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Jayhawkers were guerrilla fighters during the American Civil War in Kansas who often clashed with States' Rights and pro-slavery partisans, as well as Missouri militia units. Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is becoming very long. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ...



While the term originated during the Bleeding Kansas Affair, Civil War jayhawkers are to be distinguished from Free State Jayhawkers who fought during Bleeding Kansas, which occurred in the decade leading up to the Civil War. Some Civil War jayhawkers had in fact supported Kansas' admission to the union as a slave state, and had fought on the opposite side from the Free-Staters during the earlier conflict. Rather than anti-slavery sentiment, which motivated the Free-Staters, jayhawker bands organized to prevent and repel possible invasions of Kansas by Missouri bushwhackers. Some of their organizers, such as James Henry Lane, were nonetheless prominent abolitionist politicians. As is often the case in insurgencies, the conflict between bushwhackers and jayhawkers rapidly escalated into a succession of atrocities committed by both sides. Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... Free-Stater was the name given those settlers in Kansas Territory during the Bleeding Kansas era in the 1850s who opposed the extension of slavery to Kansas. ... A slave state was a U.S. state that had legal slavery of African Americans. ... The Bushwackers Luke Williams & Butch Miller The Bushwackers were a professional wrestling tag team that also competed as The Sheepherders. ... James Henry Lane (June 22, 1814 – July 11, 1866) was a United States Senator and Union partisan. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...

Well-known jayhawkers include Lane and Charles "Doc" Jennison. Lane and his band of militants wore red gaiters, earning them the nickname "Redlegs." This moniker is often used interchagably with the term "jayhawkers," although it is sometimes used to refer specifically to jayhawkers who refused to join units officially sanctioned by the U.S. Army. Guerrillas on both sides of the Missouri-Kansas border achieved some measure of legitimacy through sanction from the Federal and Confederate governments, and the bands who scorned such sanction were typically even more vicious and indiscriminate in their methods than their bureaucratically recognized counterparts. Even within Kansas, the jayhawkers were not always popular because, in the absence of federal support, they supplied themselves by stealing horses and supplies from farmers.

Jayhawker bands waged numerous invasions of Missouri and also committed some of the most notorious atrocities of the Civil War, including the Lane-led massacre at Osceola, Missouri, in which the entire town was set aflame and at least 9 of the male residents killed. The sacking of Osceola inspired the 1976 film The Outlaw Josey Wales, directed by and starring Clint Eastwood. Jayhawkers also were accused of engineering the collapse of a jail in Kansas City in which female relatives of bushwhackers were incarcerated by Union sympathizers because of their connection to pro-Confederate guerrillas. These two incidents were prior to the Lawrence Massacre in Lawrence, Kansas, led by William Quantrill and his band of bushwhackers, who retaliated (according to apologist of Quantrill) by setting the town on fire and killing an estimated 200 male residents. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Film box cover Screenshot from film The Outlaw Josey Wales is a 1976 western movie set at the end of the American Civil War in which a peaceful farmsteader, driven to revenge by the savage and brutal slaying of his family by Union irregulars, joins up with a group of... Clint Eastwood (born Clinton Eastwood, Jr. ... Kansas City is the third largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Wyandotte County; it is part of the Unified Government [1] which also includes the cities of Bonner Springs and Edwardsville. ... In the United States, on August 21, 1863, bushwacker, pro-slavery and possibly bandit elements led by William Quantrill invaded the town of Lawrence, Kansas, burned it to the ground, and murdered more than 150 to 200 people. ... Lawrence is a river city in Douglas County, Kansas, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kaw and Wakarusa Rivers. ... William Clark Quantrill of Quantrills Raiders William Clarke Quantrill (July 31, 1837 – June 6, 1865), was a pro-Confederate guerrilla fighter during the American Civil War whose actions, particularly a bloody raid on Lawrence, Kansas, remain controversial to this day. ...

Cultural influence

  • The sports teams at the University of Kansas in Lawrence are known as the Jayhawks. The Jayhawk is a mythical bird, a cross between a blue jay and a sparrow hawk.
  • A cattle-drive being held up by Jayhawkers is depicted in The Tall Men.
  • A minor character in the movie Glory was referred to as a "real Jayhawker from Kansas."
  • Abolitionists were referred to as "Jayhawkers" or "Red Legs" and both are still used as terms of derision towards those from Kansas.
  • Items stolen in raids into Missouri were frequently referred to as having been "Jayhawked."

The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ... The sports teams at the University of Kansas are known as the Jayhawks. ... Original movie poster The Tall Men is a 1955 western movie made by 20th Century Fox. ... Glory is a 1989 drama based on the history of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment during the American Civil War. ...


  • Castel, Albert (1997). Civil War in Kansas: Reaping the Whirlwind. (ISBN 0-7006-0872-9)
  • Kerrihard, Bo. "America's Civil War: Missouri and Kansas." TheHistoryNet.
  • Starr, Steven J (1974). Jennison's Jayhawkers: A Civil War Cavalry Regiment and its Commander. (ISBN 0-8071-0218-0)

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Jayhawks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (298 words)
The Jayhawk is the mascot of the sports teams of the University of Kansas, who are also known as the Jayhawks.
The Jayhawk has become an unofficial state bird of Kansas, and is a nickname used for Kansans.
The Jayhawks are a high school team from Linn County, south of Kansas City.
HH-60J Jayhawk (695 words)
In 1986 the HH-60 Jayhawk was selected to replace the aging HH-3F Pelican as the Coast Guard's medium range helicopter.
Jayhawks have replaced the Sikorsky HH-3F Pelican helicopters that the Coast Guard has used for over 20 years.
The JAYHAWK is a variant of the Sikorsky H-60 product line currently used by all five branches of the US military along with 25 governments across the world.
  More results at FactBites »



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