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Encyclopedia > Jawaharlal Nehru
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru

In office
15 August 1947 – 27 May 1964
President Rajendra Prasad and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Preceded by Postition Created
Succeeded by Gulzarilal Nanda (Interim)

In office
15 August 1947 – 27 May 1964
Preceded by Postition Created
Succeeded by Gulzarilal Nanda

In office
8 October 1958 – 17 November 1959
Preceded by T. T. Krishnamachari
Succeeded by Morarji Desai

Born 14 November 1889(1889-11-14)
Allahabad, United Provinces, British India
Died May 27, 1964 (aged 74)
New Delhi, India
Spouse Kamala Nehru
Children Indira Gandhi
Profession Barrister
Religion Agnostic[1] or Atheist[2]

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: जवाहरलाल नेहरू, IPA: [dʒəvaːhərlaːl nehruː] (November 14, 1889May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was also a key figure in international politics in the post-war period (in which he was considered the leader of third world interests) and patriarch of the Nehru-Gandhi family, one of the most influential forces in Indian politics. He is popularly referred to as Panditji (Scholar) and Pandit Nehru. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan ,Tamil:(சர்வேபள்ளி ராதாகிருஷ்ணன்), (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975), was a philosopher and statesman. ... Gulzarilal Nanda (Hindi: ) (July 4, 1898 - January 15, 1998) was an Indian politician. ... The External Affairs Minister or the Indian Foreign Minister is a position of office at cabinet level within the Government of India. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Gulzarilal Nanda (Hindi: ) (July 4, 1898 - January 15, 1998) was an Indian politician. ... The Finance Minister of India is a cabinet position in the Government of India. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachariar (1899-1974) was the Indian Finance Minister from 1956-1958 and from 1964-1966. ... Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (Hindi: ) (February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995) was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Prime Minister that did not belong to the Indian Congress Party. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Kamala Kaul Nehru (1899–1936) was the wife of Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress and first Prime Minister of India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The son of the wealthy Indian barrister and politician Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the left-wing of the Indian National Congress at a remarkably young age. Rising to Congress President under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was a charismatic, radical leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire, and was eventually recognised as Gandhi's political heir. A life-long liberal intellectually, Nehru was also an advocate for Fabian socialism and the public sector as the means by which long-standing challenges of economic development could be addressed. // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... The President of the All India Congress Committee, and therefore of the Congress Party as a whole, is known as the Congress President. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Self rule is the term used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning in the late 19th century and then up to World War I. Similar societies exist in Australia and New Zealand. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


Serving as Congress President, Nehru raised the flag of independent India in New Delhi on August 15, 1947, and served as Prime Minister. His daughter Indira and grandson Rajiv would both also serve as Prime Minister and President of the Indian National Congress, as would Rajiv's wife Sonia. His long tenure was instrumental in shaping the traditions and structures of independent India. The President of the All India Congress Committee, and therefore of the Congress Party as a whole, is known as the Congress President. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ...

Contents

Early life

Nehru at Harrow when he was 15.
Nehru at Harrow when he was 15.

Jawaharlal Nehru was born in the city of Allahabad, situated along the banks of the Ganges River (now in the state of Uttar Pradesh)[3]. He was the eldest child of Swarup Rani, the wife of wealthy barrister Motilal Nehru. The Nehru family descended from Kashmiri heritage and belonged to the Saraswat Brahmin caste of Hindus. Training as a lawyer, Motilal had moved to Allahabad and developed a successful practise and had become active in India's largest political party, the Indian National Congress. Nehru and his sisters — Vijaya Lakshmi and Krishna — lived in a large mansion called Anand Bhavan and were raised with English customs, mannerisms and dress. While learning Hindi and Sanskrit, the Nehru children would be trained to converse fluently and regularly in English. Image File history File links Jawaharlal_Nehru_at_Harrow_at_15. ... Image File history File links Jawaharlal_Nehru_at_Harrow_at_15. ... Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is an independent school for boys (aged 13-18), and is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the river. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation). ... Original Kashmiri Pandit (Hindi: ) refers to a person who belongs to a sect of Hindu Pandits who originate from the Kashmir region. ... The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Vijaya Lakshmi Nehru Pandit (विजयलक्ष्मी नेहरू पंडित) (1900 - 1990) was an Indian diplomat and politician, sister of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the first female President of the United Nations General Assembly. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Jawaharlal and Kamala at their wedding.
Jawaharlal and Kamala at their wedding.

After being tutored at home and attending some of the most modern schools in India, Nehru travelled to England at the age of 15 to attend Harrow. Jawaharlal - nicknamed 'Joe' at school - proceeded to study natural sciences at Trinity College, Cambridge before choosing to train as a barrister at the Inner Temple in London. Frequenting the theatres, museums and opera houses of London, he would spend his vacations travelling across Europe. Observers later described him as an elegant, charming young intellectual and socialite. Nehru also actively participated in the political activities of the Indian student community, growing increasingly attracted to socialism and liberalism, which were beginning to influence the politics and economies of Europe. Image File history File links Nehru1A.jpg‎ Source:[1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Nehru1A.jpg‎ Source:[1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is an independent school for boys (aged 13-18), and is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Upon his return to India, Nehru's marriage was arranged with Kamala Kaul. Married on February 8, 1916, Nehru was 27 and his bride was 17 years old, at the time. The first few years of their marriage were hampered by the cultural gulf between the anglicized Nehru and Kamala, who observed Hindu traditions and focused on family affairs. The following year Kamala gave birth to their only child, their daughter Indira Priyadarshini. Having made few attempts to establish himself in a legal practise, Nehru was immediately attracted to Indian political life, which at the time was emerging from divisions over World War I. The moderate and extremist factions of the Congress had reunited in its 1916 session in Lucknow, and Indian politicians had demanded Home Rule and dominion status for India. Joining the Congress under the patronage of his father, Nehru grew increasingly disillusioned with the liberal and anglicized nature of Congress politicians, which included his father. Although frequently hailed as a future leader of the Congress and India, Nehru's political rise did not begin until the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi on India's political arena.[citation needed] Kamala Kaul Nehru (1899–1936) was the wife of Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress and first Prime Minister of India. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


Young leader

Nehru was very strongly attracted to Gandhi's philosophy and leadership. Gandhi had led a successful rebellion on behalf of indentured Indian workers while a lawyer in South Africa. Upon his return to India, Gandhi organised the peasants and farmers of Champaran and Kheda in successful rebellions against oppressive tax policies levied by the British. Gandhi espoused what he termed as satyagraha — mass civil disobedience governed by ahimsa, or complete non-violence. A forceful exponent of Indian self-reliance, Gandhi's success electrified Indians, who had been divided in their approach to contesting British rule. Having met Gandhi and learning his ideas, Nehru assisted him during the Champaran agitation. Champaran was once an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. ... Kheda is a town in the Gujarat state of India. ... The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ...

The family of Motilal Nehru, with Jawaharlal, his wife Kamala and daughter Indira.
The family of Motilal Nehru, with Jawaharlal, his wife Kamala and daughter Indira.

Following Gandhi's example, Nehru and his family abandoned their Western-style clothes, possessions and wealthy lifestyle. Wearing clothes spun out of khadi, Nehru emerged as one of the most energetic supporters of Gandhi. Under Gandhi's influence, Nehru began studying the Bhagavad Gita and practiced yoga throughout his life. He would increasingly look to Gandhi for advice and guidance in his personal life, and would spend a lot of time travelling and living with Gandhi. Nehru travelled across India delivering political speeches aimed at recruiting India's masses, especially its youth into the agitation launched in 1919 against the Rowlatt Acts and the Khilafat struggle. He spoke passionately and forcefully to encourage Hindu-Muslim unity, spread education and self-reliance and the need to eradicate social evils such as untouchability, poverty, ignorance and unemployment. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (856 × 640 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (856 × 640 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... khadi simply means cotton Khadi is Indian handspun and hand-woven cloth. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ... The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ...

Young Nehru.

Emerging as a key orator and prominent organiser, Nehru became one of the most popular political leaders in northern India, especially with the people of the United Provinces, Bihar and the Central Provinces. His youth and passion for social justice and equality attracted India's Muslims, women and other minorities. Nehru's role grew especially important following the arrest of senior leaders such as Gandhi and his father, and he was also imprisoned along with his mother and sisters for many months. Alarmed by growing violence in the conduct of mass agitations, Gandhi suspended the struggle after the killing of 22 state policemen by a mob at Chauri Chaura on February 4, 1922. This sudden move disillusioned some, including Nehru's father Motilal, who joined the newly formed Swaraj Party in 1923. However, Nehru remained loyal to Gandhi and publicly supported him. Image File history File links Nehru. ... Image File history File links Nehru. ... The United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden/Provinciën, Republic of the Seven United Netherlands/Provinces — 1581–1795) was a European republic which is now known as the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... Chauri Chaura is a town near Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, where, in February 1922, an occupied police chowki (small hut) was set on fire by a nationalist mob, killing 22 of the police occupants. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Swaraj Party, a political party of colonial India, was organized in 1923 by Deshbandhu Chitaranjan Das (1870-1925) and Motilal Nehru (1861-1931), to participate in legislative councils. ...


A lull in nationalist activities enabled Nehru to turn his attention to social causes and local government. In 1924, he was elected president of the municipal corporation of Allahabad, serving as the city's chief executive for two years. Nehru launched ambitious schemes to promote education, sanitation, expand water and electricity supply and reduce unemployment — his ideas and experience proved valuable to him when he would assume charge of India's government in 1947. Achieving some success, Nehru was dissatisfied and angered by the obstruction of British officials and corruption amongst civil servants. He resigned from his position within two years. A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


In the early part of the decade, his marriage and family life had suffered owing to the constant activity on his part and that of his father. Although facing domestic pressures and tensions in the absence of her husband, Kamala would increasingly travel with Nehru, address public meetings and seek to sponsor and encourage nationalist activities in her hometown. In the late 1920s, the initial marital gulf between the two disappeared and the couple grew closer to each other and their daughter. In 1926 Nehru took his wife and daughter to Europe so that Kamala could receive special medical care. The family travelled and lived in England, Switzerland, France and Germany. Continuing his political work, Nehru was deeply impressed by the rising currents of radical socialism in Europe, and delivered fervent speeches in condemnation of imperialism. On a visit to the Soviet Union, Nehru was favourably impressed by the command economy, but grew critical of Stalin's totalitarianism. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


Congress President

Nehru and Gandhi.

In the 1920s, Nehru was elected president of the All India Trade Unions Congress. He and Subhash Chandra Bose had become the most prominent youth leaders, and both demanded outright political independence of India. In 1927, he became a member of the League against Imperialism created in Brussels. Nehru criticised the Nehru Report prepared by his father in 1928, which called for dominion status for India within the British Empire. The radicalism of Nehru and Bose would provoke intense debates during the 1928 Congress session in Guwahati. Arguing that India would deliver an ultimatum to the British and prepare for mass struggle, Nehru and Bose won the hearts of many young Indians. To resolve the issue, Gandhi said that the British would be given two years to grant India dominion status. If they did not, the Indian National Congress (INC) would launch a national struggle for full political independence. Nehru and Bose succeeded in reducing the statutory deadline to one year. The President of the All India Congress Committee, and therefore of the Congress Party as a whole, is known as the Congress President. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nehru_Gandhi_1937_touchup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nehru_Gandhi_1937_touchup. ... Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) is the trade union wing of the Indian National Congress. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... The League against Imperialism (French: Ligue contre limpérialisme et loppression coloniale) was founded in the Egmont Palace in Brussels, Belgium, on February 10, 1927, in presence of 175 delegates, among which 107 came from 37 countries under colonial rule. ... The Nehru Report (1928) was a memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion (see dominion status) constitution for India. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ...


The failure of talks with the British caused the December 1929 session in Lahore to be held in an atmosphere charged with anti-Empire sentiment. Preparing for the declaration of independence, the AICC elected Jawaharlal Nehru as Congress President at the encouragement of Gandhi. Nehru himself recalled that he was sensible of the fact that it was considered somewhat surprising:   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...

"I have seldom felt quite so annoyed and humiliated... It is not that I was not sensible of the honour... But I did not come to it by the main entrance or even the side entrance: I appeared suddenly from a trap door and bewildered the audience into acceptance."

On December 31, 1929 President Nehru hoisted the flag of independence before a massive public gathering along the banks of the Ravi River. The Congress would promulgate the Purna Swaraj (Complete Independence) declaration on January 26, 1930. With the launching of the Salt Satyagraha in 1930, Nehru travelled across Gujarat and other parts of the country participating and encouraging in the mass rebellion against the salt tax. Despite his father's death in 1931, Nehru and his family remained at the forefront of the struggle. Arrested with his wife and sisters, Nehru was imprisoned for all but four months between 1931 and 1935. During that same period, however, his popularity grew enormously. According to John Gunther, Nehru was both "distrustful of it, while simultaneously unable to control being somewhat " exhilarated and impressed". is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... John Gunther (August 30, 1901 – May 29, 1970) was an American journalist and author whose success came primarily in the 1940s and 1950s with a series of popular sociopolitical works known as the Inside books. ...

His family quickly chastened him with raillery; his wife and sisters, and even his small daughter, began to call him in the home the names he was given by the crowd. They would say, "Oh Jewel of India, what time is it?" or "Oh Embodiment of Sacrifice, please pass the bread."[4]

Nehru and Gandhi at the 1942 Congress in Bombay.
Nehru and Gandhi at the 1942 Congress in Bombay.

Nehru was released by the British and he traveled with his family once again to Europe in 1935, where his ailing wife Kamala would remain bed-ridden. Torn between the freedom struggle and tending to his wife, Nehru would travel back and forth between India and Europe. Kamala Nehru died on February 28, 1936. Deeply saddened, Nehru nevertheless continued to maintain a hectic schedule. He would always wear a fresh rose in his coat for the remainder of his life in her memory. Image File history File links Nehru_Gandhi_1942. ... Image File history File links Nehru_Gandhi_1942. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ...


His popularity continued to grow, and his personal discomfort with that popularity rose with it. In the November, 1937 issue of the Calcutta-based journal Modern Review, an article entitled 'The Rashtrapati' severely criticized him. The anonymous author acknowledged Nehru's initiative and innate drive but also pointed out glaring streaks of autocracy, saying that his character was marked by "intolerance of others and a certain contempt for the weak and inefficient". The author, who signed himself "Chanakya", added that Nehru's conceit was "already formidable", and worried that soon "Jawaharlal might fancy himself as a Caesar". It was not suspected at the time that Chanakya was Nehru himself. This publication is a significantly important example of autocritique.[5] Modern Review was the name of a monthly magazine published in Calcutta since 1907. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ...



Nehru had been re-elected Indian National Congress(INC) President in 1936, and had presided over its session in Lucknow. Here he participated in a fierce debate with Gandhi, Patel and other Congress leaders over the adoption of socialism as the official goal of the party. Younger socialists such as Jaya Prakash Narayan, Mridula Sarabhai, Narendra Dev and Asoka Mehta began to see Nehru as leader of Congress socialists.[citation needed] Under their pressure, the Congress passed the Avadi Resolution proclaiming socialism as the model for India's future government. Nehru was re-elected the following year, and oversaw the Congress national campaign for the 1937 elections. Largely leaving political organisation work to others, Nehru travelled the length and breadth of the country, exhorting the masses on behalf of the Congress, which would win an outright majority in the central and most of the provincial legislatures. Although he did not contest elections himself, Nehru was seen by the national media as the leader of the Congress.[citation needed] Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jayaprakash Narayan. ... Mridula Sarabhai was born (1911) in Ahmedabad, India to an affluent business family. ... Acharya Narendra Deva (1889-1956) was one of the leading theorists of the Congress Socialist Party. ... Asoka Mehta was an Indian freedom fighter and a socialist politician. ...

Jawaharlal Nehru sitting next to Mahatma Gandhi at the AICC General Session, 1942
Jawaharlal Nehru sitting next to Mahatma Gandhi at the AICC General Session, 1942
Maulana Azad and Nehru.
Maulana Azad and Nehru.

At the outbreak of World War II, the Assemblies were informed that the Viceroy had unilaterally declared war on the Axis on behalf of India, without consulting the people's representatives. Outraged at the viceroy's arbitrary decision, all elected Congressmen resigned from their offices at the instigation of Subhash Bose and Nehru. But even as Bose would call for an outright revolt and would proceed to seek the aid of Nazi Germany and Japan, Nehru remained sympathetic to the British cause. He joined Maulana Azad, Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari and Patel in offering Congress support for the war effort in return for a commitment from the British to grant independence after the war. In doing so, Nehru broke ranks with Gandhi[citation needed], who had resisted in supporting war and remained suspicious of the British.[citation needed] The failure of negotiations and Britain's refusal to concede independence outraged the nationalist movement. Gandhi and Patel called for an all-out rebellion, a demand that was opposed by Rajagopalachari and resisted by Nehru and Azad. After intensive debates and heated discussions, the Congress leaders called for the British to Quit India — to transfer power to Indian hands immediately or face a mass rebellion. Despite his skepticism, Nehru travelled the country to exhort India's masses into rebellion. He was arrested with the entire Congress Working Committee on August 9, 1942 and transported to a maximum security prison at a fort in Ahmednagar. Here he remained incarcerated with his colleagues till June 1945. His daughter Indira and her husband Feroze Gandhi were also imprisoned for a few months. Nehru's first grandchild, Rajiv Gandhi was born in 1944. After his release from prison at the end of the Second World War, Nehru immediately resumed his political work and toured through India preparing grounds for the elections that had been promised for 1946. In October 1945, with the decisions to carry on with the INA trials announced, Nehru was instrumental in announcing the formation of the INA Defence Committee for the defence of the officers of the Indian National Army who faced court Martial in Delhi. Nehru chaired the INA Defence Committee and the legal defence team, while at the same time carrying on with his political work.[6] Image File history File links Nehruwithgandhi1942. ... Image File history File links Nehruwithgandhi1942. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Image File history File links Maulana_abul_kalam_azad. ... Image File history File links Maulana_abul_kalam_azad. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ... The executive committee of the Congress Party in India, typically consisting of fifteen members elected from the All India Congress Committee or AICC, is known as the Congress Working Committee or CWC. It is headed by the Working President. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ... Feroze Gandhi (born 12 August 1912; died 8 September 1960) was an Indian politician and journalist of Parsi-Zoroastrian descent [1] He was the husband of Indira Gandhi, the former Prime Minister of India and daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Indian Prime Minister. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The INA trials or the Red Fort Trials refer to the courts martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army between November 1945 and May 1946 variously for treason, torture, murder and abettment to murder. ... The INA Defence Committee, later the INA Defence and Relief Committee, was a committee established by the Indian National Congress in 1945 to defend those officers of the Indian National Army who were to be charged during the INA trials. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... The INA Defence Committee, later the INA Defence and Relief Committee, was a committee established by the Indian National Congress in 1945 to defend those officers of the Indian National Army who were to be charged during the INA trials. ...


India's First Prime Minister

Teen Murti Bhavan, Nehru's residence as Prime Minister, now a museum in his memory.
Teen Murti Bhavan, Nehru's residence as Prime Minister, now a museum in his memory.

Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to propose plans for transfer of power. The Congress held a presidential election in the knowledge that its chosen leader would become India's head of government. British India (1934 - 1947). ...


Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, which was impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and political disorder, and the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India as per a plan released by the British on June 3, 1947. He would take office as the Prime Minister of India on August 15, and delivered his inaugural address titled "A Tryst With Destiny:" The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was a Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is under construction. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity."[7]

However, this period was marked with intense communal violence. This violence swept across the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and other parts of India. Nehru conducted joint tours[citation needed] with Pakistani leaders to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusioned refugees. Nehru would work with Maulana Azad and other Muslim leaders to safeguard and encourage Muslims to remain in India. The violence of the time deeply affected Nehru, who called for a ceasefire[citation needed] and UN intervention to stop the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fearing communal reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in supporting the annexation of Hyderabad State, and clashed with Patel on the Kashmir dispute and relations with Pakistan. Nehru asserted his own control over Kashmir policy while Patel objected to Nehru sidelining his Home Ministry's officials.[8] Nehru felt offended by Patel's decision-making regarding the states' integration without consulting either him or the Cabinet. Patel asked Gandhi to relieve him of his obligation to serve. He knew that he lacked Nehru's youth and popularity, and believed that an open political battle would hurt India. After much personal deliberation and contrary to Patel's prediction, Gandhi on January 30, 1948 told Patel not to leave the Government, and to stay by Nehru's side in joint leadership. A free India, according to Gandhi, desperately needed both Patel and Nehru's joint leadership.[9] This article is about the geographical region. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... For main article about Kashmir see Kashmir // Partition, dispute and war Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Nehru climbs atop the gate at Birla House to announce the death of Gandhi to the crowd outside. This photograph by Henri Cartier-Bresson is one of the most famous images of the 1940s.

Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948. At Gandhi's wake, Nehru and Patel embraced each other and addressed the nation together. Despite working together, the two leaders would clash on various issues. Nehru declined Patel's counsel on sending assistance to Tibet in 1950 with the disputed entrance of the People's Republic of China and ejecting the Portuguese from Goa by military force.[10] The white, palatial house of the business dynasty, Birla, stands just a couple of kilometres from Connought Place, a well-known tourist attraction in the greenest area of Delhi. ... JOE.A LOVES LAUREN.M Henri Cartier-Bresson (August 22, 1908 – August 3, 2004) was a French photographer considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, an early adopter of 35 mm format, and the master of candid photography. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A wake is a ceremony associated with death. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


When Nehru pressured Dr. Rajendra Prasad to decline a nomination to become the first President of India in 1950 in favour of Rajagopalachari, he thus angered the party, which felt Nehru was attempting to impose his will. Nehru sought Patel's help in winning the party over, but Patel declined, and Prasad was duly elected. When Nehru opposed the 1950 Congress presidential candidacy of Purushottam Das Tandon, a conservative Hindu leader, he endorsed Jivatram Kripalani and threatened to resign if Tandon was elected. Patel rejected Nehru's views and endorsed Tandon in Gujarat, in a disputed election where Kripalani received not one vote despite hailing from that state himself.[11] Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Purushottam Das Tandon (August 1, 1882 – July 1, 1962), was a freedom fighter, social reformer and national political leader of India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Jivatram Kripalani, also referred to with the prefix Acharya (Teacher: Hindi), was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, who became a nationwide leader of the Janata Party revolt against the Indian Emergency. ...


In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his personal affairs. Following Patel's death in 1950, Nehru became the most popular and powerful Indian politician. Under his leadership, the Congress won an overwhelming majority in the elections of 1952, in which his son-in-law Feroze Gandhi was also elected. Indira moved into Nehru's official residence to attend to him, inadvertently estranging her husband, who would become a critic of Nehru's government. Nevertheless, Indira would virtually become Nehru's chief of staff and constant companion in his travels across India and the world. In politics, a chief of staff is the primary aide to a political leader or position. ...


Economic policies

Nehru's study in Teen Murti Bhavan
Nehru's study in Teen Murti Bhavan

Nehru presided over the introduction of a modified, "Indian" version of state planning and control over the economy. Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the government's investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural production. He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India. While encouraging the construction of large dams, irrigation works and the generation of hydroelectricity, Nehru also launched India's programme to harness nuclear energy. The Planning Commission is an institution in the Government of India, which formulates Indias Five-Year Plans, among other functions. ... The economy of India is based in part on planning through her five-year plans, developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... Property redistribution is a term applied to various political policies involving taxation or expropriation of property from some in order to finance payments to others. ... A cottage industry is an industry – primarily manufacturing – which includes many producers, working from their homes, typically part time. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ...


For most of Nehru's term as prime minister, India would continue to face serious food shortages despite progress and increases in agricultural production. Nehru's industrial policies encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries, yet state planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth, chronic unemployment amidst entrenched poverty continued to plague the population. Nehru's popularity remained unaffected, and his government succeeded in extending water and electricity supply, health care, roads and infrastructure to a large degree for India's vast rural population.


Education and social reform

Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for India's children and youth, believing it essential for India's future progress. His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of India's children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition. Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas. AIIMS redirects here. ... Location of IITs The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), are an elite group of seven autonomous engineering and technology oriented institutes of higher education established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Government of India. ... Location of IIMs The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are Indias premier business schools that also conduct research and provide consultancy services in the field of management to various sectors of the Indian economy. ...

Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Ghana Premier Kwame Nkrumah enjoying a laugh at Nehru's suite in the Hotel Carlyle, New York City

Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women. A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ...

The founding leaders of the Non-Aligned states meet in New York in October 1960. From left: Nehru of India, Nkrumah of Ghana, Nasser of Egypt, Sukarno of Indonesia and Tito of Yugoslavia.

Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... This article is about the state. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and one of the most influential founders of Pan-Africanism. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

National security and foreign policy

See also: Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement
Jawaharlal Nehru talks to Pakistan prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra during his 1953 visit to Karachi.
Jawaharlal Nehru talks to Pakistan prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra during his 1953 visit to Karachi.

Although having promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N., Nehru grew increasingly wary of the U.N. and declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah, whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Recognising the People's Republic of China soon after its founding (while most of the Western bloc continued relations with the Republic of China), Nehru sought to establish warm and friendly relations with it despite the invasion of Tibet in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. This policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China soon came unraveled when China annexed Aksai Chin, the region of Kashmir adjoining Tibet in 1962 that led to the Sino-Indian war. India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that developed into the Nonaligned Movement. ... Image File history File links 53bogra_nehru. ... Image File history File links 53bogra_nehru. ... Mohammad Ali Bogra Muhammad Ali Bogra (1909 - 1963) was a Pakistani statesman of Bengali origin, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1953 until 1955. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified...


Jawaharlal Nehru declined a United States offer for India to occupy a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council around 1953. Nehru instead suggested that the seat be given to China.[12]


In an interview to the BBC in 1998, George Fernandes, the then defence minister of India, revealed that the Coco Islands were part of India until they were donated to Burma by Nehru. Coco Islands are a pair of strategically important islands located across the 20 km Coco channel from the Indian North Andaman Island and about 300 km south of the Burmese mainland. The Burmese military junta leased the islands to the People's Republic of China in 1994, which promptly setup a signal intelligence gathering station and maritime army base on the islands to monitor Indian naval activity and project power in the Strait of Malacca region of the Bay of Bengal, one of the most sensitive shipping routes in the world.[13] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... George Fernandes (born 3 June 1930) is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... North Andaman Island is the northernmost island of Great Andaman, and also the largest of the Andaman Islands, with an area of 2,781 km². The island is also home to the highest point in the archipelago, Saddle Peak at over 700 metres. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nehru was hailed by many[citation needed] for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons[citation needed]. In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, French and Israelis. Suspicion and distrust cooled relations between India and the U.S., which suspected Nehru of tactily supporting the Soviet Union. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Indus Waters Treaty Historical context The partition of the Indian subcontinent created a conflict over the waters of the Indus basin. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ...


Final years

Public viewing of Nehru's body, which lies in state.
Public viewing of Nehru's body, which lies in state.

Mr. Nehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the 1957 elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotism. Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian treaty over Tibet, in later years, Nehru's foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese antagonism over border disputes and Nehru's decision to grant asylum to the Dalai Lama. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to annex Goa from Portugal in 1961. While increasing his popularity, Nehru received criticism for opting for military action. Image File history File links Nehrudeath. ... Image File history File links Nehrudeath. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence or Pancha Sila (also spelled Panch Sila) are a series of agreements between the Peoples Republic of China and India. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority. Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. Bharatiya Jana Sangh is the old name of Bharatiya Janata Party of India. ... Swatantra Party (swatantra in Hindi means independence) was a political party in India founded by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari in 1959. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ...


In a matter of months, the border disputes with China turned into open conflict. Nehru assumed that as former victims of imperialism (India being a colony itself) they shared a sense of solidarity, as expressed in the phrase "Hindi-Chini bhai bhai" (Indians and Chinese are brothers). He was dedicated to the ideals of brotherhood and solidarity among developing nations. Nehru, naively, did not believe that one fellow Socialist country would attack another; and in any event, he felt secure behind the impregnable wall of ice that is the Himalayas. Both proved to be severe miscalculations of China's intentions and military capabilities. Following reports of his intention to confront Chinese occupation of the disputed areas - summarised in a memorable statement that he had asked the Army to "throw them (Chinese) out" - China launched a pre-emptive attack.[14] A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


In a matter of months, a Chinese invasion of northeastern India exposed the weaknesses of India's military as Chinese forces came as far as Assam. Widely criticised for his government's insufficient attention to defence, Nehru was forced to sack the defence minister Krishna Menon and accept U.S. military aid. Nehru's health began declining steadily, and he was forced to spend months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963. Upon his return from Kashmir in May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack. He died in the early hours of May 27, 1964. Nehru was cremated as per Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... V.K. Krishna Menon Vengalil Krishnan (V.K.) Krishna Menon (May 3, 1897 - October 6, 1974) was an Indian nationalist and politician. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Raj Ghat, Delhi Raj Ghat, a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi is a simple black marble platform that marks the spot of his cremation on 31 January 1948. ... The river Yamuna is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ...


Legacy

Nehru's statue in Aldwych, London.
Nehru's statue in Aldwych, London.

As India's first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern India's government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehru's education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology,[15] the National Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 2157 KB) Summary Statue of Jawaharlal Nehru in Aldwych Photo taken by User:Edward on 19 March 2006 with a Casio EX-S600. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 2157 KB) Summary Statue of Jawaharlal Nehru in Aldwych Photo taken by User:Edward on 19 March 2006 with a Casio EX-S600. ... Aldwych is a place and road in the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Location of IITs The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), are an elite group of seven autonomous engineering and technology oriented institutes of higher education established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Government of India. ... Location of NITs in India National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are premier colleges of engineering and technology education in India. ... Location of IIMs The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are Indias premier business schools that also conduct research and provide consultancy services in the field of management to various sectors of the Indian economy. ...


Nehru is credited for establishing a widespread system of affirmative action to provide equal opportunities and rights for India's ethnic groups, minorities, women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes[16][17]. Nehru's passion for egalitarianism meant that he put the state to work to try and end widespread practices of discrimination against women and depressed classes[18], though with limited success in his lifetime. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... In India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India. ... Ä€divāsÄ«s (आदिवासी) or tribal peoples comprise a substantial minority of the population of India. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ...


Commemoration

Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp
Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp
Nehru Centre in Mumbai.

In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely admired across the world for his idealism and statesmanship. His birthday, November 14, is celebrated in India as Children's Day in recognition of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Children across India are taught to remember him as Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru). Nehru remains a popular symbol of the Congress party which frequently celebrates his memory. Congress leaders and activists often emulate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap, and his mannerisms. Nehru's ideals and policies continue to shape the Congress party's manifesto and core political philosophy. An emotional attachment to his legacy was instrumental in the rise of his daughter Indira to leadership of the Congress party and the national government. State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x1152, 995 KB) Nehru Planetarium. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x1152, 995 KB) Nehru Planetarium. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gandhi cap as worn by Jawaharlal Nehru. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many documentaries about Nehru's life have been produced. He has also been portrayed in fictionalised films. The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him in Richard Attenborough's 1982 film Gandhi and again in Shyam Benegal's Bharat Ek Khoj, based on Nehru's own work. In Ketan Mehta's film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by Benjamin Gilani. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Roshan Seth Roshan Seth (born 17 August 1942) is a British Indian actor. ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE (born 29 August 1923) is an English actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur. ... Gandhi (1982) is a multi-award-winning biopic film about the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (often known as Mahatma Gandhi), who was leader of the nonviolent resistance movement against British colonial rule in India during the first half of the 20th century. ... Shyam Benegal ( श्याम बेनेगल )(born 14 December, 1934 in Alwal, Secunderabad, then a British Cantonment) is a prolific Indian director. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Ketan Mehta - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sardar was a 1993 Hindi language bioepic of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of Indias greatest freedom fighters. ... Benjamin Gilani is a noted Indian actor and thespian. ...


Nehru's personal preference for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered formal wear in North India today; aside from lending his name to a kind of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his honour due to his preference for that style. An old-fashioned Hyderabadi gentleman wearing a formal Sherwani and Fez hat, that is designed by a designer in Lahore, Pakistan Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی ) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. ... The Nehru jacket is an article of clothing that originates in India and became popular in the West in the 1960s. ...


Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehru's memory. The Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi is among the most prestigious universities in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a huge cargo and traffic load. Nehru's residence in Delhi is preserved as the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. The Nehru family homes at Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan are also preserved to commemorate Nehru and his family's legacy. In 1951, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC).[19] The sprawling campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University is located in New Delhi, the capital of India. ... Jawaharlal Nehru Port (also known as Nhava-Sheva) is a port in Maharashtra, India that borders the Arabian Sea. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... St Petersburg Docks in the early morning smog. ... The Teen Murti Bhavan housed the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. ... The Swaraj Bhavan is a large bungalow in Allahabad, India. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... American Friends Service Committee logo The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) affiliated organization which works for social justice, peace and reconciliation, abolition of the death penalty, and human rights, and provides humanitarian relief. ...


See also

  • The Discovery of India written by Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Glimpses of World History written by Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Tryst with destiny the historic speech made by Jawaharlal Nehru, considered in modern India to be a landmark oration that captures the essence of the triumphant culmination of the hundred-year Indian freedom struggle against the British Empire in India.
  • Letters from a Father to His Daughter a collection of letters written by Jawaharlal Nehru to his daughter Indira.

Cover of an edition of the Discovery of India The Discovery of India (भारत एक खोज) was written by Indias first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during his imprisonment in 1942-1946 at Ahmednagar in the Ahmadnagar Fort. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jawaharlal Nehrus tryst with destiny speech Tryst with Destiny was a speech made by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in...

Notes

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  1. ^ Tharoor, Shashi. Gandhi & Nehru. TIME. Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  2. ^ In Jawaharlal Nehru's autobiography, An Autobiography (1936), and in the Last Will & Testament of Jawaharlal Nehru, in Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru, 2nd series, vol. 26, p. 612, Nehru says that he does not believe in a god in any form.
  3. ^ Jawaharlal is from the Persian Javâher-e La'al, meaning 'Red Jewel').
  4. ^ Gunther, John, Inside Asia, p421.
  5. ^ A mask that was pierced?. The Hindu (18/06/2007). Retrieved on 9/5/2007.
  6. ^ NEHRU, JAWAHARLAL. From Encylopædia Britannica India Private Limited.
  7. ^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (2006-08-08). [[1] Wikisource] (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-08-08.
  8. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life, 459. 
  9. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life, 467. 
  10. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life, 508-512. 
  11. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life, 523-524. 
  12. ^ Nehru declined offer of permanent U.N. seat - The Hindu
  13. ^ Coco Island - Chinese Intelligence Agencies
  14. ^ "A powder-keg on the border with China", Rediff, 2008-02-26. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  15. ^ [2] History of IIT Kharagpur, the first IIT
  16. ^ Jackson, Thomas William. From Civil Rights to Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 100. ISBN 0-8122-3969-5. 
  17. ^ Manor, J.; Dua, B.D. (1994). Nehru to the Nineties: The Changing Office of Prime Minister in India. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 240. 
  18. ^ Zachariah, Benjamin (2004). Nehru. New York: Routledge, 265. ISBN 0-415-25016-1. 
  19. ^ AFSC's Past Nobel Nominations

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References

  • A Tryst With Destiny historic speech made by Jawaharlal Nehru on August 14th, 1947
  • Nehru: The Invention of India by Shashi Tharoor (November 2003) Arcade Books ISBN 1-55970-697-X
  • Jawaharlal Nehru (Edited by S. Gopal and Uma Iyengar) (July 2003) The Essential Writings of Jawaharlal Nehru Oxford University Press ISBN 0195653246
  • Autobiography:Toward freedom, Oxford University Press
  • Jawaharlal Nehru: Life and work by M. Chalapathi Rau, National Book Club (January 1, 1966)
  • Jawaharlal Nehru by M. Chalapathi Rau. [New Delhi] Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India [1973]
  • Letters from a father to his daughter by Jawaharlal Nehru, Children's Book Trust
  • Nehru: A Political Biography by Michael Brecher (1959). London:Oxford University Press.
  • After Nehru, Who by Welles Hangen (1963). London: Rupert Hart-Davis.
  • Nehru: The Years of Power by Geoffrey Tyson (1966). London: Pall Mall Press.
  • Independence and After: A collection of the more important speeches of Jawaharlal Nehru from September 1946 to May 1949 (1949). Delhi: The Publications Division, Government of India.

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Manikonda Chalapathi Rau (MC) (1910-1983) was an eminent Indian journalist and an authority on the Nehruvian thought. ...

External links

Preceded by
Post created
Minister for External Affairs of India
1947–1964
Succeeded by
Gulzari Lal Nanda
Preceded by
T. T. Krishnamachari
Finance Minister of India
1958–1959
Succeeded by
Morarji Desai
The Indian Independence League (also known as IIL) was a political organisation operated from the 1920s to the 1940s to organize those living outside of India into seeking the removal of British colonial rule over India. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee (December 29, 1844 - 1906) was the first president of Indian National Congress. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... George Udny Yule (February 18, 1871 – June 26, 1951) was a Scottish statistician. ... Sir Pherozeshah Mehta was an early Indian political leader and social activist, and a renowned and wealthy barrister. ... Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee (December 29, 1844 - 1906) was the first president of Indian National Congress. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... Alfred Webb (1834-1908) was an Irish politician and Member of Parliament for the West Waterford constituency who played a role in every major nationalist organization from Butt’s Home Government Association to the United Irish League. ... Sir Surendranath Banerjea (b. ... Sir C. Sankaran Nair - President of Indian National Congress in 1897. ... N.G. Chandavarkar at the 1900 INC convention in Lahore. ... Dinshaw Edulji Wacha (1844-1936) was aParsi Indian politician from Bombay. ... Sir Surendranath Banerjea (b. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (6 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political leader. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... Satyendra Prasanno Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha of Raipur (24 March 1863 – 5 March 1928) was a prominent lawyer and statesman in British India. ... Annie Besant Plaque on house in Colby Road, London SE19 where Annie Besant lived in 1874. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ... Dr Hakim Ajmal Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, a Muslim doctor and educationalist. ... Chittaranjan Das (C.R.Das) (popularly called Deshbandhu) (November 25, 1870 - June 16, 1925) was a Bengali lawyer and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar (1878 - 4 January 1931), was an Indian Muslim journalist and poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement. ... Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Muslim scholar and a senior political leader of the Indian independence movement. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for Indias independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. ... Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879 - March 2, 1949), known as Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India), was a child prodigy, freedom fighter, and poet. ... S. Srinivasa Iyengar (1874-1941) was a distinguished lawyer, Indian freedom fighter and political leader. ... Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was an Indian nationalist and political leader, and former president of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League during the Indian Independence Movement. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: Vallabhbhāī Paá¹­el, pronounced ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ... Nellie Sengupta (1886-1973) was a Englishwoman who fought for Indian Independence and was elected President of the Indian National Congress // Born Nellie Gray, she was the daughter of Frederick and Edith Henrietta Gray. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... Subhas Chandra Bose, (Bengali: , (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), generally known as Netaji (lit. ... Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Muslim scholar and a senior political leader of the Indian independence movement. ... Jivatram Kripalani, also referred to with the prefix Acharya (Teacher: Hindi), was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, who became a nationwide leader of the Janata Party revolt against the Indian Emergency. ... Dr. Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya (b. ... Purushottam Das Tandon (August 1, 1882 – July 1, 1962), was a freedom fighter, social reformer and national political leader of India. ... CambridgeBayWeather 11:28, 4 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (May 18, 1913 - June 1, 1996 ) was the sixth President of the republic of India from 1977 to 1982. ... Kumaraswami Kamaraj , (Tamil : காமராஜ்) better known as K. Kamaraj (15 July 1903 – 3 October 1975) was an Indian politician widely considered to be a kingmaker in Indian politics, and known for his honesty, integrity and simplicity. ... Siddavanahalli Nijalingappa (December 10, 1902 - August, 2000 was a senior Congress politician and the Chief Minister of Karnataka between 1956 and 1958 and once again between 1962 and 1968. ... Jagjivan Ram (5 April 1908 - 6 July 1986), known popularly as Babuji was a freedom fighter and a social reformer hailing from the backward classes of Bihar in India. ... Shankar Dayal Sharma (August 19, 1918 - December 26, 1999) was the 9th President of republic of India serving from 1992 to 1997. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (Telugu: ) (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was the twelth Prime Minister of the Republic of India[1] and led one of the most important administrations in Indias modern history overseeing a major economic transformation and several incidents affecting national security. ... Sitaram Kesri, was born at Danapur, Patna on November 1919. ... Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jawaharlal Nehru - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4656 words)
Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889, to Swaroop Rani, the wife of Motilal Nehru, a wealthy Allahabad based barrister and political leader himself.
Nehru was arrested in 1930, and during the Salt Satyagraha of 1931 for a number of years.
Nehru was also one of the founding statesmen of the Non Aligned Movement, of Asian and African nations seeking to stay away from the pressures of the alliances created by the USA and USSR.
Nehru - MSN Encarta (1345 words)
Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), Indian nationalist leader and statesman who was the first prime minister of independent India (1947-1964) and a leader of the Nonaligned Movement during the Cold War.
As head of the interim government, Nehru participated in negotiations for a united and federated India that were held in 1946 between the British rulers, the Congress, and the Muslim League.
In January 1964 Nehru suffered a stroke; he died in May. Two years later, Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister of India and held that position for a total of 15 years before she was assassinated by Sikh radicals in 1984.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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