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Encyclopedia > Jean Racine
Jean Racine, in an engraving by Pierre Savart.
Jean Racine, in an engraving by Pierre Savart.
French literature
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Jean Racine (French pronounced [ʁaˈsin]) (December 22, 1639April 21, 1699) was a French dramatist, one of the "big three" of 17th century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and one of the most important literary figures in the Western tradition. Racine was primarily a tragedian, though he did write one comedy. Jean Prahm (formerly Jean Racine, born September 20, 1978) is an American bobsledder who competed from 1996 to 2006. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Pierre Corneille (June 6, 1606–October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian tragedian who was one of the three great 17th Century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ...

Contents

Life

Born in La Ferté-Milon (Aisne) on December 22, 1639, Racine was orphaned at the age of three or four and received a classical education courtesy of his grandmother, Marie des Moulins. He was a graduate of Port-Royal, a religious institution which would greatly influence other contemporary figures including Blaise Pascal. Port-Royal was run by followers of the Jansenist religious reform movement, which was deemed subversive by the Catholic French government. Racine's interactions with the Jansenists in his years at this academy would have great influence over him for the rest of his life. He was expected to study law at the College of Harcourt, but instead found himself drawn to the stage and moved to Paris where he could pursue a career as a dramatist. His first tragedy, La Thébaide (1664) and its successor, Alexandre (1665), both had classical themes, but he was already entering into controversy, taking offence at the accusation that he was polluting the minds of his audiences. He broke all ties with Port-Royal, and proceeded with Andromaque (1667), which told the story of Andromache, widow of Hector, and her fate following the Trojan War. He was by now acquiring many rivals, including Pierre Corneille and his brother, Thomas Corneille. Tragedians often competed with alternative versions of the same plot: for example, Michel le Clerc produced an Iphigénie in the same year as Racine (1674), and Jacques Pradon also wrote a play about Phèdre (1677). The success of Pradon's work (the result of the activities of a claque) was one of the events which caused Racine to renounce his work as a dramatist at that time. Others, including the historian W.H. Lewis, attribute his retirement from the theater to qualms of conscience. La Ferté-Milon is a town in the department of Aisne, in France, known for being the birthplace of the French dramatist Jean Racine. ... Aisne is a department in the northern part of France named after the Aisne River. ... An illustration of pre-1692 Port Royal Port Royal was the centre of shipping commerce in Jamaica in the 17th century. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Jansenism was a branch of Christian philosophy founded by Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), a Flemish theologian. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... French playwright Jean Racine wrote Andromaque in 1667. ... Andromache grieves the loss of Hector In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, sister to Podes. ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Pierre Corneille (June 6, 1606–October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian tragedian who was one of the three great 17th Century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine. ... Thomas Corneille at the age of 81 Thomas Corneille (August 20, 1625 - December 8, 1709) was a French dramatist. ... Jacques Pradon (Rouen 1632 - Paris 1698) was a french playwright. ... Phèdre (originally Phèdre et Hippolyte) is a dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by Jean Racine. ... A report in The Etude of July 1931 on the Vienna Opera House banning claquing Claque (French for clapping) is, in its origin, a term which refers to an organized body of professional applauders in French theatres. ...


However, the major incident which seems to have contributed to Racine's departure from public life was his implication in a court scandal of 1679. He got married at about this time, and his religious beliefs and devotion to the Jansenist sect were revived. When at last he returned to the theatre, it was at the request of Madame de Maintenon, morganatic second wife of King Louis XIV, with the moral fables, [[Esther]] (1689) and Athalie (1691), both of which were based on Old Testament stories and intended for performance by the pupils of the school of Saint-Cyr. Jansenism was a branch of Christian philosophy founded by Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), a Flemish theologian. ... Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon (November 27, 1635 - April 15, 1719), the second wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at Niort. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Saint-Cyr can refer to: École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, a French military academy. ...


Racine was also a courtier, having first been presented at court in 1664, and in 1677 made (along with Boileau) Historian to the King; he kept this position in spite of the minor scandals he was involved in, and Louis XIV provided for his widow and children after his death. Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, commonly called Boileau, (November 1, 1636 - March 13, 1711) was a French poet and critic. ...


Jean Racine died in 1699 and is buried in the St. Etienne-du-Mont church in Paris. Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Saint-Étienne-du-Mont is a church in Paris, located on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the Ve arrondissement, near the Panthéon. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Style

The quality of Racine's poetry is perhaps his greatest contribution to French literature. His use of the alexandrine poetic line is considered exceptional in its harmony, simplicity and elegance. Image File history File links Jean_racine. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter. ...


Racine's work faced many criticisms from his contemporaries. One was the lack of historic veracity in plays such as Britannicus (1668) and Mithridate (1673). Racine was quick to point out that his greatest critics — his rival dramatists — were among the biggest offenders in this respect. Another major criticism levelled at him was the lack of incident in his tragedy, Bérénice (1670). Racine's response was that the greatest tragedy does not necessarily consist in bloodshed and death.

Jean Racine on the 1989 USSR commemorative stamp
Jean Racine on the 1989 USSR commemorative stamp

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (535 × 754 pixels, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (535 × 754 pixels, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Dramatic works

French playwright Jean Racine wrote Andromaque in 1667. ... Britannicus is a tragic play by the French dramatist Jean Racine. ... Bérénice is a tragedy by the French 17th-century playwright Jean Racine. ... Beyazid, also spelt Bayezid and Bajazet is the name of two sultans of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey. ... Elaborately-gilded drug jar for storing mithridate. ... Iphigénie is a dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by the French playwright Jean Racine. ... Phèdre (originally Phèdre et Hippolyte) is a dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by Jean Racine. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Athaliah. ...

Trivia

Marcel Proust developed a fondness for Racine at an early age, "whom he considered a brother and someone very much like himself..." -- Marcel Proust: A Life, by Jean-Yves Tadié, 1996. “Proust” redirects here. ... Jean-Yves Tadié (born 1936) is a French writer, specializing in Marcel Proust. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jean Racine
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Jean Racine
  • Biography, Bibliography, Analysis, Plot overview (in French)
  • Works by Jean Racine at Project Gutenberg
  • http://www.verbumvanum.org/indexgreek.html for a philological study of the evolution of Hippolytus as a chastity paradigm in Euripides, Seneca, Racine; extensive bibliography (in Dutch)
  • Complete Theater to download on line (Poesies.net in French)
  • Complete Tragedies and the Comedy to edit with statistics and powerful research (theatre-clasique.fr in French)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... A statue of Euripides. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...

Sources

  • Roland Barthes - Sur Racine
  • Georges Forestier - Jean Racine (Gallimard, 2006) (ISBN 2070755290)
  • W.H. Lewis, The Splendid Century: Life in the France of Louix XIV. William Sloane Associates, 1953.
  • Jean Rohou - Jean Racine : entre sa carrière, son oeuvre et son dieu (Fayard, 1992)
Preceded by
François de La Mothe-Le-Vayer
Seat 13
Académie française

1672–1699
Succeeded by
Jean-Baptiste-Henri de Valincour

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jean Racine (1096 words)
Racine was well educated at the school of a religious brotherhood at Port Royal, and, unlike most of the dramatists of the age, he knew Greek as well as Latin.
In 1670 Racine and Corneille were asked to write a play on the subject of Bérénice, though each was kept ignorant of the fact that the other was attempting the same theme.
Jean Racine: Monologues - An index of monologues by Racine.
Jean Racine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (586 words)
Jean Racine (December 22, 1639 – April 21, 1699) was a French dramatist, one of the "big three" of 17th century France (along with Molière and Corneille).
Racine was also a courtier, having first been presented at court in 1664, and in 1677 made (along with Boileau) Historian to the King; he kept this position in spite of the minor scandals he was involved in, and Louis XIV provided for his widow and children after his death.
Jean Racine died in 1699 and is buried in the St.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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