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Encyclopedia > Jazz
Jazz
Stylistic origins: Blues and other folk musics, Ragtime, marching bands, 1910s New Orleans.
Typical instruments: SaxophoneTrumpetTromboneClarinetPianoGuitarDouble bassDrumsVocals
Mainstream popularity: 1920s–1960s
Subgenres
Avant-garde jazz – BebopCool jazzDixielandFree jazzGypsy jazzHard bopJazz fusionKansas City JazzLatin jazz – Mainstream jazz – Modal jazz – M-Base – Smooth jazzSoul jazzSwingTrad jazzThird streamWest Coast jazz
Fusion genres
Acid jazzAsian American jazzCalypso jazz – Crossover jazz – Jazz bluesJazz fusionJazz rapNu jazzSmooth jazzBossa Nova
Jazz around the world
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Jazz musicians
BassistsClarinetistsDrummersGuitaristsOrganistsPianistsSaxophonistsTrombonistsTrumpeters
Other topics
Jazz standardJazz royalty – Jazz (word)– Jazz clubs – Jazz drumming
Jazz Portal

Jazz is an original American musical art form which originated around the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States out of a confluence of African and European music traditions. The use of blue notes, call-and-response, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation and the swung note of ragtime are characteristics traceable back to jazz's West African pedigree.[1] During its early development, jazz also incorporated music from from 19th and 20th century American popular music based on European music traditions.[2] The origins of the word "jazz," which was first used to refer to music in about 1915, are uncertain; for the origin and history, see Jazz (word). Look up jazz in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Blues music redirects here. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... NOLA redirects here. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... Acid jazz Avant-jazz Bebop Dixieland Dixieland revival Calypso jazz Chamber jazz Contemporary jazz Cool jazz Creative jazz Crossover jazz European free jazz Franchesca jazz Free funk Free jazz Groove jazz Gypsy jazz Hard bop Jazz blues Jazz-funk Jazz fusion Jazz rap Jazz rock Kansas City Jazz Latin jazz... Avant-jazz (also known as avant-garde jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of avant-garde art music composition with elements of traditional jazz. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... CD reissue of Daviss 1957 LP Birth of the Cool, collecting much of his 1949 to 1950 work. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... Memorial to Charlie Parker at the American Jazz Museum at 18th and Highland in Kansas City Kansas City Jazz is a style of jazz that developed and flourished in Kansas City, Missouri and the surrounding Kansas City Metropolitan Area during the 1930s and marked the transition from the structured big... Latin jazz is the general term given to music that combines rhythms from African and Latin American countries with jazz harmonies from the United States. ... Mainstream jazz is a genre of jazz music that was first used in reference to the playing styles of musicians like Buck Clayton among others; performers who once heralded from the era of big band swing music whom did not abandon swing for bebop, instead performing the music in smaller... Modal jazz is jazz played using musical modes rather than chord progressions. ... M-Base is a form of modern jazz music which reached its peak in the mid-to-late-80s and early 90s. ... Smooth Jazz, also sometimes referred to as new adult contemporary music,[1] is generally described as a genre of music that utilizes instruments (and, at times, improvisation) traditionally associated with jazz and stylistic influences drawn from mostly R&B, but also funk and pop. ... Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong blues and gospel influences in music for small groups featuring keyboards, especially the Hammond organ. ... For other uses, see swing. ... Trad jazz, short for traditional jazz is a music genre popular in Britain and Australia from the 1940s onward through the 1950s and which still has enthusiasts today. ... Third Stream music is a term coined in 1957 by Gunther Schuller to describe a musical genre which is a synthesis of classical music and jazz. ... West coast jazz is a form of jazz music that developed around Los Angeles at about the same time as hard bop jazz was developing in New York City, in the 1950s and 1960s. ... Acid jazz (sometimes groove jazz) is a musical genre that combines jazz influences with elements of soul music, funk, disco and hip hop. ... Asian American jazz is a musical movement in the United States begun in the 20th century by Asian American jazz musicians. ... Calypso jazz is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of calypso music with elements of traditional jazz. ... In the wake of fusions decline in the mid-1970s, jazz artists who continued to seek wider audiences began incorporating a variety of popular sounds into their music, forming a group of accessible styles that became known as Crossover Jazz. ... Jazz blues or in its second name Jlues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ... Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Nu-jazz (sometimes electro-jazz) was coined in the late 1990s to refer to styles which combine jazz textures and sometimes jazz instrumentation with electronic music. ... Smooth Jazz, also sometimes referred to as new adult contemporary music,[1] is generally described as a genre of music that utilizes instruments (and, at times, improvisation) traditionally associated with jazz and stylistic influences drawn from mostly R&B, but also funk and pop. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... This is a list of jazz musicians on whom Wikipedia has articles. ... The following is a list of noted jazz bassists with Wikipedia articles. ... This is an alphabetical list of jazz clarinetists for whom Wikipedia has articles. ... This list of jazz drummers attempts to include all those for whom Wikipedia has an article. ... See also Jazz guitar Category:Jazz guitarists by genre The following is a list of notable jazz guitarists, including guitarists from related jazz genres such as Western Swing, latin jazz, and jazz-rock fusion. ... This is a list of jazz organists. ... This is an alphabetized list of notable pianists who play or played Jazz music. ... This is a list of jazz saxophonists. ... This is a list of notable jazz trombonists: (see also: trombonists, [[Category:Jazz trombonists]], [[Category:Trombonists]], and [[Category:Classical trombonists]] Back to jazz, trombone, or trombonists. ... This is an alphabetical list of jazz trumpeters for whom Wikipedia has articles. ... Jazz standard refers to a tune that is widely known, performed, and recorded among jazz musicians. ... Jazz royalty is a term that reflects the many great jazz musicians who have some sort of royal title in their names or nicknames. ... The origin of the word jazz is one of the most sought-after word origins in modern American English. ... // Artel Jazz Club Bulls Head, Barnes (The) Ealing Jazz Club Jazz Cafe Pizza Express Jazz Club [[Ronnie Scott|Ronnie Scotts] Manchester Matt and Phreds Churchill Grounds in Midtown Five Spot in L5P Jazz Door (closed) Lennys on the Turnpike (closed) Lulu Whites (closed) Pauls Mall... Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Historic Southern United States. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The origin of the word jazz is one of the most sought-after word origins in modern American English. ...


Jazz has, from its early 20th century inception, spawned a variety of subgenres, from New Orleans Dixieland dating from the early 1910s, big band-style swing from the 1930s and 1940s, bebop from the mid-1940s, a variety of Latin-jazz fusions such as Afro-Cuban and Brazilian jazz from the 1950s and 1960s, jazz-rock fusion from the 1970s and later developments such as acid jazz. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ... For other uses, see swing. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... Afro-Cuban jazz is a variety of Latin jazz. ... Brazilian jazz is the term for the style of jazz popular or associated with Brazil. ... Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... Acid jazz (sometimes groove jazz) is a musical genre that combines jazz influences with elements of soul music, funk, disco and hip hop. ...

Contents

Origins

In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation, African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion.
In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation, African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion.

By 1808 the Atlantic slave trade had brought almost half a million Africans to the United States. The slaves largely came from West Africa and brought strong tribal musical traditions with them.[3] Lavish festivals featuring African dances to drums were organized on Sundays at Place Congo, or Congo Square, in New Orleans until 1843, as were similar gatherings in New England and New York. African music was largely functional, for work or ritual, and included work songs and field hollers. In the African tradition, they had a single-line melody and a call-and-response pattern, but without the European concept of harmony. Rhythms reflected African speech patterns, and the African use of pentatonic scales led to blue notes in blues and jazz.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 795 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (798 × 602 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 795 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (798 × 602 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the Transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African persons supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... It was in the Nineteenth Century in Congo Square in New Orleans that observers heard the beat of the bamboulas, the wail of the banzas and saw the multitude of African dances that had survived through the years. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Field Hollers as well as work songs were African American styles of music from before the Civil War, this style of music is close related to Spirituals in the sense that it expressed religious feelings and included subtle hints about ways of escaping slavery, among other things. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ...

The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones.
The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones.

In the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. In turn, European-American minstrel show performers in blackface popularized such music internationally, combining syncopation with European harmonic accompaniment. Louis Moreau Gottschalk adapted African-American cakewalk music, South American, Caribbean and other slave melodies as piano salon music. Another influence came from black slaves who had learned the harmonic style of hymns and incorporated it into their own music as spirituals.[5] The origins of the blues are undocumented, though they can be seen as the secular counterpart of the spirituals. Paul Oliver has drawn attention to similarities in instruments, music and social function to the griots of the West African savannah.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x817, 783 KB) Summary Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, arranged by Th. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x817, 783 KB) Summary Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, arranged by Th. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... The Virginia Minstrels was a group of 19th Century American entertainers known for helping to invent the entertainment form known as the Minstrel show. ... The bones are a musical instrument (more specifically, a folk instrument) which, at the simplest, consists of a pair of bones, human or animal, or pieces of wood or a similar material. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Cakewalk is a traditional African American form of music and dance which originated among slaves in the US South. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ... Louis Moreau Gottschalk pictured on a 1864 Publication of The Dying Poet for piano Louis Moreau Gottschalk (May 8, 1829 – December 18, 1869) was an American composer and pianist, best known as a virtuoso performer of his own romantic piano pieces. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... A spiritual is a African-American song, usually with a religious text. ... Little is known about the exact origins of the music we now know as the blues. ... Paul Oliver is a researcher at the Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development. ... This page is about the West African poets. ... Savannah redirects here. ...


1890s–1910s

Ragtime

Main article: Ragtime

Emancipation of slaves led to new opportunities for education of freed African-Americans, but strict segregation meant limited employment opportunities. Black musicians provided "low-class" entertainment at dances, minstrel shows, and in vaudeville, and many marching bands formed. Black pianists played in bars, clubs and brothels, and ragtime developed.[7][8] Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scott Joplin This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Scott Joplin Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 and January 1868,[1] died April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It appeared as sheet music with the African American entertainer Ernest Hogan's hit songs in 1895, and two years later Vess Ossman recorded a medley of these songs as a banjo solo "Rag Time Medley".[9][10] Also in 1897, the white composer William H. Krell published his "Mississippi Rag" as the first written piano instrumental ragtime piece. The classically-trained pianist Scott Joplin produced his "Original Rags" in the following year, then in 1899 had an international hit with "Maple Leaf Rag." He wrote numerous popular rags combining syncopation, banjo figurations and sometimes call-and-response, which led to the ragtime idiom being taken up by classical composers including Claude Debussy and Igor Stravinsky. Blues music was published and popularized by W. C. Handy, whose "Memphis Blues" of 1912 and "St. Louis Blues" of 1914 both became jazz standards.[11] Ernest Hogan Ernest Hogan (born Ernest Reuben Crowders, 1868? to 1909) was the first African American entertainer to produce and star in a Broadway show (The Oyster Man in 1907) and helped create the musical genre of ragtime. ... Vess Ossman (1868-1923) was a leading 5-string banjoist and popular recording artist. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments. ... Scott Joplin Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 and January 1868,[1] died April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. ... Second edition cover of Maple Leaf Rag, perhaps the most famous rag of all The Maple Leaf Rag (1897) is an early Ragtime composition for piano by Scott Joplin. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Blues music redirects here. ... William Christopher Handy (November 16, 1873 – March 28, 1958) was a blues composer and musician, often known as the Father of the Blues. ... St. ...


New Orleans music

The Bolden Band around 1905.
The Bolden Band around 1905.

The music of New Orleans had a profound effect on the creation of early jazz. Many early jazz performers played in the brothels and bars of red-light district around Basin Street called "Storyville."[12] In addition, numerous marching bands played at lavish funerals arranged by the African American community. The instruments used in marching bands and dance bands became the basic instruments of jazz: brass and reeds tuned in the European 12-tone scale and drums. Small bands of primarily self-taught African American musicians, many of whom came from the funeral-procession tradition of New Orleans, played a seminal role in the development and dissemination of early jazz, traveling throughout Black communities in the Deep South and, from around 1914 on, Afro-Creole and African American musicians playing in vaudeville shows took jazz to western and northern US cities.[13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Charles Buddy Bolden (September 6, 1877–November 4, 1931) was a cornetist and the first New Orleans jazz musician to come to prominence and also credited as the founder of jazz. ... This article is under construction. ... For the 2004 album by American rapper Ludacris, see The Red Light District. ... Basin Street is a street in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Storyville was the prostitution district of New Orleans, Louisiana from 1897 through 1917. ... An American college marching band on the field (Kansas State University) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching and other movements  â€“ with their musical performance. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana, USA. For uses of the term Creole in other countries and cultures, see Creole (disambiguation). ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ...

Morton published "Jelly Roll Blues" in 1915, the first jazz work in print.
Morton published "Jelly Roll Blues" in 1915, the first jazz work in print.

Afro-Creole pianist Jelly Roll Morton began his career in Storyville. From 1904, he toured with vaudeville shows around southern cities, also playing in Chicago and New York. His "Jelly Roll Blues," which he composed around 1905, was published in 1915 as the first jazz arrangement in print, introducing more musicians to the New Orleans style.[14] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (492 × 650 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (492 × 650 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Morton in the 1920s Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton September 20, 1890 - July 10, 1941) was an American virtuoso pianist, bandleader and composer who some call the first true composer of jazz music. ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ...

That's How Dixie Was born, music sheet cover for a 1936 song
That's How Dixie Was born, music sheet cover for a 1936 song

In the northeastern United States, a "hot" style of playing ragtime had developed, notably James Reese Europe's symphonic Clef Club orchestra in New York which played a benefit concert at Carnegie Hall in 1912, and his "Society Orchestra" which in 1913 became the first black group to make recordings.[15][16] The Baltimore rag style of Eubie Blake influenced James P. Johnson's development of "Stride" piano playing, in which the right hand plays the melody, while the left hand provides the rhythm and bassline.[17] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... James Reese Europe (22 February 1881–9 May 1919) was a United States ragtime and early jazz bandleader, arranger, and composer. ... The Clef Club was a popular entertainment venue and society for African American musicians in Harlem, achieving its largest success in the 1910s. ... This article is about the state. ... Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east stretch of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... James Hubert Blake (February 7, 1887 – February 12, 1983), was a composer, lyricist, and pianist of ragtime, jazz, and popular music. ... James Price Johnson (February 1, 1894 - November 17, 1955) was a pianist and composer. ... Stride is a pioneering jazz piano style. ...


The Original Dixieland Jass Band's "Livery Stable Blues" released early in 1917 is one of the early jazz records.[18] That year numerous other bands made recordings featuring "jazz" in the title or band name, mostly ragtime or novelty records rather than jazz. In September 1917 W.C. Handy's Orchestra of Memphis recorded a cover version of "Livery Stable Blues".[19] In February 1918 James Reese Europe's "Hellfighters" infantry band took ragtime to Europe during World War I,[20] then on return recorded Dixieland standards including "The Darktown Strutter's Ball".[16] Original Dixieland Jass Band (after mid-1917 spelling changed to Jazz) was a New Orleans band which, in 1917, was the first ever to make a jazz recording. ... W.C. Handy photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 William Christopher Handy (November 16, 1873 - March 28, 1958) was an African American blues composer, often known as The Father of the Blues. ... James Reese Europe (22 February 1881–9 May 1919) was a United States ragtime and early jazz bandleader, arranger, and composer. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


1920s and 1930s

Prohibition in the United States (from 1920 to 1933) banned the sale of alcoholic drinks, resulting in illicit speakeasies becoming lively venues of the "Jazz Age", an era when popular music included current dance songs, novelty songs, and show tunes. Jazz started to get a reputation as being immoral and many members of the older generations saw it as threatening the old values in culture and promoting the new decadent values of the Roaring 20s. From 1919 Kid Ory's Original Creole Jazz Band of musicians from New Orleans played in San Francisco and Los Angeles where in 1922 they became the first black jazz band to make recordings.[21][22] However, the main centre developing the new "Hot Jazz" was Chicago, where King Oliver joined Bill Johnson. That year also saw the first recording by Bessie Smith, the most famous of the 1920s blues singers.[23] Prohibition in the United States aimed to achieve alcohol abstinence through legal means. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Jazz Age , 1929 movie poster: A Scathing Indictment of the Bewidered Children of Pleasure. ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ... Edward Kid Ory (December 25, 1886 – January 23, 1973) was a jazz trombonist and bandleader. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Joe King Oliver, (December 19, 1885 – April 10, 1938) was a bandleader and jazz cornet player. ... William Manuel Bill Johnson (August 10, 1872 – December 3, 1972), was a United States jazz musician, considered the father of the slap style of string bass playing. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921.
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921.

Bix Beiderbecke formed The Wolverines in 1924. Also in 1924 Louis Armstrong joined the Fletcher Henderson dance band as featured soloist for a year, then formed his virtuosic Hot Five band, also popularising scat singing.[24] Jelly Roll Morton recorded with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings in an early mixed-race collaboration, then in 1926 formed his Red Hot Peppers. The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra. ... The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra. ... Bix Beiderbecke (March 10, 1903 – August 6, 1931) was a notable jazz cornet player. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr. ... The Hot Five was Louis Armstrongs first jazz recording band led under his own name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Morton in the 1920s Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton September 20, 1890 - July 10, 1941) was an American virtuoso pianist, bandleader and composer who some call the first true composer of jazz music. ... The New Orleans Rhythm Kings were one of the most influential jazz bands of the early/mid 1920s. ...


There was a larger market for jazzy dance music played by white orchestras, such as Jean Goldkette's orchestra and Paul Whiteman's orchestra. In 1924 Whiteman commissioned Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, which was premièred by Whiteman's Orchestra. Other influential large ensembles included Fletcher Henderson's band, Duke Ellington's band (which opened an influential residency at the Cotton Club in 1927) in New York, and Earl Hines's Band in Chicago (who opened in The Grand Terrace Cafe there in 1928). All significantly influenced the development of big band-style swing jazz.[25] Jean Goldkette Jean Goldkette (18 March 1893 – 24 March 1962) was a jazz pianist and bandleader. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... Gershwin redirects here. ... Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue. ... Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... For the 1984 film of the same name, see The Cotton Club The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. ... Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, (28 December 1903[1] Duquesne, Pennsylvania – 22 April 1983 in Oakland, California) was one of the most important pianists in the history of jazz. ...


Swing

Main article: Swing music

The 1930s belonged to popular swing big bands, in which some virtuoso soloists became as famous as the band leaders. Key figures in developing the "big" jazz band included bandleaders and arrangers Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, Duke Ellington, Artie Shaw, Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, and Glenn Miller. For other uses, see swing. ... Musically, swing can be either: (written with small s) the rhythmic feeling evoked by swinging music, esp. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ... William Count Basie (August 21, 1904 – April 26, 1984) was an American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer. ... Cab Calloway, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1933 Cab Calloway (December 25, 1907–November 18, 1994) was a famous American jazz singer and bandleader. ... Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr. ... Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, (28 December 1903[1] Duquesne, Pennsylvania – 22 April 1983 in Oakland, California) was one of the most important pianists in the history of jazz. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... Artie Shaw (May 23, 1910, New York, New York – December 30, 2004, Thousand Oaks, California) is considered to be one of the best jazz musicians of his time. ... Tommy Dorsey, in a publicity shot for The Big Apple Tommy Dorsey (November 19, 1905 – November 26, 1956) was an American jazz trombonist and bandleader in the Big Band era. ... Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish... This article is about the jazz musician. ...

Trumpeter, bandleader and singer Louis Armstrong, known internationally as the "Ambassador of Jazz," was a much-imitated innovator of early jazz.
Trumpeter, bandleader and singer Louis Armstrong, known internationally as the "Ambassador of Jazz," was a much-imitated innovator of early jazz.

Swing was also dance music and it was broadcast on the radio 'live' coast-to-coast nightly across America for many years. Although it was a collective sound, swing also offered individual musicians a chance to 'solo' and improvise melodic, thematic solos which could at times be very complex and 'important' music. Included among the critically acclaimed leaders who specialized in live radio broadcasts of swing music as well as "Sweet Band" compositions during this era was Shep Fields. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2801x2182, 763 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jazz Louis Armstrong User:Davepape User:Davepape/Images Culture of New Orleans ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2801x2182, 763 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jazz Louis Armstrong User:Davepape User:Davepape/Images Culture of New Orleans ... A trumpeter may be one of several things: A trumpeter is a musician who plays the trumpet. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... Shep Fields (1910-1981) Shep Fields (September 12, 1910 – February 23, 1981) was the band leader for Shep Fields and His Rippling Rhythm. He was born in Brooklyn, New York, and his mothers maiden name was Sowalski. ...


Over time, social strictures regarding racial segregation began to relax, and white bandleaders began to recruit black musicians. In the mid-1930s, Benny Goodman hired pianist Teddy Wilson, vibraphonist Lionel Hampton, and guitarist Charlie Christian to join small groups. An early 1940s style known as "jumping the blues" or jump blues used small combos, up-tempo music, and blues chord progressions. Jump blues drew on boogie-woogie from the 1930s. Kansas City Jazz in the 1930s marked the transition from big bands to the bebop influence of the 1940s. Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish... Theodore Shaw Teddy Wilson (born November 24, 1912 in Austin, Texas-died July 31, 1986 in New Britain, Connecticut) was a United States jazz pianist. ... Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... Charlie Christian (29 July 1916 – 2 March 1942) was an American jazz guitarist. ... Jump blues is a type of up-tempo blues music influenced by big band sound. ... Boogie-woogie is a style of blues piano playing that became very popular in the 1940s and was extended from piano, to three pianos at once, guitar, big band, and country and western music. ... Memorial to Charlie Parker at the American Jazz Museum at 18th and Highland in Kansas City Kansas City Jazz is a style of jazz that developed and flourished in Kansas City, Missouri and the surrounding Kansas City Metropolitan Area during the 1930s and marked the transition from the structured big...


European jazz

Outside of the United States the beginnings of a distinct European style of jazz emerged in France with the Quintette du Hot Club de France which began in 1934. Belgian guitar virtuoso Django Reinhardt popularized gypsy jazz, a mix of 1930s American swing, French dance hall "musette" and Eastern European folk with a languid, seductive feel. The main instruments are steel stringed guitar, violin, and double bass. Solos pass from one player to another as the guitar and bass play the role of the rhythm section. Some music researchers hold that it was Philadelphia's Eddie Lang (guitar) and Joe Venuti (violin) who pioneered the gypsy jazz form [26], which was brought to France after they had been heard live or on Okeh Records in the late 1920's. [27] Quintette du Hot Club de France was one of the early, and most significant, jazz groups in Europe. ... Jean Django Reinhardt (January 23, 1910 – May 16, 1953) was a Belgian Sinto Gypsy jazz guitarist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up swing, swinging in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Musette can refer to several things: A type of bellows blown bagpipe found in rural France; also called musette de cour). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Rhythm section refers to the musicians whose primary jobs in a jazz or popular music band or ensemble is to establish the rhythm of a song or musical piece, often via repeated riffs or ostinati. ... Eddie Lang (October 25, 1902 – March 26, 1933) was a jazz guitarist, considered by many the finest of his era. ... Giuseppe (Joe) Venuti (September 16, 1903 – August 14, 1978) was a U.S. jazz musician and violinist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Okeh Records began as an independent record label based in the United States of America in 1918; from the late 1920s on was a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ...


1940s and 1950s

Dixieland revival

In the late 1930s there was a revival of "Dixieland" music, harkening back to the original contrapuntal New Orleans style. This was driven in large part by record company reissues of early jazz classics by the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the 20s. There were two populations of musicians involved in the revival. One group consisted of men who had begun their careers playing in the traditional style, and were either returning to it, or continuing what they had been playing all along. In the late 1930s, Bob Crosby's Bobcats led this revival. Other prominent Dixieland revivalists included Max Kaminsky, Eddie Condon, and Wild Bill Davison. Most of this group were originally midwesterners, although there were a small number of New Orleans musicians involved as well. The second population of revivalists consisted of young musicians too young to have been involved in early jazz, but who now rejected the contemporary swing style of jazz, and who preferred the traditional approach. The Lu Watters band was perhaps the most prominent of this second group. By the late 1940s, the revival was in full swing. Louis Armstrong formed his Allstars band, which became a leading ensemble in the Dixieland revival. Through the 1950s and 60s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz styles in the U.S., Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little attention.[28] Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... Bob Crosby (August 23, 1913 - March 9, 1993) was an American bandleader and singer. ... Max Kaminsky was a professional ice hockey centerman who played 3 seasons in the National Hockey League for the St. ... Albert Edwin Condon, better known as Eddie Condon, (16 November 1905–4 August 1973) was a jazz banjoist, guitarist, and bandleader. ... Wild Bill Davison (1906-1989) was a fiery jazz cornet player who emerged in the 1920s, but did not achieve recognition until the 1940s. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ...


Bebop

In the mid-1940s bebop performers helped to shift jazz from danceable popular music towards a more challenging "musician's music." Differing greatly from swing, early bebop divorced itself from dance music, establishing itself more as an art form but lessening its potential popular and commercial value. Influential bebop musicians included saxophonist Charlie Parker, pianists Bud Powell and Thelonious Monk, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and Clifford Brown, bassist Ray Brown, and drummer Max Roach. (See also List of bebop musicians). This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thelonious Sphere Monk (October 10, 1917 – February 17, 1982) was a jazz pianist and composer. ... For the Australian cricketer nicknamed Dizzy, see Jason Gillespie. ... Clifford Brown (October 30, 1930 – June 26, 1956) was an influential and highly rated American jazz trumpeter. ... Raymond Matthews Brown (October 13, 1926–July 2, 2002) was an American jazz double bassist. ... Maxwell Lemuel Roach (January 10, 1924 – August 16, 2007) was a bebop/hard bop percussionist, drummer, and composer. ... For the main article, please see Bebop. ...


Beboppers introduced new forms of chromaticism and dissonance into jazz and engaged in a more abstracted form of chord-based improvisation which used "passing" chords, substitute chords, and altered chords. The style of drumming shifted as well to a more elusive and explosive style, in which the ride cymbal was used to keep time, while the snare and bass drum were used for unpredictable accents. These divergences from the jazz mainstream of the time initially met with a divided, sometimes hostile response among fans and fellow musicians. By the 1950s bebop had become an accepted part of the jazz vocabulary. In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... Dissonance has several meanings, all related to conflict or incongruity. ... A chord substitution is the use of one chord in the place of another in a chord progression. ... A Zildjian 22 Z Custom Power Ride A ride cymbal is a type of cymbal that is a standard part of most drum kits. ...


Cool jazz

Cool jazz emerged in the late 1940s in New York City, as a result of the mixture of the styles of predominantly white jazz musicians and black bebop musicians. Cool jazz recordings by Chet Baker, Dave Brubeck, Bill Evans, Gil Evans, Stan Getz and the Modern Jazz Quartet usually have a "lighter" sound which avoided the aggressive tempos and harmonic abstraction of bebop. An important recording was Miles Davis's Birth of the Cool (tracks originally recorded in 1949 and 1950 and collected as an LP in 1957). Players such as pianist Bill Evans began searching for new ways to structure their improvisations by exploring modal music. Cool jazz later became strongly identified with the West Coast jazz scene. Its influence stretches into such later developments as Bossa Nova, modal jazz (especially in the form of Davis's Kind of Blue 1959), and even free jazz (see also the List of Cool jazz and West Coast jazz musicians). CD reissue of Daviss 1957 LP Birth of the Cool, collecting much of his 1949 to 1950 work. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... Chesney Henry Chet Baker Jr. ... David Warren Brubeck (born December 6, 1920 in Concord, California[1]), better known as Dave Brubeck, is a U.S. jazz pianist. ... William John Evans (better known as Bill Evans) (August 16, 1929 – September 15, 1980) was an American jazz pianist and one of the most famous of the 20th century; he remains one of the major influences on post-1950s jazz piano. ... Gil Evans (13 May 1912 in Toronto Canada – 20 March 1988 in Cuernavaca, Mexico) was a jazz pianist, arranger, composer, and bandleader, active in the United States. ... Stanley Getz (February 2, 1927 in Philadelphia – June 6, 1991 in Malibu, California), usually known by his stage name Stan Getz, was an American jazz musician. ... The Modern Jazz Quartet was established in 1952 by Milt Jackson (vibraphone), John Lewis (piano, musical director), Percy Heath (bass), and Kenny Clarke (drums). ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Birth of the Cool is an album which collects the twelve sides recorded by the Miles Davis nonet (featuring Gerry Mulligan, Lee Konitz and others) for Capitol Records in 1949 and 1950. ... William John Evans (better known as Bill Evans) (August 16, 1929 – September 15, 1980) was an American jazz pianist and one of the most famous of the 20th century; he remains one of the major influences on post-1950s jazz piano. ... In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... West coast jazz is a form of jazz music that developed around Los Angeles at about the same time as hard bop jazz was developing in New York City, in the 1950s and 1960s. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Kind of Blue is a jazz album by musician Miles Davis, released on August 17, 1959. ... For the main articles, please see Cool jazz or West Coast jazz Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Curtis Amy Earl Anderza Chet Baker Billy Bauer...


Hard bop

Hard bop is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music that incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. Hard bop was developed in the mid-1950s, partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early 1950s. The hard bop style coalesced in 1953 and 1954, paralleling the rise of rhythm and blues. Miles Davis' performance of "Walkin'," the title track of his album of the same year, at the very first Newport Jazz Festival in 1954, announced the style to the jazz world. The quintet Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, fronted by Blakey and featuring pianist Horace Silver and trumpeter Clifford Brown, were leaders in the hard bop movement along with Davis. (See also List of Hard bop musicians) Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... R&B redirects here. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... Blues music redirects here. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... CD reissue of Daviss 1957 LP Birth of the Cool, collecting much of his 1949 to 1950 work. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Walkin is an album recorded on 3 April and 29 April 1954 by a group led by Miles Davis, for Prestige Records. ... The Newport Jazz Festival is a music festival held every August in Newport, Rhode Island. ... The Jazz Messengers were a jazz ensemble founded by Art Blakey and Horace Silver in 1955. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Horace Ward Martin Tavares Silver, born on September 2, 1928 in Norwalk, Connecticut) is a famous jazz pianist and composer born to a Cape Verdean father (of mixed Portuguese-black descent) and a mother of Irish and African descent. ... Clifford Brown (October 30, 1930 – June 26, 1956) was an influential and highly rated American jazz trumpeter. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pepper Adams -sax Cannonball Adderley - sax Toshiko Akiyoshi - piano Ahmad Alaadeen - sax Eddie Allen - trumpet, flugelhorn Franco Ambrosetti - trumpet Gene...


Free jazz

A shot from a 2006 performance by Peter Brötzmann, a key figure in European free jazz
A shot from a 2006 performance by Peter Brötzmann, a key figure in European free jazz

Free jazz and the related form of avant-garde jazz, are subgenres rooted in bebop, that use less compositional material and allow performers more latitude. Free jazz uses implied or loose harmony and tempo, which was deemed controversial when this approach was first developed. The bassist Charles Mingus is also frequently associated with the avant-garde in jazz, although his compositions draw off a myriad of styles and genres. The first major stirrings came in the 1950s, with the early work of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor. In the 1960s, performers included John Coltrane, Archie Shepp, Sun Ra, Albert Ayler, Pharoah Sanders, and others. Free jazz quickly found a foothold in Europe, also – in part because musicians such as Ayler, Taylor, Steve Lacy and Eric Dolphy spent extended periods in Europe. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (420 × 630 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Peter Brötzmann, German free jazz saxophonist. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (420 × 630 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Peter Brötzmann, German free jazz saxophonist. ... Peter Brötzmann (born March 6, 1941) is a German free jazz saxophonist. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Avant-jazz (also known as avant-garde jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of avant-garde art music composition with elements of traditional jazz. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... Charles Mingus (April 22, 1922 – January 5, 1979) was an American jazz bassist, composer, bandleader, and occasional pianist. ... Ornette Coleman (born March 9, 1930) is an American saxophonist, violinist, trumpeter and composer. ... Cecil Percival Taylor (born March 15 or March 25, 1929 in New York City) is an American pianist and poet. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... Archie Shepp is an American jazz saxophonist. ... Sun Ra (Born Herman Poole Blount; legal name Le Sonyr Ra;[1] born May 22, 1914 in Birmingham, Alabama, died May 30, 1993 in Birmingham, Alabama) was an innovative jazz composer, bandleader, piano and synthesizer player, poet and philosopher known for his cosmic philosophy, musical compositions and performances. ... Albert Ayler (July 13, 1936 – November 1970) was an American avant-garde jazz saxophonist, singer and composer. ... Reggie Workman, Pharoah Sanders, and Idris Muhammad, c. ... Allen|Henry Red Allen]], George Pops Foster and Zutty Singleton and then with Kansas City jazz players like Buck Clayton, Dicky Wells, and Jimmy Rushing before jumping into the heart of the avant-garde by performing on the debut album of Cecil Taylor, appearing with Taylors groundbreaking quartet at... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ...


Keith Jarrett has been prominent in defending free jazz from criticism by traditionalists in recent years. For other persons named Keith Jarrett, see Keith Jarrett (disambiguation). ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... Traditionalist Catholic and Traditional Catholic are broad terms used to denote Roman Catholics who reject some or all of the reforms that were instituted after the Council, in particular the revised rite of Mass, which was promulgated in 1969 by Pope Paul VI as part of the process of implementing...


1960s and 1970s

Latin jazz

Latin jazz has two main varieties: Afro-Cuban and Brazilian jazz. Afro-Cuban jazz was played in the U.S. directly after the bebop period, while Brazilian jazz became more popular in the 1960s. Afro-Cuban jazz began as a movement in the mid-1950s as bebop musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and Billy Taylor started Afro-Cuban bands influenced by such Cuban and Puerto Rican musicians as Xavier Cugat, Tito Puente, and Arturo Sandoval. Brazilian jazz such as bossa nova is derived from samba, with influences from jazz and other 20th century classical and popular music styles. Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English. The style was pioneered by Brazilians João Gilberto, Antônio Carlos Jobim, Vinícius de Moraes, among others. The related term jazz-samba describes an adaptation of bossa nova compositions to the jazz idiom by American performers such as Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd. Latin jazz is the general term given to music that combines rhythms from African and Latin American countries with jazz harmonies from the United States. ... Cuban boys playing in Trinidad, Cuba The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans of African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community. ... Brazilian jazz is the term for the style of jazz popular or associated with Brazil. ... Afro-Cuban jazz is a variety of Latin jazz. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... For the Australian cricketer nicknamed Dizzy, see Jason Gillespie. ... For other uses, see Billy Taylor (disambiguation). ... Xavier Cugat and his Orchestra 1952 Film featurette - Universal Studios Francesc dAsís Xavier Cugat Mingall de Bru i Deulofeu (1 January 1900 – 27 October 1990) was a Catalan-Cuban bandleader whom many consider to have had more to do with the infusion of Latin music into United States... Tito Puente, Sr. ... Arturo Sandoval (born November 6, 1949) is a jazz trumpeter and pianist. ... Brazilian jazz is the term for the style of jazz popular or associated with Brazil. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samba (disambiguation). ... João Gilberto (born João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira on June 10, 1931 in the town of Juazeiro, Bahia) is a Brazilian musician and considered one of the co-creators, with Tom Jobim, of bossa nova. ... Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927 in Rio de Janeiro – December 8, 1994 in New York City), or Tom Jobim (as he is fondly known in his home country), was a Brazilian composer, arranger, singer, pianist/guitarist and one of the primary forces behind the creation... Vinicius de Moraes (October 19, 1913 - July 9, 1980), born as Marcus Vinícius da Cruz de Melo Morais in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was a seminal figure in contemporary Brazilian music. ... Stanley Getz (February 2, 1927 in Philadelphia – June 6, 1991 in Malibu, California), usually known by his stage name Stan Getz, was an American jazz musician. ... Charles L. Byrd (September 16, 1925 - November 30, 1999), better known as Charlie Byrd, was a famous jazz guitarist, born in Suffolk, Virginia. ...


Soul jazz

Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong influences from blues, gospel and rhythm and blues in music for small groups, often the organ trio which featured the Hammond organ. Unlike hard bop, soul jazz generally emphasized repetitive grooves and melodic hooks, and improvisations were often less complex than in other jazz styles. Horace Silver had a large influence on the soul jazz style, with his songs that used funky and often gospel-based piano vamps. Important soul jazz organists included Jimmy McGriff and Jimmy Smith and Johnny Hammond Smith, and influential tenor saxophone players included Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis and Stanley Turrentine. (See also List of soul-jazz musicians.) Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong blues and gospel influences in music for small groups featuring keyboards, especially the Hammond organ. ... Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... Blues music redirects here. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... R&B redirects here. ... An organ trio, in a jazz context, is group of three jazz musicians, typically consisting of a Hammond organ player, a drummer, and either a jazz guitarist or a saxophone player. ... The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company until the 1970s. ... Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ... Horace Ward Martin Tavares Silver, born on September 2, 1928 in Norwalk, Connecticut) is a famous jazz pianist and composer born to a Cape Verdean father (of mixed Portuguese-black descent) and a mother of Irish and African descent. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... lots of issues | leave me a message 23:00, 2 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations | Hammond organ players ... A young Jimmy Smith, on the 1958 album House Party Jimmy Smith, nicknamed The Incredible Jimmy Smith, (December 8, 1925 – February 8, 2005) was a jazz musician whose Hammond B-3 electric organ performances helped to popularize this instrument. ... Johnny Hammond Smith (born John Robert Smith) was an American soul jazz organist born in Louisville, Kentucky on December 16, 1933 and who died on June 4, 1997. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... Edward Davis (March 2, 1922 - November 3, 1986), who performed and recorded as Eddie Lockjaw Davis, was an American jazz tenor saxophonist. ... Stanley William Turrentine, also known as Mr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jazz fusion

In the late 1960s and early 1970s the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was developed. Although jazz purists protested the blend of jazz and rock, some of jazz's significant innovators crossed over from the contemporary hardbop scene into fusion. Jazz fusion music often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, and complex chords and harmonies, and fusion includes a number of electric instruments, such as the electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano, and synthesizer keyboards. Notable performers of jazz fusion included Miles Davis, keyboardists Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock, drummer Tony Williams, guitarists Larry Coryell and John McLaughlin, Frank Zappa, saxophonist Wayne Shorter, and bassist-composer Jaco Pastorius. Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Armando Anthony Chick Corea (born June 12, 1941) is a multiple Grammy Award winning American jazz pianist/keyboardist and composer. ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Tony Williams (December 12, 1945 – February 23, 1997) was an African American jazz drummer. ... Larry Coryell Larry Coryell (April 2, 1943-) is an American jazz guitarist. ... John McLaughlin John McLaughlin (aka pinyon)(born January 4, 1942), also Mahavishnu John McLaughlin, is a jazz fusion guitar player from Doncaster, Yorkshire in England. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Wayne Shorter (born August 25, 1933) is an American jazz composer and saxophonist. ... John Francis Anthony Jaco Pastorius III (December 1, 1951 – September 21, 1987) was an American jazz musician and composer widely acknowledged for his virtuosity of the fretless bass,[1][2] as well as his command of varied musical styles. ...


1970s trends

There was a resurgence of interest in jazz and other forms of African American cultural expression during the Black Arts Movement and Black nationalist period of the early 1970s. Musicians such as Pharoah Sanders, Hubert Laws and Wayne Shorter began using kalimbas, cowbells, beaded gourds and other instruments not traditional to jazz. Alice Coltrane drew notice as a jazz harpist, Jean-Luc Ponty as a jazz violinist, and Rufus Harley as a bagpipe player. Jazz continued to expand and change, influenced by other types of music, such as world music, avant garde classical music, and rock and pop music. Guitarist John McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra played a mix of rock and jazz infused with East Indian influences. The ECM record label began in the 1970s with artists including Keith Jarrett, Paul Bley, the Pat Metheny Group, Jan Garbarek, Ralph Towner, and Eberhard Weber, establishing a new chamber-music aesthetic, featuring mainly acoustic instruments, and incorporating elements of world music and folk music. // The Black Arts Movement is commonly known as the artistic branch of the Black Power movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Reggie Workman, Pharoah Sanders, and Idris Muhammad, c. ... Hubert Laws is an American jazz flutist, who also studied classical music. ... Wayne Shorter (born August 25, 1933) is an American jazz composer and saxophonist. ... For the struck idiophone, see Mbila. ... Alice Coltrane (b. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... Grappelli (left) and Jean-Luc Ponty (right). ... Rufus Harley (born May 20, 1936 in Raleigh, North Carolina) is a U.S. jazz musician of mixed Cherokee and African ancestry. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... For experimental rock music, see experimental rock. ... John McLaughlin John McLaughlin (aka pinyon)(born January 4, 1942), also Mahavishnu John McLaughlin, is a jazz fusion guitar player from Doncaster, Yorkshire in England. ... The original lineup in 1972, featuring Billy Cobham, John McLaughlin, Jerry Goodman, Jan Hammer and Rick Laird. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Folk - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman... ECM (Edition of Contemporary Music) is a record label founded in Munich, Germany in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. ... For other persons named Keith Jarrett, see Keith Jarrett (disambiguation). ... Paul Bley is a free jazz pianist born in Montreal, Canada in 1932 and long-time resident in the USA. His music characteristically features strong senses both of melodic voicing and space. ... Patrick Bruce Metheny (born August 12, 1954 in Lees Summit, Missouri) is an American jazz guitarist and composer. ... Jan Garbarek (born March 4, 1947 in Mysen, Norway) is a Norwegian tenor and soprano saxophonist, active in the jazz, classical, and world music genres. ... Ralph Towner (b. ... Eberhard Weber (born January 22nd, 1940 in Stuttgart, Germany) is a bassist and composer. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... Folk song redirects here. ...


1980s–2000s

In the 1980s, the jazz community shrank dramatically and split. A mainly older audience retained an interest in traditional and "straight-ahead" jazz styles. Wynton Marsalis strove to create music within what he believed was the tradition, creating extensions of small and large forms initially pioneered by such artists as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. Wynton Learson Marsalis (b. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ...


In the early 1980s, a lighter commercial form of jazz fusion called pop fusion or "smooth jazz" became successful and garnered significant radio airplay. Smooth jazz saxophonists include Grover Washington, Jr., Kenny G and Najee. Smooth jazz received frequent airplay with more straight-ahead jazz in quiet storm time slots at radio stations in urban markets across the U.S., helping to establish or bolster the careers of vocalists including Al Jarreau, Anita Baker, Chaka Khan, and Sade. Smooth Jazz, also sometimes referred to as new adult contemporary music,[1] is generally described as a genre of music that utilizes instruments (and, at times, improvisation) traditionally associated with jazz and stylistic influences drawn from mostly R&B, but also funk and pop. ... Grover Washington, Jr. ... For the WFMU DJ, see Kenneth Goldsmith. ... Jerome Najee Rasheed (born November 4, 1957) is a smooth jazz artist. ... Smokey Robinsons 1975 hit single provided the name for the quiet storm radio programming format and the music category. ... Alwyn Lopez Al Jarreau (born March 12, 1940) is an American singer. ... Anita Baker (born January 26, 1958) is a eight-time Grammy Award-winning, multi-Platinum rhythm and blues and soul singer and songwriter, renowned for her soaring alto vocal range. ... Chaka Khan (born March 23, 1953) is an American singer first featured as a member of the funk band Rufus, who later became a successful solo artist. ... Sade can mean: Sade (movie) starring French actor Daniel Auteuil. ...


In the late 1980s and early 1990s, several subgenres fused jazz with popular music, such as Acid jazz, nu jazz, and jazz rap. Acid jazz and nu jazz combined elements of jazz and modern forms of electronic dance music. While nu jazz is influenced by jazz harmony and melodies, there are usually no improvisational aspects. Jazz rap fused jazz and hip-hop. Gang Starr recorded "Words I Manifest," "Jazz Music," and "Jazz Thing", sampling Charlie Parker and Ramsey Lewis, and collaborating with Branford Marsalis and Terence Blanchard. Beginning in 1993, rapper Guru's Jazzmatazz series used jazz musicians during the studio recordings. Acid jazz (sometimes groove jazz) is a musical genre that combines jazz influences with elements of soul music, funk, disco and hip hop. ... Nu-jazz (sometimes electro-jazz) was coined in the late 1990s to refer to styles which combine jazz textures and sometimes jazz instrumentation with electronic music. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Nu-jazz (sometimes electro-jazz) was coined in the late 1990s to refer to styles which combine jazz textures and sometimes jazz instrumentation with electronic music. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Gang Starr is an influential hip hop group that consists of Guru and DJ Premier from Brooklyn, New York. ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ... Ramsey Emmanuel Lewis, Jr. ... Branford Marsalis. ... Terence Blanchard (b. ... Born July 17, 1966 in Boston, Massachusetts, Guru (and occasionally Baldhead Slick), is an American rapper, and the lyrical half of Gang Starr, together with DJ Premier. ... Name of jazz web site that lists upcoming jazz releases, as well as running capsule reviews of jazz CDs. ...


The more experimental and improvisational end of the spectrum includes Norwegian pianist Bugge Wesseltoft and American bassist Christian McBride. Toward the more pop or dance music end of the spectrum are St Germain who incorporates some live jazz playing with house beats. Radiohead, Björk, and Portishead have also incorporated jazz influences into their music. Jens Christian Bugge Wesseltoft (born February 1, 1964) is a Norwegian jazz musician. ... Christian McBride (born May 31, 1972, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a jazz bassist. ... Saint Germain is the stage name of Ludovic Navarre, a French electronica and nu jazz musican. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Radiohead are an English alternative rock band from Oxfordshire. ... This article is about the musician. ... For the town, see Portishead, Somerset. ...


In the 2000s, straight-ahead jazz continues to appeal to a core of listeners. Well-established jazz musicians whose careers span decades, such as Chick Corea, Jack DeJohnette, Bill Frisell, Charlie Haden, Herbie Hancock, Roy Haynes, Keith Jarrett, Wynton Marsalis, John McLaughlin, Pat Metheny, Paquito D'Rivera, Sonny Rollins, John Scofield, Wayne Shorter, John Surman, Stan Tracey and Jessica Williams continue to perform and record. Some innovative jazz artists to emerge in the 1990s and 2000s with a wide following include Brad Mehldau, Jason Moran, Kurt Rosenwinkel, Robert Glasper, Brian Blade, Stefon Harris, Roy Hargrove, Aaron Goldberg, Vijay Iyer, Chris Potter, Joshua Redman, and Terence Blanchard. Armando Anthony Chick Corea (born June 12, 1941) is a multiple Grammy Award winning American jazz pianist/keyboardist and composer. ... Jack DeJohnette (b. ... William Richard Bill Frisell (born March 18, 1951) is a North American jazz guitarist, progressive folk musician and composer. ... Charles Edward Haden (born August 6, 1937) is a jazz double bassist, probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman. ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... He is equally adept at gracefully backing a singer like Sarah Vaughan or in explosive interactions with the likes of John Coltrane, Chick Corea, Eric Dolphy, or Andrew Hill. ... For other persons named Keith Jarrett, see Keith Jarrett (disambiguation). ... Wynton Learson Marsalis (b. ... Several people are named John McLaughlin: John McLaughlin (musician), an English jazz fusion guitar player. ... Patrick Bruce Metheny (born August 12, 1954 in Lees Summit, Missouri) is an American jazz guitarist and composer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Theodore Walter Sonny Rollins (born September 7, 1930 in New York City) is an American jazz tenor saxophonist. ... John Scofield (born December 26, 1951 in Dayton, Ohio)[1] is an American jazz guitarist and composer, who played and eventually collaborated with Miles Davis, Billy Cobham, Medeski Martin & Wood, and other important artists. ... Wayne Shorter (born August 25, 1933) is an American jazz composer and saxophonist. ... John Douglas Surman (born on 30 August 1944 in Tavistock, England), is a jazz saxophone, clarinet and synthesizer player. ... Stanley William Tracey (born in Tooting, London on December 30, 1926) is a UK jazz pianist and composer, most influenced by Duke Ellington and Thelonious Monk. ... Jessica Williams is an American pianist and composer who has deep roots in the Jazz Tradition and has a style that draws on Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis. ... Brad Mehldau (born August 23, 1970) is an American jazz pianist. ... Jason Moran, 36, (1967 - 2003) was an Australian criminal from Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, and a member of the infamous Moran family, notable for its involvement in the Melbourne underground war. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Robert Glasper (b. ... Brian Blade (born 1970 in Shreveport, Louisiana) is an American jazz drummer and composer. ... Stefon Harris is an American jazz vibraphonist, considered one of the most promising young jazz musicians today. ... Roy Hargrove, born in 1969 in Waco, Texas, has gone from a child prodigy to become an established young jazz trumpeter, with several albums as a leader under his belt. ... Aaron Goldberg (born April 30, 1974 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a jazz pianist based in New York City. ... Vijay Iyer is a New York based pianist and composer. ... Chris Potter (born January 1, 1971) is an American jazz saxophonist, composer, and multi-instrumentalist. ... Joshua Redman (born February 1, 1969) is a prominent American Neo-bop jazz saxophonist who records for Nonesuch Records. ... Terence Blanchard (b. ...


Definition

As the term "jazz" has long been used for a wide variety of styles, a comprehensive definition including all varieties is elusive. While some enthusiasts of certain types of jazz have argued for narrower definitions which exclude many other types of music also commonly known as "jazz", jazz musicians themselves are often reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington summed it up by saying, "It's all music." Some critics have even stated that Ellington's music was not in fact jazz, as by its very definition, according to them, jazz cannot be orchestrated. On the other hand Ellington's friend Earl Hines' s 20 solo "transformative versions" of Ellington compositions (on Earl Hines Plays Duke Ellington recorded in the 1970s) were described by Ben Ratliff, the New York Times jazz critic, as "as good an example of the jazz process as anything out there."[29]
This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, (28 December 1903[1] Duquesne, Pennsylvania – 22 April 1983 in Oakland, California) was one of the most important pianists in the history of jazz. ...


There have long been debates in the jazz community over the definition and the boundaries of “jazz.” In the mid-1930s, New Orleans jazz lovers criticized the "innovations" of the swing era as being contrary to the collective improvisation they saw as essential to "true" jazz. Through the 1940s, '50s and '60s, traditional jazz enthusiasts and Bop enthusiasts criticized each other, often arguing that the other style was somehow not "real" jazz. Although alteration or transformation of jazz by new influences has often been initially criticized as a “debasement,” Andrew Gilbert argues that jazz has the “ability to absorb and transform influences” from diverse musical styles[30].


Commercially-oriented or 'popular' music-influenced forms of jazz have both long been criticized, at least since the emergence of Bop. Traditional jazz enthusiasts have dismissed Bop, the 1970s jazz fusion era [and much else] as a period of commercial debasement of the music. However, according to Bruce Johnson, jazz music has always had a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form" [31].


Gilbert notes that as the notion of a canon of jazz is developing, the “achievements of the past” may be become "…privileged over the idiosyncratic creativity...” and innovation of current artists. Village Voice jazz critic Gary Giddins argues that as the creation and dissemination of jazz is becoming increasingly institutionalized and dominated by major entertainment firms, jazz is facing a "...perilous future of respectability and disinterested acceptance." David Ake warns that the creation of “norms” in jazz and the establishment of a “jazz tradition” may exclude or sideline other newer, avant-garde forms of jazz[31].


One way to get around the definitional problems is to define the term “jazz” more broadly. According to Krin Gabbard “jazz is a construct” or category that, while artificial, still is useful to designate “a number of musics with enough in common part of a coherent tradition”. Travis Jackson also defines jazz in a broader way by stating that it is music that includes qualities such as “ 'swinging', improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being 'open' to different musical possibilities”[31].


Improvisation

Reggie Workman, Pharoah Sanders, and Idris Muhammad, c. 1978
Reggie Workman, Pharoah Sanders, and Idris Muhammad, c. 1978

While jazz may be difficult to define, improvisation is clearly one of its key elements. Early blues was commonly structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, a common element in the African American oral tradition. A form of folk music which rose in part from work songs and field hollers of rural Blacks, early blues was also highly improvisational. These features are fundamental to the nature of jazz. While in European classical music elements of interpretation, ornamentation and accompaniment are sometimes left to the performer's discretion, the performer's primary goal is to play a composition as it was written. photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran jazz File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran jazz File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ... Blues music redirects here. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the 2000s . ...


In jazz, however, the skilled performer will interpret a tune in very individual ways, never playing the same composition exactly the same way twice. Depending upon the performer's mood and personal experience, interactions with fellow musicians, or even members of the audience, a jazz musician/performer may alter melodies, harmonies or time signature at will. European classical music has been said to be a composer's medium. Jazz, however, is often characterized as the product of democratic creativity, interaction and collaboration, placing equal value on the contributions of composer and performer, 'adroitly weigh[ing] the respective claims of the composer and the improviser'.[32]


In New Orleans and Dixieland jazz, performers took turns playing the melody, while others improvised countermelodies. By the swing era, big bands were coming to rely more on arranged music: arrangements were either written or learned by ear and memorized - many early jazz performers could not read music. Individual soloists would improvise within these arrangements. Later, in bebop the focus shifted back towards small groups and minimal arrangements; the melody (known as the "head") would be stated briefly at the start and end of a piece but the core of the performance would be the series of improvisations in the middle. Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... Look up swing, swinging in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A big band, also known as a jazz orchestra, is a large musical ensemble that plays jazz music, especially Swing. ... In music, an arrangement refers either to a rewriting of a piece of existing music with additional new material or to a fleshing-out of a compositional sketch, such as a lead sheet. ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ...


Later styles of jazz such as modal jazz abandoned the strict notion of a chord progression, allowing the individual musicians to improvise even more freely within the context of a given scale or mode.[33] The avant-garde and free jazz idioms permit, even call for, abandoning chords, scales, and rhythmic meters. Modal jazz is jazz played using musical modes rather than chord progressions. ... Avant-jazz (also known as avant-garde jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of avant-garde art music composition with elements of traditional jazz. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Samples

Audio samples of jazz music

Image File history File links SongFromCottonField. ... Bessie Brown (Cleveland, Ohio 1895 - ?), also known as The Original Bessie Brown, was a blues and classic jazz singer. ... Blues music redirects here. ... Image File history File links DukeEllington_TakeTheATrain. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... Swing music, also known as swing jazz, is a form of jazz music that developed during the 1920s and had solidified as a distinctive style by 1935 in the United States. ... Image File history File links CharlieParker_YardbirdSuite. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ... A chord substitution is the use of one chord in the place of another in a chord progression. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... Image File history File links JohnColtrane_MrPC.ogg Excerpt from by John Coltrane, recorded 1960. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... Blues music redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links MahavishnuOrchestra_Birds_of_Fire. ... The original lineup in 1972, featuring Billy Cobham, John McLaughlin, Jerry Goodman, Jan Hammer and Rick Laird. ... Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... Image File history File links CourtneyPine_TheJazzstep. ... Courtney Pine (born 18 March 1964) is a British jazz musician. ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ...

See also

The Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame (AJHoF) was founded in 1978, and opened a museum on September 18, 1993, with a mission It is located in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. // This art-deco museum, housed in the historic Carver Theatre for the Performing Arts in downtown Birmingham, Alabama, honors great jazz... The Premiere Jazz Museum in the United States. ... The Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame is a non-profit organization founded in 1977 to promote greater awareness, knowledge, and appreciation of big band and jazz music.[1] The organization has inducted more than 200 individuals into its Hall of Fame, maintains an extensive biographical database, and aspires... Cape Jazz is a genre of Jazz, similar to the popular music style known as marabi, though more improvisational in character, which is performed in the southern part of Africa. ... Look up cool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... Jazz at Lincoln Center is a new addition to the Lincoln Center performing arts complex, located at 60th Street and Broadway in New York City, slightly south of the main Lincoln Center campus and directly adjacent to Columbus Circle. ... Jazz poetry can be defined as poetry that demonstrates jazz-like rhythm or the feel of improvisation, from an article by Pittsburg State University faculty. ... The Jazzpar Prize (established 1990) is an annual Danish prize within jazz, by some{{fact{{ considered the highest international award. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... Swing music, also known as swing jazz, is a form of jazz music that developed during the 1920s and had solidified as a distinctive style by 1935 in the United States. ... The thirty-two-bar form, often shortened to AABA, is a musical form common in Tin Pan Alley songs, later popular music including rock and pop music, and jazz. ...

Sources

  • Adorno, Theodor. "Prisms." The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA. 1967.
  • Allen, William Francis, Charles Pickard Ware, and Lucy McLim Garrison, eds. 1867. Slave Songs of the United States. New York: A Simpson & Co. Electronic edition, Chapel Hill, N. C.: Academic Affairs Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000.
  • Burns, Ken, and Geoffrey C. Ward. 2000. Jazz—A History of America's Music. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Also: The Jazz Film Project, Inc.
  • Cooke, Mervyn (1999), Jazz, London: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-20318-0.
  • Collier, James Lincoln. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History (Dell Publishing Co., 1978)
  • Davis, Miles. 2005. (2005). Boplicity. ISBN 4-006408-264637.
  • Elsdon, Peter. 2003. "The Cambridge Companion to Jazz, Edited by Mervyn Cooke and David Horn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Review." Frankfürter Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 6:159–75.
  • Gang Starr. 2006. Mass Appeal: The Best of Gang Starr. CD recording 72435-96708-2-9. New York: Virgin Records.
  • Giddins, Gary. 1998. Visions of Jazz: The First Century New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195076753
  • Gridley, Mark C. 2004. Concise Guide to Jazz, fourth edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131826573
  • Kenney, William Howland. 1993. Chicago Jazz: A Cultural History, 1904-1930. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195064534 (cloth); paperback reprint 1994 ISBN 0195092600
  • Oliver, Paul (1970), Savannah Syncopators: African Retentions in the Blues, London: Studio Vista, ISBN 0-289-79827-2.
  • Mandel, Howard. 2007. Miles, Ornette, Cecil: Jazz Beyond Jazz. Routledge. ISBN 0415967147.
  • Porter, Eric. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African American Musicians as Artists, Critics and Activists. University of California Press, Ltd. London, England. 2002.
  • Ratliffe, Ben. 2002. Jazz: A Critic's Guide to the 100 Most Important Recordings. The New York Times Essential Library. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0805070680
  • Scaruffi, Piero: A History of Jazz Music 1900-2000 (Omniware, 2007)
  • Szwed, John Francis. 2000. Jazz 101: A Complete Guide to Learning and Loving Jazz. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 0786884967

Gang Starr is an influential hip hop group that consists of Guru and DJ Premier from Brooklyn, New York. ... Paul Oliver is a researcher at the Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development. ...

References

  1. ^ Understanding Jazz: The Roots of Jazz. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  2. ^ 6. Microtiming Studies. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  3. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 7-9
  4. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 11-14
  5. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 14-17, 27-28
  6. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 18
  7. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 28, 47
  8. ^ Catherine Schmidt-Jones (2006). Ragtime. Connexions. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  9. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 28-29
  10. ^ The First Ragtime Records (1897-1903). Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  11. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 18
  12. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 47, 50
  13. ^ Original Creole Orchestra. The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  14. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 38, 56
  15. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 78
  16. ^ a b Floyd Levin. Jim Europe's 369th Infantry "Hellfighters" Band. The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  17. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 41-42
  18. ^ Tim Gracyk's Phonographs, Singers, and Old Records – Jass in 1916-1917 and Tin Pan Alley. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  19. ^ The First Jazz Records. The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  20. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 44
  21. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 54
  22. ^ Kid Ory. The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved on 2007-10-29.
  23. ^ Bessie Smith. The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved on 2007-10-29.
  24. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 56-59, 78-79, 66-70
  25. ^ Cooke 1999, p. 82-83, 100-103
  26. ^ Template:Http://http://www.redhotjazz.com/lang.html
  27. ^ Crow, Bill (1990). Jazz Anecdotes. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  28. ^ Collier, 1978
  29. ^ Ratliff 2002, 19.
  30. ^ In "Jazz Inc." by Andrew Gilbert, Metro Times, December 23, 1998
  31. ^ a b c In Review of The Cambridge Companion to Jazz by Peter Elsdon, FZMw (Frankfurt Journal of Musicology) No. 6, 2003
  32. ^ Giddins 1998, 70.
  33. ^ (e.g., "So What" on the Miles Davis album Kind of Blue)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Metro Times (originally Detroit Metro Times) is the largest circulating weekly newspaper in the metro Detroit area. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Opening measures of Miles Daviss composition So What of 1959. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Kind of Blue is a jazz album by musician Miles Davis, released on August 17, 1959. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Jazz
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Acid jazz (sometimes groove jazz) is a musical genre that combines jazz influences with elements of soul music, funk, disco and hip hop. ... Asian American jazz is a musical movement in the United States begun in the 20th century by Asian American jazz musicians. ... Avant-jazz (also known as avant-garde jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of avant-garde art music composition with elements of traditional jazz. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... In the wake of fusions decline in the mid-1970s, jazz artists who continued to seek wider audiences began incorporating a variety of popular sounds into their music, forming a group of accessible styles that became known as Crossover Jazz. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... Calypso jazz is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of calypso music with elements of traditional jazz. ... Chamber jazz is a genre of jazz based around small, acoustic-based ensembles where group interplay is important. ... CD reissue of Daviss 1957 LP Birth of the Cool, collecting much of his 1949 to 1950 work. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... Jazz blues or in its second name Jlues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ... Jazz-funk is a sub-genre of jazz music characterized by a strong back beat, electrified sounds. ... Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Latin jazz is the general term given to music that combines rhythms from African and Latin American countries with jazz harmonies from the United States. ... Mainstream jazz is a genre of jazz music that was first used in reference to the playing styles of musicians like Buck Clayton among others; performers who once heralded from the era of big band swing music whom did not abandon swing for bebop, instead performing the music in smaller... Originating in Haiti during the 1960s, the mini-jazz movement was influenced by other Caribbean music styles, the British Invasion, and French pop. ... Modal jazz is jazz played using musical modes rather than chord progressions. ... M-Base is a form of modern jazz music which reached its peak in the mid-to-late-80s and early 90s. ... Nu-jazz (sometimes electro-jazz) was coined in the late 1990s to refer to styles which combine jazz textures and sometimes jazz instrumentation with electronic music. ... Smooth Jazz, also sometimes referred to as new adult contemporary music,[1] is generally described as a genre of music that utilizes instruments (and, at times, improvisation) traditionally associated with jazz and stylistic influences drawn from mostly R&B, but also funk and pop. ... Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong blues and gospel influences in music for small groups featuring keyboards, especially the Hammond organ. ... Ska jazz is a musical form derived by combining the melodic content of jazz with the rhythmical and harmonic content of ska. ... For other uses, see swing. ... Trad jazz, short for traditional jazz is a music genre popular in Britain and Australia from the 1940s onward through the 1950s and which still has enthusiasts today. ... West coast jazz is a form of jazz music that developed around Los Angeles at about the same time as hard bop jazz was developing in New York City, in the 1950s and 1960s. ... Cover from album by Bud Powell. ... Jazz guitar refers to the use of guitar in jazz music. ... Jazz standard refers to a tune that is widely known, performed, and recorded among jazz musicians. ... Jazz royalty is a term that reflects the many great jazz musicians who have some sort of royal title in their names or nicknames. ... A jazz band (or jazz ensemble in western dialects of American English) is a musical ensemble that plays jazz music. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ... The origin of the word jazz is one of the most sought-after word origins in modern American English. ... The following is a list of jazz standards (Note: there is a listing of 1000 jazz standards at www. ... The following is a list of jazz albums, which were initially released on LP records or compact discs. ... Acid jazz Avant-jazz Bebop Dixieland Dixieland revival Calypso jazz Chamber jazz Contemporary jazz Cool jazz Creative jazz Crossover jazz European free jazz Franchesca jazz Free funk Free jazz Groove jazz Gypsy jazz Hard bop Jazz blues Jazz-funk Jazz fusion Jazz rap Jazz rock Kansas City Jazz Latin jazz... This is a list of notable jazz music festivals, broken down geographically. ... // Artel Jazz Club Bulls Head, Barnes (The) Ealing Jazz Club Jazz Cafe Pizza Express Jazz Club [[Ronnie Scott|Ronnie Scotts] Manchester Matt and Phreds Churchill Grounds in Midtown Five Spot in L5P Jazz Door (closed) Lennys on the Turnpike (closed) Lulu Whites (closed) Pauls Mall... This is a list of jazz musicians on whom Wikipedia has articles. ... The following is a list of noted jazz bassists with Wikipedia articles. ... This is an alphabetical list of jazz trumpeters for whom Wikipedia has articles. ... This is a list of jazz saxophonists. ... This list of jazz drummers attempts to include all those for whom Wikipedia has an article. ... See also Jazz guitar Category:Jazz guitarists by genre The following is a list of notable jazz guitarists, including guitarists from related jazz genres such as Western Swing, latin jazz, and jazz-rock fusion. ... This is an alphabetized list of notable pianists who play or played Jazz music. ... A jazz musician is someone who plays or sings jazz music. ... This is an alphabetical list of jazz clarinetists for whom Wikipedia has articles. ... This is a list of notable jazz trombonists: (see also: trombonists, [[Category:Jazz trombonists]], [[Category:Trombonists]], and [[Category:Classical trombonists]] Back to jazz, trombone, or trombonists. ... The following artists and bands have performed jazz fusion. ... The following artists and bands have performed smooth jazz. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cajun Jig, also called Cajun One Step is the simplest one of all Cajun dances. ... Some people use the term for Cajun One Step. ... Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. ... The music of Louisiana can be divided in to three general regions. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... Jazz funeral is a unique American funeral tradition which occurs in New Orleans. ... The Louisiana blues is a type of blues music that is characterized by plodding rhythms that make the sound dark and tense. ... The phrase New Orleans rhythm and blues refers to a type of R&B music from New Orleans, Louisiana, that is characterized by extensive use of piano and horn sections, complex rhythms and celebratory lyrics. ... Second line is a traditional dance style that developed in New Orleans, Louisiana in the mid 1800s. ... The swamp blues is a form of blues music that is highly evolved and specialized. ... Swamp pop musician Jivin Gene, circa 1959. ... Early Creole musicians playing an accordion and a washboard in front of a store, near New Iberia, Louisiana (1938). ... Zydeco as a dance style has its roots in a form of folk dance that corresponds to the heavily syncopated Zydeco music, originated in the beginning of the 20th century among the Francophone Creole peoples of Acadiana (south-west Louisiana). ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Article doesnt appear to meet notability according to WP:NOTFILM and makes no assertions that it does. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ... Blues music redirects here. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. ... Country music, the first half of Billboards country and western music category, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... Honky tonk was originally the name of a type of bar common throughout the southern United States, also Honkatonk or Honkey-tonk. ... Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. ... Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ... The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... IDNIANS SUCK BALLS American Indian music is the musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian tribes and First Nations. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... Swamp pop musician Jivin Gene, circa 1959. ... Tejano (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[1] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... Western swing is, first and foremost, a fusion of country music, several styles of jazz, pop music and blues aimed at dancers. ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... Early Creole musicians playing an accordion and a washboard in front of a store, near New Iberia, Louisiana (1938). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... American history redirects here. ... This is a timeline of United States history. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For colonies not part of the 13 colonies see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 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For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ... // 2000 282,338,631 2010 309,162,581 2020 336,031,546 2030 363,811,435 2040 392,172,658 2050 420,080,587 2060 450,505,985 2070 480,568,004 2080 511,442,859 2090 540,405,985 2100 571,440,474 The US population in 1900 was... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... theSeparation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... “NSA” redirects here. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Union Jack. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... Political Compass. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... This is a list of companies from the United States: #Current companies #Former companies, including acquired and merged ones #By industry #By location #See also Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. ... Population of the United States, 1790 to 2000 The demographics of the United States depict a largely urban nation, with 57 percent of its population living in places more than 100 miles away from the ocean (2003). ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was also known as the New Negro Movement, named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 37 of the 50 states of the United States, as well as by the federal government and the military. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Prohibition in the United States aimed to achieve alcohol abstinence through legal means. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... The Statue of Liberty. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Red Hot Jazz Archive (506 words)
Jazz represented a break from Western musical traditions, where the composer wrote a piece of music on paper and the musicians then tried their best to play exactly what was in the score.
Many of these virtuoso musicians were not good sight readers and some could not read music at all, never the less their playing thrilled audiences and the spontaneous music they created captured a joy and sense of adventure that was an exciting and radical departure from the music of that time.
The second wave of New Orleans Jazz musicians like Joe "King" Oliver, Kid Ory, and Jelly Roll Morton fromed small bands, that took the music of these older men and increased the complexity and dynamic of their music, as well as gaining greater commercial success.
Jazz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5091 words)
Jazz is an original American musical art form originating around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in Western music technique and theory and marked by the profound cultural contributions of African Americans.
At the root of jazz is the blues, the folk music of former enslaved Africans in the U.S. South and their descendants, heavily influenced by West African cultural and musical traditions, that evolved as fl musicians migrated to the cities.
Jazz is often difficult to define, but improvisation is a key element of the form.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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