FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Jean Buridan

Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. Although he was one of the most famous and influential philosophers of the later Middle Ages, he is today among the least well known. He developed the concept of impetus, the first step toward the modern concept of inertia. His name is most familiar through the thought experiment known as Buridan's ass (a thought experiment which does not appear in his extant writings). Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Events Beginning of the Renaissance. ... Events Jacquerie. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Impetus is an obsolete scientific theory of motion, largely developed by Jean Buridan in the 14th century. ... In psychology, social inertia describes a persons resistance to change. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... The paradox known as Buridans ass was not originated by Buridan himself. ...

Contents


Life and work

Born, most probably, in B├ęthune, France, Buridan studied at the University of Paris under the scholastic philosopher William of Ockham. Apocryphal stories abound about his reputed amorous affairs and adventures which are enough to show that he enjoyed a reputation as a glamorous and mysterious figure in Paris life. That he also seems to have had an unusual facility for attracting academic funding suggests that he was indeed a charismatic figure. Béthune is a city and commune of northern France, sous-préfecture of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganized as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100 - 1500. ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... Hello, I am Sam, Sam I am. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


Unusually, he spent his academic life in the faculty of arts, rather than obtaining the doctorate in theology that typically prepared the way for a career in philosophy. He further maintained his intellectual independence by remaining a secular cleric, rather than joining a religious order. By 1340, his confidence had grown sufficiently for him to launch an attack on his mentor, William of Ockham. This act has been interpreted as the beginning of religious skepticism and the dawn of the scientific revolution, Buridan himself going on to prepare the way for Galileo Galilei through the theory of impetus. Buridan also wrote on solutions to paradoxes such as the liar paradox. A posthumous campaign by Okhamists succeeded in having Buridan's writings placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum from 1474-1481. Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Philosophy, (Greek: Φιλοσοφία, philo-sophia, love of wisdom) // Meaning and use of Philosophy The word once included all forms of knowledge, and all methods for attaining it. ... A cleric is: A member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals; or A member of a character class in Dungeons & Dragons and similar fantasy role-playing games. ... A religious order is an organization of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with religious devotion. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... On January 7, 1610 Galileo discovered three of Jupiters four largest satellites (moons): Io, Europa, and Callisto. ... Impetus is an obsolete scientific theory of motion, largely developed by Jean Buridan in the 14th century. ... Listen to this article (help) Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-07, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... In philosophy and logic, the liar paradox encompasses paradoxical statements such as: Analysing the statement I am lying now. ... The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Roman Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and its members. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted...


Albert of Saxony was among the most notable of students, himself renowned as a logician. Albert of Saxony (Albertus de Saxonia, c. ... A logician is a philosopher, mathematician, or other whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ...


Impetus Theory

The concept of inertia was alien to the physics of Aristotle. Aristotle, and his peripatetic followers, held that a body was only maintained in motion by the action of a continuous external force. Thus, in the Aristotelian view, a projectile moving through the air would owe its continuing motion to eddies or vibrations in the surrounding medium, a phenomenon known as antiperistasis. In the absence of a proximate force, the body would come to rest almost immediately. Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ... In physics, a force is an external cause responsible for any change of a physical system. ...


Jean Buridan proposed that motion was maintained by some property of the body, imparted when it was set in motion. Buridan named the motion-maintaining property impetus. Moreover, he rejected the view that the impetus dissipated spontaneously, asserting that a body would be arrested by the forces of air resistance and gravity which might be opposing its impetus. Buridan further held that the impetus of a body increased with the speed with which it was set in motion, and with its quantity of matter. Clearly, Buridan's impetus is closely related to the modern concept of momentum. There is an important difference between our modern concept of momentum and Buridan's concept of impetus. Buridan saw impetus as causing the motion of the object, whereas momentum is a property caused by motion. Buridan anticipated Isaac Newton when he wrote: Gravity is the force of attraction between massive particles. ... In physics, momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. ... Sir Isaac Newton, PRS (4 January [O.S. 25 December 1642] 1643 – 31 March [O.S. 20 March] 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and philosopher who is regarded by many as the most influential scientist in history. ...

...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion

Buridan used the theory of impetus to give an accurate qualitative account of the motion of projectiles but he ultimately saw his theory as a correction to Aristotle, maintaining core peripatetic beliefs including a fundamental qualitative difference between motion and rest. Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ...


The theory of impetus was also adapted to explain celestial phenomena in terms of circular impetus. Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ...


See Also

// The Middle Ages: Eastern World Islamic science Sample of Islamic medical text See main article: Islamic science In the Middle East, Greek philosophy was able to find some short-lived support by the newly created Arab Caliphate (Empire). ...

Bibliography

Works by Buridan

  • Hughes, G.E. (1982) John Buridan on Self-Reference: Chapter Eight of Buridan's Sophismata. An edition and translation with an introduction, and philosophical commentary. Combridge/London/New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521288649.
  • Klima, Gyula, tr. (2001) John Buridan: 'Summulae de Dialecta' . Yale Library of Medieval Philosophy. New Haven, Conn./London: Yale University Press.
  • Zupko, John Alexander, ed.&tr. (1989) 'John Buridan's Philosophy of Mind: An Edition and Translation of Book III of His ' Questions on Aristotle's De Anima (Third Redaction), with Commentary and Critical and Interpretative Essays.' Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.

Works on Buridan

  • Michael, Bernd (1985) Johannes Buridan: Studien zu seinem Leben, seinen Werken und zu Rezeption seiner Theorien im Europa des sp"aten Mittelalters. 2 Vols. Doctoral dissertation, University of Berlin.
  • Zupko, Jack (2003) John Buridan. Portrait of a Fourteenth-Century Arts Master. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. (cf. pp. 258, 400n71)

External link

  • Jean Buridan - Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jean Buridan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (638 words)
Jean Buridan, following in the footsteps of John Philoponus, proposed that motion was maintained by some property of the body, imparted when it was set in motion.
Buridan further held that the impetus of a body increased with the speed with which it was set in motion, and with its quantity of matter.
Buridan used the theory of impetus to give an accurate qualitative account of the motion of projectiles but he ultimately saw his theory as a correction to Aristotle, maintaining core peripatetic beliefs including a fundamental qualitative difference between motion and rest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m