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Encyclopedia > Jean Marie Roland
Jean-Marie Roland
Jean-Marie Roland

Viscount Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière (February 18, 1734November 10, 1793) was a French statesman. During the French Revolution he was a Girondist; he served as a minister of the interior in Louis XVI's Girondist cabinet of spring 1792. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... Louis XVI (August 23, 1754, Versailles – January 21, 1793, Paris) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1793. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


He was born at Thizy and was a studious child, who received a good education. Proposing to seek his fortune abroad, he walked to Nantes, but once there, he suffered an illness so severe that he was forced to change his plans. For some years he worked as a clerk; then he joined a relative who was inspector of manufactures at Amiens, and rose quickly to the position of inspector. In both posts, he learned the qualities of assiduity and accuracy, and that familiarity with the commerce of the country, which influenced his career in public life. In 1781 he married Manon Jeanne Phlipon, who became famous as Madame Roland. City motto: Favet Neptunus eunti. ... The cathedral in Amiens Location within France Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Commerce is the trading of something of value between two entities. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mme Roland in a portrait by Adelaide Labille-Guiard, 1787 Vicountess Jeanne Marie Roland de la Platiere née Manon Jeanne Phlipon born on March 17, 1754 - November 8, 1793, became the wife of Jean Marie Roland de la Platiere and is better known simply as Madame Roland. ...


For four years after their marriage Roland lived at Amiens, still working as a factory inspector; but his knowledge of commercial affairs enabled him to contribute articles to the Encyclopedie Nouvelle, in which, as in all his literary work, he was assisted by his wife. After they moved to Lyons, the influence of both became wider and more powerful. Their fervent political aspirations could not be concealed, and from the beginning of the Revolution they threw in their lot with the party of advance. The Courrier de Lyon contained articles the success of which reached even to the capital and attracted the attention of the Parisian press. Madame Roland wrote them; her husband signed them. A correspondence sprang up with Brissot and other friends of the Revolution at headquarters. The cathedral in Amiens Location within France Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation). ... The Eiffel Tower, the tallest structure in Paris is an international symbol of Paris Paris is the capital and largest city of France and the capital of the Île-de-France région which encompasses Paris and its suburbs. ... In French history, Jacques Pierre Brissot (January 15, 1754 - October 31, 1793), who assumed the name of de Warville, was a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution. ...


In Lyons their views were publicly known; Roland was elected a member of the municipality,and when the depression of trade in the south demanded representation in Paris he was deputed by the council of Lyons to ask the Constituent Assembly that the municipal debt of Lyons, which had been contracted for the benefit of the state, should be regarded as national debt. Accompanied by his wife, Roland appeared in the capital in February 1791. He remained there until September, frequenting the Society of the Friends of the Constitution, and entertaining deputies of the most advanced opinions, especially those who later became the leading Girondists. Madame Roland took an active part in the political discussions in these réunions. The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ...


In September 1791, Roland's mission completed, they returned to Lyons. Meanwhile the inspectorships of manufactures had been abolished; he could no longer remain absent from the centre of affairs. In December 1791 they again reached Paris. Roland became a member of the Jacobin Club. They had made many and influential friends in advance, and Madame Roland's salon soon became the rendezvous of Brissot, Pétion, Robespierre and other leaders of the popular movement, above all of Buzot. The Jacobin Club was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. ... A salon is a gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the aims of poetry, to... Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve (1756 - 1794) was a French writer and politician. ... Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre c. ... François Nicolas Leonard Buzot (March 1, 1760 - June 18, 1794), was a French Revolutionary leader. ...


When the crisis came the Girondists were ready, and on March 23, 1792 Roland found himself appointed minister of the interior. As a minister of the crown Roland exhibited a bourgeois brusqueness of manner and a remarkable combination of political prejudice with administrative ability. While his wife's influence could not increase the latter, it was successfully exerted to foment and embitter the former. He was ex officio excluded from the Legislative Assembly, and his declarations of policy were thus in writing -- that is, in the form in which she could most readily exert her power. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to September 1792. ...


The decrees against the émigrés and the non-juring clergy still remained under the veto of the king. A letter was penned by Madame Roland and addressed by her husband to Louis XVI. It remained unanswered. Thereupon, in full council and in the king's presence, Roland read his letter aloud. It contained many and terrible truths as to the royal refusal to sanction the decrees and as to the king's position in the state; but it was inconsistent with a minister's position, disrespectful if not insolent in tone. Roland's dismissal followed. Then he completed the plan: he read the letter to the Assembly; it was ordered to be printed, became the manifesto of disaffection, and was circulated everywhere. In the demand for the reinstatement of the dismissed ministers were found the means of humiliation, and the prelude to the dethronement, of the king. Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... A non-juror is a person who refuses to swear a particular oath. ... Louis XVI (August 23, 1754, Versailles – January 21, 1793, Paris) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1793. ...


After the insurrection of August 10, Roland was recalled to power, one of his colleagues being Georges Danton, but by now he was dismayed by the progress of the Revolution. He was above all a provincial, and was soon in opposition to the party of The Mountain, which aimed at supremacy not only in Paris but in the government as well. His hostility to the insurrectional Paris Commune (the city government of Paris), which led him to propose transferring the government to Blois, and his attacks on Robespierre and his friends made him very unpopular. His neglect to seal the iron chest discovered in the Tuileries, which contained the proofs of Louis XVI's relations with the enemies of France, led to the accusation that he had destroyed a part of these documents. Finally, in the trial of the king he demanded, with the Girondists, that the sentence should be pronounced by a vote of the whole people, and not simply by the Convention. He resigned office on January 23 1793, two days after the king's execution. On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... Blois is a city in France, the préfecture (capital) city of the Loir-et-Cher département, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although now extremely unpopular, the Rolands remained in Paris, suffering abuse and calumny, especially from Jean-Paul Marat. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


When Roland heard of his wife's condemnation, he wandered some miles from his refuge in Rouen; there he wrote a few words expressing his horror at those massacres which could only be inspired by the enemies of France, protesting that "from the moment when I learned that they had murdered my wife, I would no longer remain in a world stained with enemies." He attached the paper to his chest, and killed himself with a sword-stick. Location within France Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France, and presently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Please update as needed.

The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, in turn, gives the following references: Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Madame Roland's Mémoires, first printed in 1820, have been edited among others by P. Faugere (Paris, 1864), by C. A. Dauban (Paris, 1864), by J. Claretie (Paris, 1884), and by C. Perroud (Paris, 1905). Some of her Lettres inédites have been published by C. A. Dauban (Paris, 1867), and a critical edition of her Lettres by C. Perroud (Paris, 1900-2).
  • Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière, De la Liberté du Travail (Paris, 1830)
  • C. A. Dauban, Etude sur Madame Roland et son temps (Paris, 1864)
  • V. Lamy, Deux femmes célèbres, Madame Roland et Charlotte Corday (Paris, 1884)
  • C. Bader, Madame Roland, d'après des lettres et des manuscrits inédits (Paris, 1892)
  • A. J. Lambert, Le menage de Madame Roland, trois années de correspondance amoureuse (Paris, 1896)
  • Austin Dobson, Four Frenchwomen (London, 1890)
  • articles by C. Perroud in the review La Revolution française (1896-99).

 
 

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