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Encyclopedia > Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius

Portrait of Jean Sibelius in about 1913
Born December 8, 1865(1865-12-08)
Hämeenlinna, Finland
Died September 20, 1957 (aged 91)
Järvenpää, Finland
Occupation Composer
Spouse Aino Sibelius (18711969)

Johan Julius Christian "Jean" / "Janne" Sibelius (pronunciation ; December 8, 1865, Hämeenlinna, FinlandSeptember 20, 1957, Järvenpää, Finland) was a Finnish composer of the later Romantic period and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity. Sibelius may refer to: Jean Sibelius, a Finnish composer of classical music, or his namesakes: Sibelius Academy, a classical music academy. ... Description: Jean Sibelius Size: 262 &times 350 pixels Source: What We Hear in Music, Anne S. Faulkner, Victor Talking Machine Co. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... View of Lake Vanajavesi, next to Hämeenlinna. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Founded 1951 (gained city rights in 1967) Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - of which land - Rank 39. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jean Sibelius. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Image File history File links Sv-Jean_Sibelius. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... View of Lake Vanajavesi, next to Hämeenlinna. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Founded 1951 (gained city rights in 1967) Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - of which land - Rank 39. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation) A nation is a community of people who live together in an area (or, more broadly, of their descendants who may now be dispersed); and who regard themselves, or are regarded by others, as sharing some common identity, to which certain...


The core of Sibelius' oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies (or eight, if Kullervo is seen as a symphony). Like Beethoven, Sibelius used each one to develop further his own personal compositional style. These works continue to be performed frequently in the concert hall and are often recorded. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kullervo, Op. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ...


In addition to the Symphonies, Sibelius' best-known compositions include Finlandia, Valse Triste, the Violin Concerto, the Karelia Suite and The Swan of Tuonela (one of the four movements of the Lemminkäinen Suite). Other works include pieces inspired by the Kalevala, over 100 songs for voice and piano, incidental music for 13 plays, the opera Jungfrun i tornet (The Maiden in the Tower), chamber music, piano music, 21 separate publications of choral music, and Masonic ritual music. Sibelius composed prolifically until the mid-1920s. However, soon after completing his Seventh Symphony (1924) and the tone poem Tapiola (1926), he produced no large scale works for the remaining thirty years of his life. Although he is reputed to have stopped composing, he did attempt to continue writing, including abortive attempts to compose an eighth symphony. He wrote some Masonic music and re-edited some earlier works during this last period of his life, and retained an active interest in new developments in music, although he did not always view modern music favorably. Finlandia is a symphonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... Kuolema (Death) is a 1903 drama by Arvid Järnefelt. ... The Violin Concerto in D minor by Jean Sibelius is his opus 47. ... The Karelia Suite is a collection of pieces composed by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... The Swan of Tuonela (Tuonelan joutsen) is an 1895 tone poem by the Finland-Swedish composer Jean Sibelius. ... The Lemminkäinen Suite is a work written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in the early 1890s. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... This article is about the musical composition. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program or some other form not primarily musical. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... This article is about the modern musical instrument. ... This article is about choirs, musical ensembles containing singers. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Tapiola (literally, Realm of the Forest-God), op. ...

Contents

Life and work

Sibelius was born into a Swedish-speaking family in Hämeenlinna in the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland, the son of Christian Gustaf Sibelius and Maria Charlotta Sibelius. Although known as "Janne" to his family, during his student years he began using the French form of his name, "Jean", inspired by the business card of his seafaring uncle. In Finland he is known as Jean Sibelius. View of Lake Vanajavesi, next to Hämeenlinna. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ...


Against the larger context of the rise of the Fennoman movement and its expressions of Romantic Nationalism, his family decided to send him to a Finnish language school, and he attended The Hämeenlinna Normal-lycée from 1876 to 1885. Romantic Nationalism was to become a crucial element in Sibelius' artistic output and his politics. The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% as of 2006[3]) and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Sibelius in 1889

After Sibelius graduated from high school in 1885, he began to study law at Aleksander's Imperial University in Helsinki. However, he was more interested in music than in law, and he soon quit his studies. From 1885 to 1889, Sibelius studied music in the Helsinki music school (now the Sibelius Academy). One of his teachers there was Martin Wegelius. Sibelius continued studying in Berlin (from 1889 to 1890) and in Vienna (from 1890 to 1891). Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Sibelius Academy in downtown Helsinki. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Jean Sibelius married Aino Järnefelt (1871–1969) at Maxmo on June 10, 1892. Their home, called Ainola, was completed at Lake Tuusula, Järvenpää in 1903, and the two lived out the remainder of their lives there. They had six daughters: Iva, Ruth, Kirsti (who died at a very young age), Katarine, Margaret, and Heidi. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jean Sibelius. ... Maxmo (Maksamaa in Finnish) is a municipality of Finland. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ainola stands on the scenic shores of Lake Tuusula in Järvenpää, about 30 minutes drive from the Finnish capital, Helsinki. ... Founded 1951 (gained city rights in 1967) Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - of which land - Rank 39. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


In 1911, Sibelius underwent a serious operation for suspected throat cancer. The impact of this brush with death can be seen in several of the works that he composed at the time, including Luonnotar and the Fourth Symphony. Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In Finnish mythology, Ilmatar or Luonnotar was the virgin goddess of the heavens. ... The Symphony No. ...


Sibelius loved nature, and the Finnish landscape often served as material for his music. He once said of his Sixth Symphony, "[It] always reminds me of the scent of the first snow." The forests surrounding Ainola are often said to have inspired his composition of Tapiola. On the subject of Sibelius' ties to nature, one biographer of the composer, Erik Tawaststjerna, wrote the following: Jean Sibeliuss Symphony No. ...

Even by Nordic standards, Sibelius responded with exceptional intensity to the moods of nature and the changes in the seasons: he scanned the skies with his binoculars for the geese flying over the lake ice, listened to the screech of the cranes, and heard the cries of the curlew echo over the marshy grounds just below Ainola. He savoured the spring blossoms every bit as much as he did autumnal scents and colours.[1]

The year 1926 saw a sharp and lasting decline in Sibelius' output: after his Seventh Symphony, he only produced a few major works in the rest of his life. Arguably the two most significant were incidental music for Shakespeare's The Tempest and the tone poem Tapiola. For nearly the last thirty years of his life, Sibelius even avoided talking about his music. Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tapiola (literally, Realm of the Forest-God), op. ...

Sibelius in 1939
Sibelius in 1939

There is substantial evidence that Sibelius worked on an eighth numbered symphony. He promised the premiere of this symphony to Serge Koussevitzky in 1931 and 1932, and a London performance in 1933 under Basil Cameron was even advertised to the public. However, the only concrete evidence for the symphony's existence on paper is a 1933 bill for a fair copy of the first movement.[2] Sibelius had always been quite self-critical; he remarked to his close friends, "If I cannot write a better symphony than my Seventh, then it shall be my last." Since no manuscript survives, sources consider it likely that Sibelius destroyed all traces of the score, probably in 1945, during which year he certainly consigned (in his wife's presence) a great many papers to the flames.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The eighth symphony of the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius is one of the great mysteries of 20th century classical music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Basil Cameron (born August 18, 1884 in Reading, Berkshire, died June 26, 1975 in Leominster) was an English conductor. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


His 90th birthday, in 1955, was widely celebrated and both the Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra under Sir Thomas Beecham gave special performances of his music in Finland. The orchestras and their conductors also met the composer at his home; a series of memorable photographs were taken to commemorate the occasions. Both Columbia Records and EMI released some of the pictures with albums of Sibelius' music. Beecham was honored by the Finnish government for his efforts to promote Sibelius both in the United Kingdom and in the United States. The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899, Budapest, Hungary – March 12, 1985, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an eminent American orchestral conductor. ... The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO) is an English orchestra based in London. ... Thomas Beecham (April 29, 1879 - March 8, 1961) was a British conductor. ...


Tawaststjerna also relayed an endearing anecdote regarding Sibelius' death:

[He] was returning from his customary morning walk. Exhilarated, he told his wife Aino that he had seen a flock of cranes approaching. "There they come, the birds of my youth," he exclaimed. Suddenly, one of the birds broke away from the formation and circled once above Ainola. It then rejoined the flock to continue its journey. Two days afterwards Sibelius died of a brain hemorrhage, at age 91 (on September 20, 1957), in Ainola, where he is buried in a garden. Another well-known Finnish composer, Heino Kaski, died that same day. Aino lived there for the next twelve years until she died on June 8, 1969; she is buried with her husband.[1] A cerebral hemorrhage is a condition in the brain in which a blood vessel leaks. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Heino Kaski (21 June 1885, Pielisjärvi – 20 September 1957, Helsinki) was a Finnish composer and pianist. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...

The grave in the garden
The grave in the garden

In 1972, Sibelius' surviving daughters sold Ainola to the State of Finland. The Ministry of Education and the Sibelius Society opened it as a museum in 1974. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Finland is a republic with a representative democracy governed according to the principles of Parliamentarism. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Musical style

Like many of his contemporaries, Sibelius was initially enamored with the music of Wagner. A performance of Parsifal at the Bayreuth Festival had a strong effect on him, inspiring him to write to his wife shortly thereafter, "Nothing in the world has made such an impression on me, it moves the very strings of my heart." He studied the scores of Wagner's operas Tannhäuser, Lohengrin, and Die Walküre intently. With this music in mind, Sibelius began work on an opera of his own, entitled Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat). Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Parsifal is an opera, or music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Tannhäuser or Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf die Wartburg (Tannhäuser and the Singers Contest on the Wartburg) is an opera in three acts, music and text by Richard Wagner, based on the two Germanic legends of Tannhäuser and the song contest at Wartburg. ... Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... Die Walküre (The Valkyrie) is the second of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat) was composed by Jean Sibelius. ...


However, his appreciation for Wagner waned and Sibelius ultimately rejected Wagner's Leitmotif compositional technique, considering it to be too deliberate and calculated. Departing from opera, he later used the musical material from the incomplete Veneen luominen in his Lemminkäinen Suite (1893). A leitmotif (pronounced ) (also leitmotiv; lit. ... The Lemminkäinen Suite is a work written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in the early 1890s. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


More lasting influences included Ferruccio Busoni, Anton Bruckner and Tchaikovsky. Hints of Tchaikovsky's music are particularly evident in works such as Sibelius' First Symphony (1899) and his Violin Concerto (1905). Similarities to Bruckner are most strongly felt in the 'unmixed' timbral palette and sombre brass chorales of Sibelius' orchestration, as well as in the latter composer's fondness for pedal points and in the underlying slow pace of his music. Ferruccio Busoni Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, 1924) was an Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Jean Sibeliuss Symphony No. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Violin Concerto in D minor by Jean Sibelius is his opus 47. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ...


Sibelius progressively stripped away formal markers of sonata form in his work and, instead of contrasting multiple themes, he focused on the idea of continuously evolving cells and fragments culminating in a grand statement. His later works are remarkable for their sense of unbroken development, progressing by means of thematic permutations and derivations. The completeness and organic feel of this synthesis has prompted some to suggest that Sibelius began his works with their finished statement and worked backwards, although analyses showing these predominantly three- and four-note cells and melodic fragments as they are developed and expanded into the larger "themes" effectively prove the opposite.[4] This article treats the history of sonata form through the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern eras. ...

Portrait of Sibelius from 1894 by Akseli Gallen-Kallela

This self-contained structure stood in stark contrast to the symphonic style of Gustav Mahler, Sibelius' primary rival in symphonic composition. While thematic variation played a major role in the works of both composers, Mahler's style made use of disjunct, abruptly changing and contrasting themes, while Sibelius sought to slowly transform thematic elements. Sibelius reported that while on a walk with Mahler during his conducting tour of Finland in November 1907, Image File history File links Sibelius. ... Image File history File links Sibelius. ... From the Kalevala, 1896 Akseli Gallen-Kallela (April 26, 1865 _ March 7, 1931) was a Finnish painter who is most of all known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, right). ... Mahler redirects here. ...

I said that I admired [the symphony's] severity of style and the profound logic that created an inner connection between all the motifs... Mahler's opinion was just the reverse. 'No, a symphony must be like the world. It must embrace everything.'[5]

However, the two rivals did find common ground in their music. Like Mahler, Sibelius made frequent use both of folk music and of literature in the composition of his works. The Second Symphony's slow movement was sketched from the motive of Il Commendatore in Don Giovanni, while the stark Fourth Symphony combined work for a planned "Mountain" symphony with a tone poem based on Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven". Sibelius also wrote several tone poems based on Finnish poetry, beginning with the early En Saga and culminating in the late Tapiola (1926), his last major composition. Jean Sibeliuss Symphony No. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... The Symphony No. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... For other uses, see The Raven (disambiguation). ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... En Saga is a tone poem written by the famous Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in 1892 and revised in 1902. ... Tapiola (literally, Realm of the Forest-God), op. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Over time, he sought to use new chord patterns, including naked tritones (for example in the Fourth Symphony), and bare melodic structures to build long movements of music, in a manner similar to Joseph Haydn's use of built-in dissonances. Sibelius would often alternate melodic sections with blaring brass chords that would swell and fade away, or he would underpin his music with repeating figures which push against the melody and counter-melody. Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... For other uses, see Tritone (disambiguation). ... The Symphony No. ... Haydn redirects here. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ...


Sibelius' melodies often feature powerful modal implications: for example much of the Sixth Symphony is in the (modern) Dorian mode. Sibelius studied Renaissance polyphony, as did his contemporary, the Danish composer Carl Nielsen, and Sibelius' music often reflects the influence of this early music. He often varied his movements in a piece by changing the note values of melodies, rather than the conventional change of tempi. He would often draw out one melody over a number of notes, while playing a different melody in shorter rhythm. For example, his Seventh Symphony comprises four movements without pause, where every important theme is in C major or C minor; the variation comes from the time and rhythm. His harmonic language was often restrained, even iconoclastic, compared to many of his contemporaries who were already experimenting with musical Modernism. As reported by Neville Cardus in the Manchester Guardian newspaper in 1958, This article is about modes as used in music. ... Jean Sibeliuss Symphony No. ... Due to historical confusion, Dorian mode or Doric mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Carl Nielsen Carl August Nielsen (June 9, 1865, Sortelung – October 3, 1931, Copenhagen) was a conductor, violinist, and the most internationally known composer from Denmark. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Sir Neville Cardus (2 April 1889 - 27 February 1975) was a celebrated British journalist. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Jan. ...

Sibelius justified the austerity of his old age by saying that while other composers were engaged in manufacturing cocktails he offered the public pure cold water.[6]

For other uses, see Cocktail (disambiguation). ...

Reception

Because of its alleged conservatism, Sibelius' music is sometimes considered insufficiently complex, but he was immediately respected by even his more progressive peers. Later in life he was championed by critic Olin Downes, who wrote a biography, but he was attacked by composer-critic Virgil Thomson. Olin Downes (Edwin) (January 27, 1886–August 22, 1955) was a significant U.S. music critic. ... Virgil Thomson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 Virgil Thomson (November 25, 1896 - September 30, 1989) was an American composer from Missouri, whose rural background gave a sense of place in his compositions. ...


Sibelius has sometimes been criticized as a reactionary or even incompetent figure in 20th century classical music. In 1938 Theodor Adorno wrote a critical essay about the composer, notoriously charging that Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ...

If Sibelius is good, this invalidates the standards of musical quality that have persisted from Bach to Schoenberg: the richness of inter-connectedness, articulation, unity in diversity, the 'multi-faceted' in 'the one'.[7]

Composer and theorist René Leibowitz went so far as to describe Sibelius as "the worst composer in the world" in the title of a 1955 pamphlet.[8] Despite the innovations of the Second Viennese School, he continued to write in a strictly tonal idiom. However, critics who have sought to re-evaluate Sibelius' music have cited its self-contained internal structure, which distills everything down to a few motivic ideas and then permits the music to grow organically, as evidence of a previously under-appreciated radical bent to his work. The severe nature of Sibelius' orchestration is often noted as representing a "Finnish" character, stripping away the superfluous from music. For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg, (the anglicized form of Schönberg—Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he became a U.S. citizen) (September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was a composer, born in Vienna, Austria. ... René Leibowitz (February 17, 1913 – August 29, 1972) was a French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher born in Warsaw, Poland. ... The Second Viennese School was a group of composers made up of Arnold Schoenberg and those who studied under him in early 20th century Vienna. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ...


Perhaps one reason Sibelius has attracted both the praise and the ire of critics is that in each of his seven symphonies he approached the basic problems of form, tonality, and architecture in unique, individual ways. On the one hand, his symphonic (and tonal) creativity was novel, but others thought that music should be taking a different route. Sibelius' response to criticism was dismissive: "Pay no attention to what critics say. No statue has ever been put up to a critic."


Sibelius has fallen in and out of fashion, but remains one of the most popular 20th century symphonists, with complete cycles of his symphonies continuing to be recorded. In his own time, however, he focused far more on the more profitable chamber music for home use, and occasionally on works for the stage. Eugene Ormandy and, to a lesser extent, his predecessor Leopold Stokowski, were instrumental in bringing Sibelius' music to the American audience by programming his works often, and the former thereby developed a friendly relationship with Sibelius throughout his life. Currently Paavo Berglund and Colin Davis are considered major exponents of his work. Other classic sets of recordings of the symphonies are by John Barbirolli, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Leonard Bernstein, Simon Rattle and Lorin Maazel. Herbert von Karajan was also associated with Sibelius, recording all of the symphonies except the Third, some several times. Recently Osmo Vänskä and the Lahti Symphony Orchestra released a critically acclaimed complete Sibelius cycle, including unpublished or retracted pieces such as the first versions of the Fifth Symphony (1915) and the Violin Concerto (1903). (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899, Budapest, Hungary – March 12, 1985, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an eminent American orchestral conductor. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni StanisÅ‚aw BolesÅ‚awowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... Paavo Berglund (born: Helsinki, 14 April 1929) is a Finnish conductor. ... For the former Formula One driver, see Colin Davis (driver) Sir Colin Rex Davis, CH, CBE (b. ... Sir John (Giovanni Battista) Barbirolli (December 2, 1899 - July 29, 1970), was a British conductor and cellist who led the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra, among many others. ... Vladimir Davidovich Ashkenazy (Russian: Влади́мир Дави́дович А́шкенази, Vladimir Davidovič AÅ¡kenasi) (b. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Simon Rattle recording Porgy and Bess with the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road in 1988, aged 33. ... Lorin Varencove Maazel (born March 6, 1930) is a conductor, violinist and composer. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The conductor Osmo Vänskä (* 28. ... The Lahti Symphony Orchestra (Sinfonia Lahti) is a Finnish orchestra. ... Symphony No. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Violin Concerto in D minor by Jean Sibelius is his opus 47. ...


In 1990, the composer Thea Musgrave was commissioned by the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra to write a piece in honour of the 125th anniversary of Sibelius' birth. Song of the Enchanter was premiered on 14 February 1991.[9] Thea Musgrave (b. ... The Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra (Finnish: Helsingin kaupunginorkesteri) is an orchestra in Helsinki, Finland. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Media

  • Valse Triste
    Conductor: Simon Schindler
    Ensemble: Fulda Symphonic Orchestra
    Location: Großer Saal der Orangerie, Fulda (Germany)
    Date: March 18, 2001
    Size: 6468KB
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Image File history File links Jean_Sibelius_-_Valse_Triste. ... The Fulda Symphonic Orchestra (German: Fuldaer Symphonisches Orchester) is an orchestra based in Fulda, Germany. ... , Fulda (IPA: ) is a city in Hessen, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Selected works

Main article: List of compositions by Jean Sibelius

These are ordered chronologically; the date is the date of composition rather than publication or first performance.


Orchestral works

  • Kullervo, Symphony for soprano, baritone, chorus and orchestra, Op.7 (1892)
  • En Saga, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op.9 (1892)
  • Karelia Overture for orchestra, Op.10 (1893)
  • Karelia Suite for orchestra, Op.11 (1893)
  • Rakastava (The Lover) for male voices and strings or strings and percussion, Op.14 (1893/1911)
  • Lemminkäinen Suite (Four Legends from the Kalevala) for orchestra, Op.22 (1893) - these legends, which include The Swan of Tuonela, are often performed separately
  • Skogsrået (The Wood Nymph), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op.15 (1894)
  • Vårsång for orchestra, Op.16 (1894)
  • Kung Kristian (King Christian), Suite from the incidental music for orchestra, Op.27 (1898)
  • Sandels, Improvisation for chorus and orchestra, Op.28 (1898)
  • Finlandia for orchestra and optional chorus, Op.26 (1899)
  • Snöfrid for reciter, chorus and orchestra, Op.29 (1899)
  • Tulen synty (The Origin of Fire), Op.32 (1902)
  • Symphony No. 1 in E minor for orchestra, Op.39 (1899/1900)
  • Symphony No. 2 in D major for orchestra, Op.43 (1902)
  • Violin Concerto in D minor, Op.47 (1903/1905)
  • Kuolema (Valse Triste and Scene with Cranes) for orchestra, Op.44 (1904/1906)
  • Dance Intermezzo for orchestra, Op.45/2 (1904/1907)
  • Pelléas et Mélisande, Incidental music/Suite for orchestra, Op.46 (1905)
  • Pohjolan tytär (Pohjola's Daughter), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op.49 (1906)
  • Symphony No. 3 in C major for orchestra, Op.52 (1907)
  • Svanevit (Swan-white), Suite from the incidental music for orchestra, Op.54 (1908)
  • Nightride and Sunrise, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op.55 (1909)
  • Dryadi (The Dryad) for orchestra, Op.45/1 (1910)
  • Two Pieces from Kuolema for orchestra, Op.62 (1911)
  • Symphony No. 4 in A minor for orchestra, Op.63 (1911)
  • Two Serenades for violin and orchestra, Op.69 (1912)
  • Barden (The Bard), Tone Poem for orchestra and harp, Op.64 (1913/1914)
  • Luonnotar, Tone Poem for soprano and orchestra, Op.70 (1913)
  • Aallottaret (The Oceanides), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op.73 (1914)
  • Symphony No. 5 in E flat major for orchestra, Op.82 (1915, revised 1916 and 1919)
  • Oma Maa (Our Fatherland) for chorus and orchestra, Op.92 (1918)
  • Jordens sång (Song of the Earth) for chorus and orchestra, Op.93 (1919)
  • Symphony No. 6 in D minor for orchestra, Op.104 (1923)
  • Symphony No. 7 in C major for orchestra, Op.105 (1924)
  • Stormen (The Tempest), Incidental music for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op.109 (1925)
  • Väinön virsi (Väinö's song) for chorus and orchestra, Op.110 (1926)
  • Tapiola, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op.112 (1926)
  • Andante Festivo for string orchestra (1925/1930)

Kullervo, Op. ... En Saga is a tone poem written by the famous Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in 1892 and revised in 1902. ... The Karelia Suite is a collection of pieces composed by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... The Lemminkäinen Suite is a work written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in the early 1890s. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... The Swan of Tuonela (Tuonelan joutsen) is an 1895 tone poem by the Finland-Swedish composer Jean Sibelius. ... Vårsång, Swedish for Spring Song, is a piece composed in 1894 by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... Jean Sibelius composed the King Christian II Suite in 1898, which is a selection from incidental music, based on a Scandinavian historical play by Sibeliuss friend Adolf Paul. ... Finlandia is a symphonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... Orchestral Song composed by Finnish Composer Jean Sibelius and premièred on the 9th April 1902 at the opening of the National Helsinki Theatre, conducted by the composer, it was later revised in 1910. ... Jean Sibeliuss Symphony No. ... Jean Sibeliuss Symphony No. ... The Violin Concerto in D minor by Jean Sibelius is his opus 47. ... Kuolema (Death) is a 1903 drama by Arvid Järnefelt. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The tone poem Pohjolas Daughter, Op. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Nightride and Sunrise is a symphonic poem composed by Jean Sibelius in 1908. ... Kuolema (Death) is a 1903 drama by Arvid Järnefelt. ... The Symphony No. ... The Bard is a brief tone poem composed in 1913 by Jean Sibelius. ... In Finnish mythology, Ilmatar or Luonnotar was the virgin goddess of the heavens. ... The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius wrote the tone poem The Oceanides, op. ... Symphony No. ... Jean Sibeliuss Symphony No. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Tapiola (literally, Realm of the Forest-God), op. ... Jean Sibelius originally scored Andante festivo for string quartet in 1922, but rescored for string orchestra and timpani in 1938. ...

Other works

Viisi joululaulua, op. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... J.L. Runebergs autograph Johan Ludvig Runeberg (February 5, 1804, Jakobstad – May 6, 1877, Porvoo) was a Finland-Swedish poet, and is held to be the national poet of Finland. ... Ilmari Kianto (May 7, 1874 Pulkkila - April 27, 1970 Helsinki), also known as Ilmari Calamnius, was a Finnish poet. ... Belshazzars Feast refers to an event described in the Book of Daniel, in which the Babylonian king Belshazzar profanes the sacred vessels of the enslaved Jews, and is miraculously slain, leading to their freedom. ... Marian Anderson (February 27, 1897 – April 8, 1993),[1] was an American contralto, perhaps best remembered for her performance on Easter Sunday, 1939 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. // Anderson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Jäger March (Jääkärimarssi, originally Jääkärien marssi) was composed by Jean Sibelius to the words written by the Finnish Jäger, Hilfsgruppenführer Heikki Nurmio in Libau, while in the Royal Prussian 27th Jäger Battallion of the Imperial German Army. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

See also

Sibelius monument is dedicated to the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865-1957). ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Tawaststjerna, Erik; Robert Layton (Translator) (1976–1986). Sibelius. London: Farber & Farber.  Vol. I, 1865–1905. ISBN 0-571-08832-5; Vol. II, 1904–1914. ISBN 0-571-08833-3
  2. ^ Kari Kilpeläinen. "Sibelius Eight. What happened to it?". Finnish Music Quarterly 4/1995.
  3. ^ "The war and the destruction of the eighth symphony 1939-1945". Sibelius.fi.
  4. ^ Pike
  5. ^ Burnett-James, p. 41
  6. ^ Burnett-James, p. 94
  7. ^ Adorno, Theodor (1938), "Törne, B. de, Sibelius; A Close Up", Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung 7: 460-463 . Later reprinted as "Glosse über Sibelius". Cited and translated in Jackson, Timothy L. (2001), "Preface", in Jackson, Timothy L. & Murtomäki, Veijo, Sibelius Studies, Cambridge University Press, pp. xviii, ISBN 0521624169, <http://books.google.com/books?id=6p9lAkbz7fAC&pg=PR18&vq=%22if+sibelius+is+good%22&dq=%22sibelius+studies%22&sig=IvW86aN-JhSmvekkgBHjuhqy3ek> 
  8. ^ Leibowitz, René (1955). Sibelius, le plus mauvais compositeur du monde. Liège, Belgium: Éditions Dynamo. OCLC 28594116. 
  9. ^ Song of the Enchanter, Thea Musgrave.

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Thea Musgrave (b. ...

References

  • Burnett-James, David (1989). Sibelius. London, New York: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0711916837. 
  • Pike, Lionel (1978). Beethoven, Sibelius and 'the Profound Logic': Studies in Symphonic Analysis. London: The Athlone Press. ISBN 0 485 11178 0. 

Further reading

  • Layton, Robert. Sibelius. New York: Schirmer Books, 1993. Master Musicians Series. ISBN 0-02-871322-2.
  • Ekman, Karl. "Jean Sibelius, His Life and Personality". New York, Tudor Publishing Co., 1945.
  • Tawaststjerna, Erik. "Sibelius". London, Faber & Faber, vol.1 (1976), vol.2(1986).
  • de Gorog, Lisa (with the collaboration of Ralph de Gorog) "From Sibelius to Sallinen: Finnish Nationalism and the Music of Finland". New York, Greenwood Press, 1989.
  • Minnesota Orchestra's showcase concert magazine, May 6, page 44
  • Morgan, Robert P. [1990]. "Other European Currents", The Norton Introduction to Music History: Twentieth-Century Music, 1st edition, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 121-123. ISBN 0-393-95272-X. 

is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Jean Sibelius
Persondata
NAME Sibelius, Jean
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Sibelius, Johan (Jean) Julius Christian "Janne"
SHORT DESCRIPTION Composer of classical music
DATE OF BIRTH December 8, 1865
PLACE OF BIRTH Hämeenlinna, Finland
DATE OF DEATH September 20, 1957
PLACE OF DEATH Järvenpää, Finland
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ... Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899, Budapest, Hungary – March 12, 1985, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an eminent American orchestral conductor. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... View of Lake Vanajavesi, next to Hämeenlinna. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Founded 1951 (gained city rights in 1967) Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - of which land - Rank 39. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ainola – the home of Jean Sibelius — Virtual Finland (1009 words)
The place where Finland's greatest composer Jean Sibelius spent much of his life, the house named Ainola, after his wife Aino, is a destination of pilgrimage for music lovers in general and admirers of Sibelius in particular.
Artistically talented and cerebral, she possessed the skills of the craftsman: hers were the designs for the staircase leading to the upper floor and for the kitchen cupboards and cabinets.
In 1972, the Sibelius daughters together with the Ministry of Education and the Sibelius Society established the Ainola Foundation in order to preserve Ainola as a monument of cultural history and to keep the house open to the public, which it has been since 1974.
Jean Sibelius — Virtual Finland (498 words)
Finland's greatest composer, Jean Sibelius, was born in 1865.
Sibelius (r) with composer and pianist Ferruccio Busoni in London, 1921.
Said by Jean Sibelius, according to Bengt von Törne.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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