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Encyclopedia > Jaya Prakash Narayan
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Jaya Prakash Narayan, simply known at times as J.P., was an Indian freedom-fighter, socialist politician and social activist. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Cover of the book Jayaprakash by Lakshminarayan Lal. ...

Rising as a young radical in the Congress Party of the 1930s, Narayan conceived the Congress Socialist Party, a bloc of Congressmen adhering to Marxist ideals. Narayan grew close to Jawaharlal Nehru, and often spoke critically of the elder leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel. He agitated for complete independence when many others were talking simply of dominion status within the Empire, and was frequently arrested during the civil disobedience movements of the 1920s and 1930s. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू, Javāharlāl NehrÅ«) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for Indias independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel, was an Indian statesman, an important leader of the Indian National Congress and the deputy Prime Minister in the first cabinet of Independent India. ...

Narayan backed an all-out civil disobedience movement against the British Empire in 1942, as he opposed Britain's arbitrary decision to involve India in the World War, and refusal to grant constitutional freedom to the country, and was arrested in the Quit India movement. He also opposed the Partition of India in 1947. The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ... The Partition of India was the process by which British dependencies and treaty states in the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in the 1940s. ...

Narayan left the Congress Party in 1948 and formed the Praja (Public) Socialist Party, committed to more radical socialist economic and social policies which even Nehru's Congress Party was averse to. The party failed to build a cohesive, popular base, and Narayan "retired" from politics in 1953, committing himself to social causes and the peaceful, concialiatory land-distribution movement, aimed at empowering landless farmers by convincing large landlords to pass ownership by friendly negotiations and conciliation, much different to Mao's and Stalin's class warfare. Narayan also famously obtained surrenders from Mumbai's smuggling syndicate bosses, striking a deal allowing them to return to normal civilian life with respect, if they gave up their illegal businesses and embraced the law. He earned the popular title of "Lok Nayak" (People's "Justice-giver"). Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay (IPA: ), is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ...

After 1971, Narayan became a fierce critic of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, accusing her of authoritarianism, corruption and abuse of power, and eroding the people's freedom that was achieved in 1947. After Indira Gandhi was convicted by the Allahabad High Court in 1974 of abuse of government machinery for political purposes, Narayan began encouraging protests and strikes across the country. He even publicly called upon the Army to disobey the PM's orders and dislodge her from power. Narayan's protestors surrounded the PM's residence and the Parliament, virtually holding the administration under siege, prompting the Prime Minister to promulgate national emergency. Narayan, already ailing with multiple and serious ailments, including failing kidneys, was arrested. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (इन्दिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गान्धी) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and from January 14, 1980 until her assassination in 1984. ...

When Indira Gandhi called fresh elections and lifted emergency in 1977, Narayan became the Godfather of the collage of opposition parties, and an iconic figure for the people of the country. The spiritual leader of the Janata Party alliance, Narayan was the adhesive that kept together scores of regional parties, ideological adversaries and machine political groups. When the Janata coalition defeated Indira's Congress Party in a landslide, it was left upto Narayan to pick the new Prime Minister, as no party in the Janata alliance had any distinct advantage over another. Picking Morarji Desai, Narayan receeded to the backseat once more. The Janata Party was an Indian pizza party, formed in 1977 through the fusion of four major opposition parties, namely the Bharatiya Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Organisation), Bharatiya Jan Sangh and the Socialist Party. ... Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995) was an Indian politician and the first non-Congress Party Prime Minister of India. ...

However, just as the Janata alliance began to fall apart in 1979, Narayan died, having suffered from serious ailments and failing health for the past 2 years since his retirement from public life. Within months of his death, his old rival Indira Gandhi had led her Congress (I) Party to a landslide victory in national elections, and was Prime Minister again.

J.P. Narayan is remembered as an idealist, a radical, a man of the people. His early retirement from active politics saved him from the disrepute and ignominy earned by so many others in the chaotic, corrupt world of government, and his work for social causes gave him a saint-like image, effective as reminiscence of Mahatma Gandhi to a nation exhausted with incompetent politicians. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for Indias independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Janata Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1133 words)
Former freedom fighter Jaya Prakash Narayan alleged that Indira was destroying India's democracy and economy.
Narayan received open support from the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the Indian National Congress (Organisation).
Narayan was asked to select one of three major leaders to become the Prime Minister of India.
Jayaprakash Narayan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (941 words)
Jayaprakash Narayan (जयप्रकाश नारायण; October 11, 1902 - October 8, 1979), widely known as JP, was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s.
He was born in Sitabdiara, village in Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh, and did his higher studies including his Ph.D in politics and sociology in the United States.
During the Quit India movement of 1942, when senior Congress leaders were arrested in the early stages, JP, Lohia and Basawon Singh (Sinha) were at the forefront of the agitations.
  More results at FactBites »



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