against Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ...


Le Pen and the National Front are described by all commentators except those from the Front to be far right. Le Pen himself disagrees with this label. Earlier on, Le Pen described his position as "Neither left nor right, but French" (Ni droite, ni gauche, français). He later described his position as right-wing, opposed to the "socialo-communists" (and other right-wing parties, which he deems are not real right-wing parties). Le Pen criticizes the other political parties as the "establishment" and lumped all major parties (PC, PS, UDF, RPR) into the "Gang of Four" (la bande des quatre — an allusion to the Gang of Four during China's Cultural Revolution). The term far-right refers to the relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... The term establishment has several meanings: An establishment is a place of business or residence, or the founding of such a place or business. ... The current logo of the PCF. Note the absence of traditional communist imagery such as the hammer and sickle. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French center-right political party. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: 四人帮; Traditional Chinese: 四人幫; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the... A poster during the Cultural Revolution. ...


Le Pen has been severely criticized (See CNN comments on political progress in 2002) both at home and abroad for his perceived xenophobia and anti-Semitism. This perception is based on a string of remarks that Le Pen has made over the years, and positions he has taken, as well as Le Pen's acquaintance with former Nazis and Vichy France officials. Xenophobia denotes a phobic attitude toward strangers or of the unknown and comes from the Greek words ξένος (xenos), meaning foreigner, stranger, and φόβος (phobos), meaning fear. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... Presidential flag of Vichy France Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II...


As an example:

  • He has made remarks which are widely considered to be anti-Semitic; for example, on 13 September 1987 he referred to the Nazi gas chambers as "a point of detail of the Second World War." Le Pen once made the infamous pun "Durafour-crématoire" ("crematory oven") about then minister Michel Durafour, a Jew; the corpses of the victims of the Nazi gas chambers were incinerated in such ovens. In February 1997, Le Pen accused President Chirac of being "in the pay of Jewish organizations, and particularly of the notorious B'nai B'rith".
  • In May 1987 he advocated isolating those infected with AIDS (whom he calls "sidaïques1") from society by placing them in a special "sidatorium".
  • On June 21, 1995, he attacked singer Patrick Bruel on his policy of no longer singing in the city of Toulon because the city had just elected a mayor from the National Front. Le Pen said "the city of Toulon will then have to get along without the vocalisations of singer Benguigui". Benguigui, a Jewish name, was Patrick Bruel's real name.
  • In 2005, he claimed that the occupation of France by Nazi Germany "was not particularly inhumane".[2] During the Second World War, Nazi Germany occupied France, deported section of its Jewish population to extermination camps, retaliated against Resistance actions by killing civilians, tortured people suspected of being in the Resistance, and took civilians into forced labor. Le Pen is right in that it was not particularly inhumane, compared to the atrocities commited against for example, the Polish, Russians and others in Nazi-occupied countries. The population of France (disregarding it's Jewish population) was treated on a level much higher than that of other Nazi-occupied countries.

In April 2000 he was suspended from the European Parliament following prosecution for physically assaulting Socialist candidate Annette Peulvast-Bergeal during the 1997 general election. This ultimately led to him losing his seat in the European parliament in 2003. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of death camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Independent Order of Bnai Brith (Hebrew: Sons of the Covenant) is the oldest continually-operating Jewish service organization in the world. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is defined as a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the depletion of the immune system caused... Portrait of Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Patrick Bruel (born Patrick Benguigui, on May 14, 1959 in Tlemcen, Algeria) is a French singer, actor, and professional poker player. ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of death camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... The French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements that fought military occupation of France by Nazi Germany and the Vichy France undemocratic regime during World War II after the government and the high command of France surrendered in 1940. ... The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was an infamous torture device. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It has also been established that he practiced torture in Algeria. Although war crimes committed during the Algerian War of Independence are amnestied in France, this fact was publicised by the newspapers Le Canard Enchainé and Libération and by Michel Rocard (ex-Prime Minister) on TV (TF1 1993). Le Pen sued the papers and Michel Rocard. This affair ended in 2000 when the "Cour de cassation" (French supreme jurisdiction) concluded that it was legitimate to publish this fact. However, because of the amnesty and prescription, there can be no further criminal proceedings against Le Pen for the crimes he committed in Algeria. The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was an infamous torture device. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Algerian War of Independence (1954–62) was a period of guerrilla strikes, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians on both sides, and riots between the French army and colonists, or the colons as they were called, in Algeria and the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) and other pro-independence... Amnesty (from the Greek amnestia, oblivion) is an act of grace by which the supreme power in a state restores those who may have been guilty of any offence against it to the position of innocent persons. ... Le Canard enchaîné is a satirical newspaper published weekly in France, founded in 1915, featuring investigative journalism and leaks from sources inside the French government, the French political world and the French business world, as well as a large number of jokes and humoristic cartoons. ... Libération (affectionately known as Libé) is a French newspaper founded in Paris in 1973 by Jean-Paul Sartre, Pierre Victor alias Benny Levy and Serge July in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968. ... Michel Rocard, French politician Michel Rocard (born August 23, 1930) is a French Socialist politician, former French Prime minister, and currently a member of the European Parliament. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... TF1 is a private French TV network, controlled by TF1 Group, which is majority owned by Bouygues. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The Cour de cassation is the main court of last resort in France. ... Prescription has various meanings. ...


Jean-Marie Le Pen has been criticized for his connections to figures associated with the Nazis, Vichy France or the Organisation Armée Secrète [3], including: The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Presidential flag of Vichy France Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ...

On December 5, 1997, during a public meeting with ex-Waffen SS Franz Schönhuber in Munich, he reiterated that "the gas chambers constituted a detail in the history of the Second World War". He was sentenced on December 26 by the Large Claim Courts of Nanterre for this affirmation. Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... Roland Gaucher is the pseudonym of Roland Goguillot, a French far-right journalist born on April 13, 1919. ... Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more other people. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Capital Clermont-Ferrand Area 26,013 km² Regional President Pierre-Joël Bonté (PS) (since 2004) Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density (Ranked 19th) 1,327,000 1,308,878 51/km² (2004) Arrondissements 14 Cantons 158 Communes 1,310 Départements Allier Cantal Haute-Loire Puy-de-Dôme... Regional elections were held in France on March 21 and March 28, 2004. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... General Charles André Joseph Marie De Gaulle ( â–¶(?)) (November 22, 1890-November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as général De Gaulle or Le Général, was a French military leader and statesman. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster: Volunteer for the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS (Armed Protective Squadron) was the combat arm of the Schutzstaffel. ... Franz Xaver Schönhuber (January 10, 1923 in Trostberg - November 27, 2005 in Munich) was a German journalist and author. ... For the 2005 Steven Spielberg film, see Munich (film). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ...


Le Pen supporters applaud his nationalistic pride and economic stance. However, Bruce Crumley in Time International, 6/5/022 writes: "Denunciations of Jean-Marie Le Pen and his xenophobic National Front (FN) as racist, anti-Semitic and hostile to minorities and foreigners aren't exactly new. More novel, however, are such condemnations coming from far-right movements like the Austrian Freedom Party (FPO), which itself won international opprobrium in 1999 after entering government on a populist platform similar to Le Pen's." + // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain political claims based upon that belief; above all, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation is... The Austrian Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, abbreviated to FPÖ) is an Austrian political party usually associated with the name of Jörg Haider. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the...


Critics sometimes attribute Le Pen's political success in southern France to economic concerns and mounting racial tensions, especially against the Arab community. Islam is the second largest religion in France, with approximately 4 to 6 million people of Islamic faith or with a Muslim cultural or ethnic background, of which an estimated 2 and 3 million people actively practice the religion. ...


Le Pen's success in the first round of the 2002 French presidential election - he finished second, but ultimately lost by a wide margin in the second round against incumbent president Jacques Chirac - is generally explained by the impatience of the French electorate with respect to the reduction of crime. The electoral campaign had largely been focused on an alleged burst of criminality in the recent years. Le Pen advocates tough law-and-order policies. (Redirected from 2002 French presidential election) This article needs cleanup. ... Jacques René Chirac ▶(?), (born November 29, 1932 in Paris) is a French politician who is currently President of the French Republic. ...


Another factor in his success is his anti-establishment posture. Le Pen denounces the control that the main political parties (UMP and PS, which he groups as "UMPS") have on French political life. He argues that these parties are ineffective and corrupt (see corruption scandals in the Paris region). Anti-establishment defines a certain view or belief that goes against the conventional social, political and economic principles being used in society. ... The Union for a Popular Movement, initially named the Union for a Presidential Majority, and in both cases also known by its French acronym UMP (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire and Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle, respectively) is a French right-wing, conservative political party. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... In the 1980s and 1990s there were in the Paris region (Île-de-France) multiple instances of alleged and proved political corruption cases, as well as cases of abuse of public money and resources. ...


Le Pen's recurrent verbal excesses have led some in his own party to distance themselves from him. Bruno Mégret left the National Front to found his own party, claiming that Le Pen kept the Front away from the possibility of gaining power. Mégret wanted to emulate Gianfranco Fini's success in Italy by making it possible for right-wing parties to ally themselves with the Front, but claimed that Le Pen's attitude and outrageous speech prevented this. Le Pen's daughter Marine leads an internal movement of the Front that wants to "normalize" the National Front, "de-enclave" it, have a "culture of goverment" etc.; however, she is now out of favor with Le Pen. (Le Canard Enchaîné, March 9, 2005). Bruno Mégret (born April 4, 1949) is a French politician. ... Gianfranco Fini Gianfranco Fini (born January 3, 1952 in Bologna) is an Italian politician, currently Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister in the Government led by Silvio Berlusconi. ... Marine le Pen (born August 5, 1968) is a French politician. ... C is As enclave and Bs exclave. ... Article of the Canard Enchaîné mocking Nicolas Sarkozy and citing Wikipedia as source. ...


Quotes

We must tell the Algerians that it is not the case that they need France, but that France needs them. They are not a burden, and if they are for now, they will on the contrary be a dynamic part as well as the young blood of the French nation into which we will have integrated them. I claim that in the Muslim religion there is nothing, in the moral point of view, that would be incompatible with making a believing or practicing Muslim a full French citizen. Very much on the contrary, its basic principles are the same as for Christianity, which is the basis of Western civilization. On the other hand, I do not believe that there exists an Algerian race, any more than there exists a French race... I conclude: let us offer to Algerian Muslims entrance and integration in a dynamic France. Instead of telling them as we do now: "you are very expensive, you are a burden", let us tell them: "we need you, you are the youth of the nation".

-- Jean-Marie Le Pen, Journal officiel de la République française, January 28, 1958. Said when Algeria was still a part of Metropolitan France before it attained independance.

There must be an authority, and we believe that the most qualified authority in a household is the man's. 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

-- Jean-Marie Le Pen, La droite aujourd'hui, 1979

They [the immigrants] will ruin, invade, overflow us, sleep with our wives [or women], daughters and sons. This page refers to the year 1979. ...

-- Jean-Marie Le Pen, 1982

The 'sidaïques1', by breathing the virus through all their pores, put into question the equilibrium of the nation... The 'sidaïque' is contagious by his sweat, his saliva, his contact. It's a kind of leper. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

-- Jean-Marie Le Pen, May 6, 1987 on the TV station Antenne 2

Yes, I do believe in the inequality of races! May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

-- Jean-Marie Le Pen, August 31, 1996.

Olympic games show clearly inequalities between the black and white races concerning, for example, athletes, and runners in particular. It's a fact. [...] I'm stating what I see. [...] Egalitarianism is simply absurd. August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining, as the final day of August. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...

-- Jean-Marie Le Pen, September 9, 1996.

If you take a book of a thousand pages on the Second World War, in which 50 million people died, the concentration camps occupy two pages and the gas chambers ten or 15 lines, and that's what's called a detail. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...

-- Jean-Marie Le Pen, December 5, 1997 Munich.

December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

1 "SIDA" = Syndrome d'immunodéficience acquise, the French name for AIDS. "Sidaïque" is a word coined by Le Pen, meaning "person infected with AIDS" (the correct word in french is "sidéen" for a man and "sidéenne" for a woman). The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is defined as a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the depletion of the immune system caused...


See also

// French politics under the Fifth Republic After Charles de Gaulle had the constitution of the French Fifth Republic adopted in 1958, France was ruled by successive right-wing administrations until 1981. ...

External links


 
 

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