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Encyclopedia > Java (sun)
Java
Author: James Gosling et al
Developer: Sun Microsystems
Latest release: Java 6 Update 3 / October 10, 2007
Genre: Software platform
License: GNU General Public License /
Java Community Process

Java refers to a number of computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems that together provide a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform environment. Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms spanning from embedded devices and mobile phones on the low end to enterprise servers and super computers on the high end. Java is fairly ubiquitous in mobile phones, Web servers and enterprise applications, and somewhat less common on desktop computers, though users may have come across Java applets when browsing the World Wide Web. Image File history File links Java_Logo. ... Software design is the process that starts from a problem for which there is currently no acceptable (software) solution, and ends when such a solution has been created. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Code complete redirects here. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Computer software can be organized into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... GPL redirects here. ... The Java Community Process or JCP, established in 1995, is a formalized process which allows interested parties to be involved in the definition of future versions and features of the Java platform. ... Software redirects here. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. ... An enterprise server is a computer system which performs an essential service for a large organization. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... Enterprise application software is application software that performs business functions such as accounting, production scheduling, customer information tracking, bank account maintenance, and the like. ... Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a computer made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such as laptops or PDAs. ... A Java applet is an applet delivered in the form of Java bytecode. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...


Writing in the Java programming language is the primary way to produce code that will be deployed as Java bytecode, though there are compilers available for other languages such as JavaScript, Python and Ruby, and a native Java scripting language called Groovy. Java syntax borrows heavily from C and C++ but it eliminates certain low-level constructs such as pointers and has a very simple memory model where every object is allocated on the heap and all variables of object types are references. Memory management is handled through integrated automatic garbage collection performed by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Java language redirects here. ... Java bytecode is the form of instructions that the Java virtual machine executes. ... A compiler is a computer program that translates a computer program written in one computer language (called the source language) into an equivalent program written in another computer language (called the output or the target language). ... Rhino is an open source JavaScript engine. ... Jython, formerly known as JPython, is an implementation of the Python programming language written in Java. ... JRuby is a Java implementation of the Ruby interpreter, being developed by the JRuby team. ... Groovy is an object-oriented programming language for the Java Platform as an alternative to the Java programming language. ... // The syntax of the Java programming language is a set of rules that defines how a Java program is written and interpreted. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... In computer science, dynamic memory allocation is the allocation of memory storage for use in a computer program during the runtime of that program. ... This article is about a general notion of reference in computing. ... In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ...


On 13 November 2006 [1], Sun Microsystems made the bulk of its implementation of Java available under the GNU General Public License, although there are still a few parts distributed as precompiled binaries due to intellectual property restrictions. GPL redirects here. ...

Contents

Platform

Java Platform diagram from Sun, Jan 2007

The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or platform, from Sun which allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. The platform is not specific to any one processor or operating system, but rather an execution engine (called a virtual machine) and a compiler with a set of standard libraries which are implemented for various hardware and operating systems so that Java programs can run identically on all of them. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... Java language redirects here. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ...


Different "editions" of the platform are available, including:

  • Java ME (Micro Edition): Specifies several different sets of libraries (known as profiles) for devices which are sufficiently limited that supplying the full set of Java libraries would take up unacceptably large amounts of storage.
  • Java SE (Standard Edition): For general purpose use on desktop PCs, servers and similar devices.
  • Java EE (Enterprise Edition): Java SE plus various APIs useful for multi-tier client-server enterprise applications.

As of December 2006, the current version of the Java Platform is specified as either 1.6.0 or 6 (both refer to the same version). Version 6 is the product version, while 1.6.0 is the developer version. Java Platform, Micro Edition or Java ME (formerly referred to as J2ME), is a runtime and collection of Java APIs for the development of software for resource constrained devices such as PDAs, cell phones and other consumer appliances. ... Java Platform, Standard Edition or Java SE (formerly known up to version 5. ... Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly also J2EE) is a programming platform — part of the Java platform — for developing and running distributed multi-tier architecture applications, based largely on modular components running on an application server. ... In computing, Three-tier is a client-server architecture in which the user interface, functional process logic (business rules) and data storage and data access are developed and maintained as independent modules, most often on separate platforms. ... Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ... Enterprise application software is application software that performs business functions such as accounting, production scheduling, customer information tracking, bank account maintenance, and the like. ... The 2006 Asian Games are officially opened by Qatari emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani at the 50,000 seater Khalifa Sports Stadium in Doha, Qatar. ...


The Java Platform consists of several programs, each of which provides a distinct portion of its overall capabilities. For example, the Java compiler, which converts Java source code into Java bytecode (an intermediate language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)), is provided as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK). The sophisticated Java Runtime Environment (JRE), complementing the JVM with a just-in-time (JIT) compiler, converts intermediate bytecode into native machine code on the fly. Also supplied are extensive libraries (pre-compiled into Java bytecode) containing reusable code, as well as numerous ways for Java applications to be deployed, including being embedded in a web page as an applet. A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun Microsystems product aimed at Java developers. ... Java Logo The Java Runtime Environment, or JRE, or J2RE is a software bundle from Sun Microsystems that allows a computer system to run a Java application. ... For other uses, see Just In Time. ...


There are several other components, some available only in certain editions.


The essential components in the platform are the Java language compiler, the libraries, and the runtime environment in which Java intermediate bytecode "executes" according to the rules laid out in the virtual machine specification.


Java Virtual Machine

Main article: Java Virtual Machine

The heart of the Java Platform is the concept of a "virtual machine" that executes Java bytecode programs. This bytecode is the same no matter what hardware or operating system the program is running under. There is a JIT compiler within the Java Virtual Machine, or JVM. The JIT compiler translates the Java bytecode into native processor instructions at run-time and caches the native code in memory during execution. A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... Java bytecode is the form of instructions that the Java virtual machine executes. ...


The use of bytecode as an intermediate language permits Java programs to run on any platform that has a virtual machine available. The use of a JIT compiler means that Java applications, after a short delay during loading and once they have "warmed up" by being all or mostly JIT-compiled, tend to run about as fast as native programs. Since JRE version 1.2, Sun's JVM implementation has included a just-in-time compiler instead of an interpreter. For other uses, see Just In Time. ...


Class libraries

In most modern operating systems, a large body of reusable code is provided to simplify the programmer's job. This code is typically provided as a set of dynamically loadable libraries that applications can call at runtime. Because the Java Platform is not dependent on any specific operating system, applications cannot rely on any of the existing libraries. Instead, the Java Platform provides a comprehensive set of standard class libraries, containing much of the same reusable functions commonly found in modern operating systems. Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ...


The Java class libraries serve three purposes within the Java Platform. Like other standard code libraries, they provide the programmer a well-known set of functions to perform common tasks, such as maintaining lists of items or performing complex string parsing. In addition, the class libraries provide an abstract interface to tasks that would normally depend heavily on the hardware and operating system. Tasks such as network access and file access are often heavily dependent on the native capabilities of the platform. The Java java.net and java.io libraries implement the required native code internally, then provide a standard interface for the Java applications to perform those tasks. Finally, when some underlying platform does not support all of the features a Java application expects, the class libraries can either emulate those features using whatever is available, or at least provide a consistent way to check for the presence of a specific feature.


Languages

See also: :Category:JVM programming languages

The word Java, by itself, usually refers to the Java programming language which was designed for use with the Java Platform. Programming languages are typically outside of the scope of the phrase "platform", although the Java programming language is listed as a core part of the Java platform. The language and runtime are therefore commonly considered a single unit.


Nevertheless, third parties have produced a number of compilers or interpreters which target the JVM. Some of these are for existing languages, while others are for extensions to the Java language itself. These include: A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that executes, or performs, instructions written in a computer programming language. ...

AspectJ is an aspect-oriented extension to the Java programming language created at Xerox PARC. An AspectJ compiler weaves aspects into Java bytecode to implement crosscutting concerns. ... The Generic Java programming language (Generic Java or GJ) is a superset of the Java programming language which adds support for generic programming. ... In slang and informal language, Groovy refers to a fashionable or desirable quality, without necessarily specifying one. ... BeanShell is a Java scripting language, invented by Pat Niemeyer. ... Jython, formerly known as JPython, is an implementation of the Python programming language written in Java. ... Python is a high-level programming language first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. ... NetRexx is IBMs implementation of the Rexx programming language to run on the Java virtual machine. ... Nice is an advanced object-oriented programming language. ... Pizza is an open-source extension to Java programming language with the following new features: Generics Function pointers Class cases and pattern matching (a. ... Scala is a multi-paradigm programming language designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe way. ... JRuby is a Java implementation of the Ruby interpreter, being developed by the JRuby team. ... Ruby is a reflective, dynamic, object-oriented programming language. ... Sleep is a procedural scripting language inspired by Perl and Objective-C. The only known implementation of the language is written in Java and is intended for embedding into existing Java applications to provide scripting services. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... Objective-C, often referred to as ObjC or more seldomly as Objective C or Obj-C, is an object oriented programming language implemented as an extension to C. It is used primarily on Mac OS X and GNUstep, two environments based on the OpenStep standard, and is the primary language... Rhino is an open source JavaScript engine. ... JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development. ...

Similar platforms

See also: Comparison of the Java and .NET platforms and Comparison of C# and Java

The success of Java and its write once, run anywhere concept has led to other similar efforts, notably the Microsoft .NET platform, appearing since 2002, which incorporates many of the successful aspects of Java. .NET in its complete form (Microsoft's implementation) is currently only fully available on Windows platforms, whereas Java is fully available on many platforms. .NET was built from the ground-up to support multiple programming languages, while the Java platform was initially built to support only the Java language (although many other languages have been made for JVM since). This is a comparison of the . ... This is a comparison of the C# programming language with the Java programming language. ... Write once, run anywhere (WORA), or sometimes also Write once, run everywhere (WORE), is a slogan created by Sun Microsystems to illustrate the cross-platform benefits of the Java language. ... Microsoft . ...


.NET includes an implementation of Java called Visual J# (formerly known as J++) that is not compatible with the Java specification, and the associated class library mostly dates to the old JDK 1.1 version of the language; for these reasons, it is more a transitional language to switch from Java to the Microsoft .NET platform, than a first class Microsoft .NET language. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Microsoft Visual J++ is a compiler and an IDE for, a Java-based programming language, formerly incorporated into Microsoft Visual Studio. ... Microsoft . ... Microsoft . ...


Java Development Kit

Main article: Java Development Kit

The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun product aimed at Java developers. Since the introduction of Java, it has been by far the most widely used Java SDK. It contains a Java compiler and a number of other important development tools as well as a full copy of the Java Runtime Environment. The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun Microsystems product aimed at Java developers. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... A software development kit (SDK or devkit) is typically a set of development tools that allows a software engineer to create applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating system, or similar. ... Java Logo The Java Runtime Environment, or JRE, or J2RE is a software bundle from Sun Microsystems that allows a computer system to run a Java application. ...


History

Duke, the Java mascot
Duke, the Java mascot

The Java platform and language began as an internal project at Sun Microsystems in December of 1990, providing an alternative to the C++/C programming languages. Engineer Patrick Naughton had become increasingly frustrated with the state of Sun's C++ and C APIs (application programming interfaces) and tools. While considering moving to NeXT, Naughton was offered a chance to work on new technology and thus the Stealth Project was started. Duke, the mascot of the Java programming language This work is copyrighted. ... Duke, the mascot of the Java programming language This work is copyrighted. ... Duke is the mascot of the Java programming language. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... API and Api redirect here. ... For other meanings, see Next. ...


The Stealth Project was soon renamed to the Green Project with James Gosling and Mike Sheridan joining Naughton. Together with other engineers, they began work in a small office on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California. They were attempting to develop a new technology for programming next generation smart appliances, which Sun expected to be a major new opportunity. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Sand Hill Road freeway exit. ... Menlo Park is a city in San Mateo County, California in the United States of America, in the San Francisco Bay Area. ...


The team originally considered using C++, but it was rejected for several reasons. Because they were developing an embedded system with limited resources, they decided that C++ demanded too large a footprint and that its complexity led to developer errors. The language's lack of garbage collection meant that programmers had to manually manage system memory, a challenging and error-prone task. The team was also troubled by the language's lack of portable facilities for security, distributed programming, and threading. Finally, they wanted a platform that could be easily ported to all types of devices. A router, an example of an embedded system. ... In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management. ... This article or section should be merged with Distributed computing Distributed programming falls out of the use of computers to form networks. ... For the form of code consisting entirely of subroutine calls, see Threaded code. ...


Bill Joy had envisioned a new language combining the best of Mesa and C. In a paper called Further, he proposed to Sun that its engineers should produce an object-oriented environment based on C++. Initially, Gosling attempted to modify and extend C++ (which he referred to as "C++ ++ --") but soon abandoned that in favor of creating an entirely new language, which he called Oak, after the tree that stood just outside his office. Bill Joy William Nelson Joy (born Nov 8, 1954), commonly known as Bill Joy, is an American computer scientist. ... Mesa is a programming language developed at Xerox PARC that was used to program the Xerox Alto (one of the first personal computers with a graphical user interface), and later the Xerox Star workstations, and later the GlobalView desktop environment. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ...


By the summer of 1992, they were able to demonstrate portions of the new platform including the Green OS, the Oak language, the libraries, and the hardware. Their first attempt, demonstrated on September 3, 1992, focused on building a PDA device named Star7[2] which had a graphical interface and a smart agent called "Duke" to assist the user. In November of that year, the Green Project was spun off to become firstperson, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sun Microsystems, and the team relocated to Palo Alto, California. The firstperson team was interested in building highly interactive devices, and when Time Warner issued an RFP for a set-top box, firstperson changed their target and responded with a proposal for a set-top box platform. However, the cable industry felt that their platform gave too much control to the user and firstperson lost their bid to SGI. An additional deal with The 3DO Company for a set-top box also failed to materialize. Unable to generate interest within the TV industry, the company was rolled back into Sun. An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Yoriko Kishimoto[1] Area  - City 25. ... Time Warner Inc. ... A Request for Proposal (referred to as RFP) is an invitation for suppliers, through a bidding process, to submit a proposal on a specific Commodity or Service. ... A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen. ... Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (and often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio waves transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... The 3DO Company (formerly THDO on the NASDAQ stock exchange), also known as 3DO, was a game console developer and 3rd party game developer. ...


Java meets the Internet

Java Web Start allows provisioning applications over the Web
Java Web Start allows provisioning applications over the Web

In June and July of 1994, after three days of brainstorming with John Gage, the Director of Science for Sun, Gosling, Joy, Naughton, Wayne Rosing, and Eric Schmidt, the team re-targeted the platform for the World Wide Web. They felt that with the advent of the first graphical web browser, Mosaic, the Internet was on its way to evolving into the same highly interactive medium that they had envisioned for cable TV. As a prototype, Naughton wrote a small browser, WebRunner, later renamed HotJava. User:DropDeadGorgias captured this Screenshot of The Java WebStart Application. ... User:DropDeadGorgias captured this Screenshot of The Java WebStart Application. ... Java Web Start, introduced in Java 2, allows provisioning applications over the Web by clicking a desktop icon or a link on a website. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... John Burdette Gage (born 1942), is one of the original employees of Sun Microsystems; in 1982 he joined Vinod Khosla, Scott McNealy, Bill Joy, Andy Bechtolsheim,and fifteen others to found Sun. ... Wayne Rosing is a super genius who helped develop the Apple Lisa, the forerunner to the Macintosh. ... Dr. Eric E. Schmidt is Chairman and CEO of Google Inc. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Mosaic was the first popular World Wide Web browser and Gopher client. ... HotJava 3. ...


That year, the language was renamed Java after a trademark search revealed that Oak was used by Oak Technology, a manufacturer of video adaptor cards. The name Java was coined at a local coffee shop frequented by some of the members.[citation needed] “(TM)” redirects here. ... Founded in 1987, Oak Technologies is a supplier of semiconductor chips for optical storage devices such as CD-ROM, CD-RW and DVD. In 2003, Oak Technology was acquired by Zoran. ...


In October of 1994, HotJava and the Java platform were demonstrated for some of the Sun executives. Java 1.0a was made available for download in 1994, but the first public release of Java and the HotJava browser was on 23 May 1995, announced by Gage at the SunWorld conference. His announcement was accompanied by a surprise announcement by Marc Andreessen, Executive Vice President of Netscape Communications Corporation, that Netscape browsers would be including Java support. On 9 January 1996, the JavaSoft group was formed by Sun Microsystems in order to develop the technology.[1] HotJava 3. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Plaque commemorating the creation of Mosaic web browser by Bina and Andreessen, new NCSA building, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ... Netscape Communications Corporation was the publisher of the Netscape Navigator web browser as well as many other internet and intranet client and server software products. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Version history

Main article: Java version history

The Java language has undergone several changes since JDK (Java Development Kit) 1.0 was released on (January 23, 1996), as well as numerous additions of classes and packages to the standard library. Since J2SE 1.4, the evolution of the Java Language has been governed by the Java Community Process (JCP), which uses Java Specification Requests (JSRs) to propose and specify additions and changes to the Java platform. The language is specified by the Java Language Specification (JLS); changes to the JLS are managed under JSR 901.[2] Java Web Start, first introduced for J2SE 1. ... The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun Microsystems product aimed at Java developers. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... The Java Community Process or JCP, established in 1995, is a formalized process which allows interested parties to be involved in the definition of future versions and features of the Java platform. ...


JDK 1.1 was released on February 19, 1997. Major additions included an extensive retooling of the AWT event model, inner classes added to the language, JavaBeans and JDBC. [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) is Javas platform_independent windowing, graphics, and user_interface widget toolkit. ... In object-oriented programming, an inner class is a class defined entirely within another class. ... JavaBeans are software components written in the Java programming language. ... JDBC is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. ...


J2SE 1.2 (December 8, 1998) — Codename Playground. This and subsequent releases through J2SE 5.0 were rebranded Java 2 and the version name "J2SE" (Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition) replaced JDK to distinguish the base platform from J2EE (Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition) and J2ME (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition). Major additions included reflection, a Collections framework, Java IDL (an IDL implementation for CORBA interoperability), and the integration of the Swing graphical API into the core classes. a Java Plug-in was released, and Sun's JVM was equipped with a JIT compiler for the first time. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (up til version 5. ... Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly also J2EE) is a programming platform – part of the Java platform – for developing and running distributed multi-tier architecture applications, based largely on modular components running on an application server. ... Java Micro Edition (Java ME or as it used to be referred to J2ME), is a runtime and collection of Java APIs for the development of software for resource contrained devices such as PDAs, cell phones and other consumer appliances. ... In computer science, reflection is the process by which a computer program of the appropriate type can be modified in the process of being executed, in a manner that depends on abstract features of its code and its runtime behavior. ... In object-oriented programming, a collection class is any class that is capable of storing other objects. ... An interface description language (or alternately, interface definition language), or IDL for short, is a computer language used to describe a software components interface. ... In computing, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard for software componentry, created and controlled by the Object Management Group (OMG). ... Example Swing widgets in Java 5. ... For other uses, see Just In Time. ...


J2SE 1.3 (May 8, 2000) — Codename Kestrel. Notable changes included the bundling of the HotSpot JVM (the HotSpot JVM was first released in April, 1999 for the J2SE 1.2 JVM), JavaSound, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) and Java Platform Debugger Architecture (JPDA). is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... HotSpot is the primary Java Virtual Machine for desktops and servers produced by Sun Microsystems. ... The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is an API for directory service that allows clients to discover and lookup data and objects via a name. ... The Java Platform Debugger Architecture is a collection of APIs to debug Java code. ...


J2SE 1.4 (February 6, 2002) — Codename Merlin. This was the first release of the Java platform developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 59.[3] Major changes included regular expressions modeled after Perl, exception chaining, an integrated XML parser and XSLT processor (JAXP), and Java Web Start. is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A regular expression (abbreviated as regexp, regex or regxp) is a string that describes or matches a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... Exception chaining AKA exception wrapping is an object-oriented programming technique of wrapping exceptions into exceptions by saving original exception, i. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... ... The Java API for XML Processing, or JAXP, is one of the Java XML programming APIs. ... Java Web Start, introduced in Java 2, allows provisioning applications over the Web by clicking a desktop icon or a link on a website. ...


J2SE 5.0 (September 30, 2004) — Codename Tiger. Originally numbered 1.5, which is still used as the internal version number.[4] Developed under JSR 176, Tiger added a number of significant new language features.[5] is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The current version, Java SE 6 (December 11, 2006) — Codename Mustang — is bundled with a database manager, facilitates the use of scripting languages (currently JavaScript using Mozilla's Rhino engine) with the JVM and has Visual Basic language support. As of this version, Sun replaced the name "J2SE" with Java SE and dropped the ".0" from the version number.[6] Other major changes include scripting language support, support for pluggable annotations (JSR 269), lots of GUI improvements, including native UI enhancements to support the look and feel of Windows Vista, and improvements to the Java Platform Debugger Architecture (JPDA) & JVM Tool Interface for better monitoring and troubleshooting is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development. ... Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ... Rhino is an open source JavaScript engine. ... This article is about the Visual Basic language shipping with Microsoft Visual Studio 6. ... Annotation is extra information associated with a particular point in a document or other piece of information. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... The Java Platform Debugger Architecture is a collection of APIs to debug Java code. ...


Java SE 7 — Codename Dolphin. This is in the early planning stages. The Dolphin Project started up in August 2006, with release estimated in 2008. New builds including enhancements and bug fixes are released approximately weekly.[7]


In addition to the language changes, much more dramatic changes have been made to the Java class library over the years, which has grown from a few hundred classes in JDK 1.0 to over three thousand in J2SE 5.0. Entire new APIs, such as Swing and Java2D, have been introduced, and many of the original JDK 1.0 classes and methods have been deprecated. Example Swing widgets in Java 5. ... In computing, Java2D is an API for drawing two-dimensional graphics using the Java programming language. ... Look up Deprecation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Usage

Desktop use

According to Sun, the Java Runtime Environment is found on over 700 million PCs.[8] Microsoft has not bundled a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) with its operating systems since Sun Microsystems sued Microsoft for adding Windows-specific classes to the bundled Java runtime environment, and for making the new classes available through Visual J++. A Java runtime environment is bundled with Apple's Mac OS X, and many Linux distributions include the partially compatible free software package GNU Classpath.[9] Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. ... Visual J++ (pronounced Jay Plus Plus) is Microsofts now discontinued implementation of the Java programming language. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... GNU Classpath is a project aiming to create a free implementation of the standard class library for the Java programming language. ...


Some Java applications are in fairly widespread desktop use, including the NetBeans and Eclipse integrated development environments, and file sharing clients such as LimeWire and Azureus. Java is also used in the MATLAB mathematics programming environment, both for rendering the user interface and as part of the core system. NetBeans refers to both a platform for the development of Java desktop applications, and an integrated development environment (IDE) developed using the NetBeans Platform. ... Eclipse is an open-source software framework written primarily in Java. ... An integrated development environment (IDE), also known as integrated design environment and integrated debugging environment, is a programming environment that has been packaged as an application program,that assists computer programmers in developing software. ... Limewire is a peer-to-peer file sharing client for the Java Platform, which uses the Gnutella network to locate and share files. ... Azureus is a Java-based BitTorrent client, with support for I2P and Tor anonymous communication protocols. ... Not to be confused with Matlab Upazila in Chandpur District, Bangladesh. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ...


Mobile devices

Java ME has become popular in mobile devices, where it competes with Symbian, BREW, and the .NET Compact Framework. Symbian OS is an operating system with associated libraries, user interface frameworks and reference implementations of common tools, produced by Symbian. ... Brew refers to: Brewing, the production of beverages and fuels through fermentation Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless, a development platform for mobile phones Brew (horse), a Melbourne Cup winner in 2000 Category: ... The Microsoft . ...


The diversity of mobile phone manufacturers has led to a need for new unified standards so programs can run on phones from different suppliers - MIDP. The first standard was MIDP 1, which assumed a small screen size, no access to audio, and a 32kB program limit. The more recent MIDP 2 allows access to audio, and up to 64kB for the program size. With handset designs improving more rapidly than the standards, some manufacturers relax some limitations in the standards, for example, maximum program size. Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP), is a specification published for the use of Java on embedded devices such as cell phones and PDAs. ...


Web server and enterprise use

Licensing

The source code for Sun's implementations of Java (which is effectively the de-facto reference implementation) has been available for some time, but until recently the license terms severely restricted what could be done with it without signing (and generally paying for) a contract with Sun. As such these terms did not satisfy the requirements of either the Open Source Initiative or the Free Software Foundation to be considered open source or free software, and Sun Java was therefore a proprietary platform.[10] The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ...


While several third-party projects (e.g. GNU Classpath and Apache Harmony) created free software partial Java implementations, the sheer size of the Sun libraries combined with the use of clean room techniques meant that their implementations of the Java libraries (the compiler and vm are comparatively small and well defined) were incomplete and not fully compatible. These implementations also tended to be a long way behind Sun's in terms of optimization. GNU Classpath is a project aiming to create a free implementation of the standard class library for the Java programming language. ... Apache Harmony is an open source implementation of Java, starting with Java SE 5. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... The Cleanroom Software Engineering process is a software development process intended to produce software with a certifiable level of reliability. ...


Free software

See also: OpenJDK

Sun announced in JavaOne 2006 that Java would become free and open source software,[11] and on October 25, 2006, at the Oracle OpenWorld conference, Jonathan Schwartz said that the company was set to announce the release of the core Java Platform as free and open source software within 30 to 60 days.[12] The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun Microsystems product aimed at Java developers. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Attendees at the 2004 JavaOne conference described their vision of the future of Java on a whiteboard. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oracle OpenWorld is the premier Oracle event for business decision-makers, IT management, and line of business end users. ... Jonathan Schwartz speaking at the 2005 Web 2. ... The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. ...


Sun released the Java HotSpot virtual machine and compiler as free software under the GNU General Public License on 13 November 2006, with a promise that the rest of the JDK (which includes the JRE) would be placed under the GPL by March 2007 ("except for a few components that Sun does not have the right to publish in source form under the GPL").[13] According to Richard Stallman, this would mean an end to the Java trap.[14] Mark Shuttleworth called the initial press announcement, "A real milestone for the free software community".[15] GPL redirects here. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist and first African national in space. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...


Sun released the source code of the Class library under GPL on May 8, 2007, except some limited parts that were licensed by Sun from 3rd parties who did not want their code to be released under a free software and open-source license.[16] Some of the encumbered parts turned out to be fairly key parts of the platform such as font rendering and 2D rasterisation. Sun's goal is to replace the parts that remain proprietary and closed-source with alternative implementations and make the class library completely free and open source. A third party project called icedtea has been started that creates a completely free and highly usable JDK by replacing encumbered code with either stubs or code from GNU Classpath. Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... The Java Class Library is a set of dynamically loadable libraries that Java applications can call at runtime. ... GPL redirects here. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the Java Development Kit. ... GNU Classpath is a project aiming to create a free implementation of the standard class library for the Java programming language. ...


See also

The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... Common Intermediate Language (CIL, pronounced either sill or kill) (formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language or MSIL) is the lowest-level human-readable programming language in the Common Language Infrastructure and in the . ... C to Java Virtual Machine compilers attempt to marry the highly popular C language with the platform independent Java Virtual Machine for Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) using the C language. ... This is a list of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for the Java Programming Language. ... This article is a general presentation of the Java Platform performance. ... // Introduction of Java Logging Frameworks Logging is a common issue for most development teams. ... This is a comparison of the . ...

References

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


 
 

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