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Encyclopedia > Java (programming language)
Java
Paradigm Object-oriented, structured, imperative
Appeared in 1995
Designed by Sun Microsystems
Typing discipline Static, strong, safe, nominative
Major implementations Numerous
Influenced by Objective-C, C++, Smalltalk, Eiffel,[1] C#[2]
Influenced C#, D, J#, Ada 2005, ECMAScript, Scala
OS Cross-platform
License GNU General Public License / Java Community Process
Website http://java.sun.com/

Java is a programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun's Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode which can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Java_Logo. ... A programming paradigm is a paradigmatic style of programming (compare with a methodology, which is a paradigmatic style of doing software engineering). ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of procedural programming, one of the major programming paradigms. ... In computer science, imperative programming, as opposed to declarative programming, is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of a program state and statements that change the program state. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... In computer science, a type system defines how a programming language classifies values and expressions into types, how it can manipulate those types and how they interact. ... In computer science, a type system defines how a programming language classifies values and expressions into types, how it can manipulate those types and how they interact. ... A nominative type system is a major classes of type system, in which type compatibility and equivalence is determined by explicit declarations and/or the name of the types. ... Look up Implementation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Objective-C, often referred to as ObjC or more seldomly as Objective C or Obj-C, is an object oriented programming language implemented as an extension to C. It is used primarily on Mac OS X and GNUstep, two environments based on the OpenStep standard, and is the primary language... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... For other uses, see Small talk. ... Eiffel is an ISO-standardized object-oriented programming language designed for extensibility, reusability, reliability and programmer productivity. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... D is an object-oriented, imperative system programming language designed by Walter Bright of Digital Mars as a re-engineering of C/C++. He has done this by re-designing many C++ features, and borrowing ideas from other programming languages. ... The J# (pronounced J-sharp) programming language is a transitional language for programmers of Suns Java and Microsofts J++ languages, so they may use their existing knowledge, and applications on Microsofts . ... Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language. ... ECMAScript is a scripting programming language, standardized by Ecma International in the ECMA-262 specification. ... Scala is a multi-paradigm programming language designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe way. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... GPL redirects here. ... The Java Community Process or JCP, established in 1995, is a formalized process which allows interested parties to be involved in the definition of future versions and features of the Java platform. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Java refers to a number of computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems (the Javaâ„¢ technology) that together provide a system for developing and deploying cross-platform applications. ... The syntax of a programming language is the set of rules that a sequence of characters in a source code file must follow to be considered a conforming program in that language. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... In the computing discipline object model has two related but distinct meanings: 1. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... Bytecode is a binary representation of an executable program designed to be executed by a virtual machine rather than by dedicated hardware. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ...


The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were developed by Sun from 1995. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun made available most of their Java technologies as free software under the GNU General Public License. Others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java and GNU Classpath. In computing, a reference implementation (or, infrequently, sample implementation) is a software example of a standard for use in helping others implement their own versions of the standard. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... The Java Community Process or JCP, established in 1995, is a formalized process which allows interested parties to be involved in the definition of future versions and features of the Java platform. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... GPL redirects here. ... The GNU Compiler for Java (GCJ) is a free software compiler for the Java programming language that is part of the GNU Compiler Collection. ... GNU Classpath is a project aiming to create a free implementation of the standard class library for the Java programming language. ...


Java's design, industry backing and portability have made Java one of the fastest-growing and most widely used programming languages in the modern computing industry.

Contents

History

Duke, the Java mascot
Main article: Java version history

The Java language was created by James Gosling in June 1991 for use in a set top box project.[3] The language was initially called Oak, after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's office - and also went by the name Green - and ended up later being renamed to Java, from a list of random words.[4] Gosling's goals were to implement a virtual machine and a language that had a familiar C/C++ style of notation[5]. The first public implementation was Java 1.0 in 1995. It promised "Write Once, Run Anywhere" (WORA), providing no-cost runtimes on popular platforms. It was fairly secure and its security was configurable, allowing network and file access to be restricted. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run secure Java applets within web pages. Java became popular quickly. With the advent of Java 2, new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. For example, J2EE was for enterprise applications and the greatly stripped down version J2ME was for mobile applications. J2SE was the designation for the Standard Edition. In 2006, for marketing purposes, new J2 versions were renamed Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE, respectively. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 598 pixelsFull resolution‎ (942 × 1,698 pixels, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/png)Duke, the Java Mascot, in the waving pose. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 598 pixelsFull resolution‎ (942 × 1,698 pixels, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/png)Duke, the Java Mascot, in the waving pose. ... Duke is the mascot of the Java programming language. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... Java Web Start, first introduced for J2SE 1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... Write once, run anywhere (WORA), or sometimes also Write once, run everywhere (WORE), is a slogan created by Sun Microsystems to illustrate the cross-platform benefits of the Java language. ... An applet is a software component that runs in the context of another program, for example a web browser. ... Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE is a Standard (albeit with no ISO or ECMA standard) for developing distributed Multi-tier architecture applications, based on modular components running on an application server. ... Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, or J2ME, is a collection of Java APIs targeting embedded consumer products such as PDAs, cell phones and other consumer appliances. ... Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition or J2SE is a collection of java Application Programming Interfaces targeting Java platform applications running on a workstation. ...


In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the process.[6][7][8] Java remains a de facto standard that is controlled through the Java Community Process.[9] At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge although they were closed source, proprietary software. Sun's revenue from Java was generated by the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System. Sun distinguishes between its Software Development Kit (SDK) and Runtime Environment (JRE) which is a subset of the SDK, the primary distinction being that in the JRE, the compiler, utility programs, and many necessary header files are not present. “ISO” redirects here. ... Ecma International is an international, private (membership-based) standards organization for information and communication systems. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Java Community Process or JCP, established in 1995, is a formalized process which allows interested parties to be involved in the definition of future versions and features of the Java platform. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... A software development kit (SDK or devkit) is typically a set of development tools that allows a software engineer to create applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating system, or similar. ... HotSpot is the primary Java Virtual Machine for desktops and servers produced by Sun Microsystems. ...


On 13 November 2006, Sun released much of Java as free software under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). On 8 May 2007 Sun finished the process, making all of Java's core code open source, aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright.[10] is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... GPL redirects here. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Philosophy

Primary goals

There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:[citation needed]

  1. It should use the object-oriented programming methodology.
  2. It should allow the same program to be executed on multiple operating systems.
  3. It should contain built-in support for using computer networks.
  4. It should be designed to execute code from remote sources securely.
  5. It should be easy to use by selecting what were considered the good parts of other object-oriented languages.

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ...

Platform independence

Main article: Java Platform

One characteristic, platform independence, means that programs written in the Java language must run similarly on any supported hardware/operating-system platform. One should be able to write a program once, compile it once, and run it anywhere. The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ...


This is achieved by most Java compilers by compiling the Java language code halfway (to Java bytecode) – simplified machine instructions specific to the Java platform. The code is then run on a virtual machine (VM), a program written in native code on the host hardware that interprets and executes generic Java bytecode. (In some JVM versions, bytecode can also be compiled to native code, either before or during program execution, resulting in faster execution.) Further, standardized libraries are provided to allow access to features of the host machines (such as graphics, threading and networking) in unified ways. Note that, although there is an explicit compiling stage, at some point, the Java bytecode is interpreted or converted to native machine code by the JIT compiler. A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... Java bytecode is the form of instructions that the Java virtual machine executes. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that executes, or performs, instructions written in a computer programming language. ... For the form of code consisting entirely of subroutine calls, see Threaded code. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data directly executed by a computers central processing unit. ... For other uses, see Just In Time. ...


The first implementations of the language used an interpreted virtual machine to achieve portability. These implementations produced programs that ran more slowly than programs compiled to native executables, for instance written in C or C++, so the language suffered a reputation for poor performance. More recent JVM implementations produce programs that run significantly faster than before, using multiple techniques. In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ...


One technique, known as just-in-time compilation (JIT), translates the Java bytecode into native code at the time that the program is run, which results in a program that executes faster than interpreted code but also incurs compilation overhead during execution. More sophisticated VMs use dynamic recompilation, in which the VM can analyze the behavior of the running program and selectively recompile and optimize critical parts of the program. Dynamic recompilation can achieve optimizations superior to static compilation because the dynamic compiler can base optimizations on knowledge about the runtime environment and the set of loaded classes, and can identify the hot spots (parts of the program, often inner loops, that take up the most execution time). JIT compilation and dynamic recompilation allow Java programs to take advantage of the speed of native code without losing portability. In computer science, dynamic recompilation (sometimes abbreviated to dynarec) is a feature of some emulators and virtual machines, where the system may recompile some part of a program during execution. ...


Another technique, commonly known as static compilation, is to compile directly into native code like a more traditional compiler. Static Java compilers, such as GCJ, translate the Java language code to native object code, removing the intermediate bytecode stage. This achieves good performance compared to interpretation, but at the expense of portability; the output of these compilers can only be run on a single architecture. Some see avoiding the VM in this manner as defeating the point of developing in Java; however it can be useful to provide both a generic bytecode version, as well as an optimised native code version of an application. The GNU Compiler for Java (GCJ) is a compiler for the Java programming language that is part of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). ... In computer science, object file or object code is an intermediate representation of code generated by a compiler after it processes a source code file. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... Bytecode is a binary representation of an executable program designed to be executed by a virtual machine rather than by dedicated hardware. ...


Implementations

Sun Microsystems officially licenses the Java Standard Edition platform for Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Solaris. Through a network of third-party vendors and licensees,[11] alternative Java environments are available for these and other platforms. To qualify as a certified Java licensee, an implementation on any particular platform must pass a rigorous suite of validation and compatibility tests. This method enables a guaranteed level of compliance and platform through a trusted set of commercial and non-commercial partners. Windows redirects here. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ...


Sun's trademark license for usage of the Java brand insists that all implementations be "compatible". This resulted in a legal dispute with Microsoft after Sun claimed that the Microsoft implementation did not support the RMI and JNI interfaces and had added platform-specific features of their own. Sun sued and won both damages in 1997 (some $20 million) and a court order enforcing the terms of the license from Sun. As a result, Microsoft no longer ships Java with Windows, and in recent versions of Windows, Internet Explorer cannot support Java applets without a third-party plugin. However, Sun and others have made available Java run-time systems at no cost for those and other versions of Windows. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... A typical implementation model of Java-RMI using Stub and Skeleton objects. ... The Java Native Interface (JNI) is a programming framework that allows Java code running in the Java virtual machine (VM) to call and be called by native applications (programs specific to a hardware and operating system platform) and libraries written in other languages, such as C, C++ and assembly. ... Windows redirects here. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ...


Platform-independent Java is essential to the Java Enterprise Edition strategy, and an even more rigorous validation is required to certify an implementation. This environment enables portable server-side applications, such as Web services, servlets, and Enterprise JavaBeans, as well as with Embedded systems based on OSGi, using Embedded Java environments. Through the new GlassFish project, Sun is working to create a fully functional, unified open-source implementation of the Java EE technologies. Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly known as Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE up to version 1. ... Web services architecture The W3C defines a Web service (many sources also capitalize the second word, as in Web Services) as a software system designed to support interoperable Machine to Machine interaction over a network. ... The Java Servlet API allows a software developer to add dynamic content to a web server using the Java platform. ... Simple EJB Architecture Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) is a managed, server-sided component for modular construction of enterprise applications. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... The OSGi Alliance (formerly known as the Open Services Gateway initiative - now an obsolete name) is an open standards organization founded in March 1999. ... In discussions of J2ME Java specifications, such as the CDC/CLDC device capability sets and the MIDP profile definition, attention needs to be given to Embedded Java, which additionally requires very specialized, optimized JVMs, and the means to update the installed software and services such as OSGi. ... In computing, GlassFish is the name of an application server project by Sun Microsystems for the Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) platform. ... For other uses, see Open source (disambiguation). ...


Automatic memory management

See also: Garbage collection (computer science)

One of the ideas behind Java's automatic memory management model is that programmers be spared the burden of having to perform manual memory management. In some languages the programmer allocates memory for the creation of objects stored on the heap and the responsibility of later deallocating that memory also resides with the programmer. If the programmer forgets to deallocate memory or writes code that fails to do so, a memory leak occurs and the program can consume an arbitrarily large amount of memory. Additionally, if the program attempts to deallocate the region of memory more than once, the result is undefined and the program may become unstable and may crash. Finally, in non garbage collected environments, there is a certain degree of overhead and complexity of user-code to track and finalize allocations. Often developers may box themselves into certain designs to provide reasonable assurances that memory leaks will not occur.[12] In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management. ... In computer science, a memory leak is a particular kind of unintentional memory consumption by a computer program where the program fails to release memory when no longer needed. ...


In Java, this potential problem is avoided by automatic garbage collection. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for managing the object's lifecycle. The program or other objects can reference an object by holding a reference to it (which, from a low-level point of view, is its address on the heap). When no references to an object remain, the Java garbage collector automatically deletes the unreachable object, freeing memory and preventing a memory leak. Memory leaks may still occur if a programmer's code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed—in other words, they can still occur but at higher conceptual levels. In computing, garbage collection is a system of automatic memory management which seeks to reclaim memory used by objects which will never be referenced in the future. ... In computer science, the object lifetime (or life cycle) of an object in object-oriented programming is the time between an objects creation (also known as instantiation or construction) till the object is no longer used, and is destructed or freed. ... In computer science, unreachable memory is a block of memory allocated dynamically where the program that allocated the memory no longer has any reachable pointer that refers to it. ...


The use of garbage collection in a language can also affect programming paradigms. If, for example, the developer assumes that the cost of memory allocation/recollection is low, they may choose to more freely construct objects instead of pre-initializing, holding and reusing them. With the small cost of potential performance penalties (inner-loop construction of large/complex objects), this facilitates thread-isolation (no need to synchronize as different threads work on different object instances) and data-hiding. The use of transient immutable value-objects minimizes side-effect programming.


Comparing Java and C++, it is possible in C++ to implement similar functionality (for example, a memory management model for specific classes can be designed in C++ to improve speed and lower memory fragmentation considerably), with the possible cost of adding comparable runtime overhead to that of Java's garbage collector, and of added development time and application complexity if one favors manual implementation over using an existing third-party library. In Java, garbage collection is built-in and virtually invisible to the developer. That is, developers may have no notion of when garbage collection will take place as it may not necessarily correlate with any actions being explicitly performed by the code they write. Depending on intended application, this can be beneficial or disadvantageous: the programmer is freed from performing low-level tasks, but at the same time loses the option of writing lower level code. C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ...


Java does not support pointer arithmetic as is supported in, for example, C++. This is because the garbage collector may relocate referenced objects, invalidating such pointers. Another reason that Java forbids this is that type safety and security can no longer be guaranteed if arbitrary manipulation of pointers is allowed. In computer science, a pointer is a programming language data type whose value refers directly to (or “points to”) another value stored elsewhere in the computer memory using its address. ...


Syntax

Main article: Java syntax

The syntax of Java is largely derived from C++. However, unlike C++, which combines the syntax for structured, generic, and object-oriented programming, Java was built exclusively as an object oriented language. As a result, almost everything is an object and all code is written inside a class. The exceptions are the intrinsic data types (ordinal and real numbers, boolean values, and characters), which are not classes for performance reasons. // The syntax of the Java programming language is a set of rules that defines how a Java program is written and interpreted. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ...


This is a minimal Hello world program in Java with syntax highlighting: A hello world program is a computer program that prints out Hello, World! on a display device. ...

 // Hello.java public class Hello { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello, World!"); } } 

To execute a Java program, the code is saved as a file named Hello.java. It must first be compiled into bytecode using a Java compiler, which produces a file named Hello.class. This class is then launched. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Java programming language. ...


The above example merits a bit of explanation.

  • All executable statements in Java are written inside a class, including stand-alone programs.
  • Source files are by convention named the same as the class they contain, appending the mandatory suffix .java. A class which is declared public is required to follow this convention. (In this case, the class Hello is public, therefore the source must be stored in a file called Hello.java).
  • The compiler will generate a class file for each class defined in the source file. The name of the class file is the name of the class, with .class appended. For class file generation, anonymous classes are treated as if their name was the concatenation of the name of their enclosing class, a $, and an integer.
  • The keyword public denotes that a method can be called from code in other classes, or that a class may be used by classes outside the class hierarchy.
  • The keyword static indicates that the method is a static method, associated with the class rather than object instances.
  • The keyword void indicates that the main method does not return any value to the caller.
  • The method name "main" is not a keyword in the Java language. It is simply the name of the method the Java launcher calls to pass control to the program. Java classes that run in managed environments such as applets and Enterprise Java Beans do not use or need a main() method.
  • The main method must accept an array of String objects. By convention, it is referenced as args although any other legal identifier name can be used. Since Java 5, the main method can also use variable arguments, in the form of public static void main(String... args), allowing the main method to be invoked with an arbitrary number of String arguments. The effect of this alternate declaration is semantically identical (the args parameter is still an array of String objects), but allows an alternate syntax for creating and passing the array.
  • The Java launcher launches Java by loading a given class (specified on the command line) and starting its public static void main(String[]) method. Stand-alone programs must declare this method explicitly. The String[] args parameter is an array of String objects containing any arguments passed to the class. The parameters to main are often passed by means of a command line.
  • The printing facility is part of the Java standard library: The System class defines a public static field called out. The out object is an instance of the PrintStream class and provides the method println(String) for displaying data to the screen while creating a new line (standard out).

An example that better demonstrates object-oriented programming: The following are brief definitions of the keywords for the Java programming language. ... Used mainly in object-oriented programming, the term method refers to a piece of code that is exclusively associated either with a class (called class methods or static methods) or with an object (called instance methods). ... For the microarray in genetics, see SNP array. ... In computer programming, a variadic function is a function of variable arity; that is, one which can take different numbers of arguments. ... For the microarray in genetics, see SNP array. ... A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script. ... The standard streams for input, output, and error The standard streams are preconnected input or output channels between a computer program and its environment (typically a text terminal) when it begins execution. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ...

 // OddEven.java import javax.swing.JOptionPane; public class OddEven { private int input; public OddEven() { } public void showDialog() { input = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog("Please Enter A Number")); } public void calculate() { if (input % 2 == 0) System.out.println("Even"); else System.out.println("Odd"); } public static void main(String[] args) { OddEven number = new OddEven(); number.showDialog(); number.calculate(); } } 
  • The import statement imports the JOptionPane class from the javax.swing package.
  • The OddEven class declares a single private field of type int named input. Every instance of the OddEven class has its own copy of the input field. The private declaration means that no other class can access (read or write) the input field.
  • OddEven() is a public constructor. Constructors have the same name as the enclosing class they are declared in, and unlike a method, have no return type. A constructor is used to initialize an object that is a newly created instance of the class. In this case, the constructor initializes the input field to the value entered into a JOptionPane input dialog. The dialog returns a String which is converted to an int by the Integer.parseInt(String) method.
  • The calculate() method is declared without the static keyword. This means that the method is invoked using a specific instance of the OddEven class. (The reference used to invoke the method is passed as an undeclared parameter of type OddEven named this.) The method tests the expression input % 2 == 0 using the if keyword to see if the remainder of dividing the input field belonging to the instance of the class by two is zero. If this expression is true, then it prints Even; if this expression is false it prints Odd. (The input field can be equivalently accessed as this.input, which explicitly uses the undeclared this parameter.)
  • OddEven number = new OddEven(); declares a local object reference variable in the main method named number. This variable can hold a reference to an object of type OddEven. The declaration initializes number by first creating an instance of the OddEven class, using the new keyword and the OddEven() constructor, and then assigning this instance to the variable.
  • The statement number.calculate(); calls the calculate method. The instance of OddEven object referenced by the number local variable is used to invoke the method and passed as the undeclared this parameter to the calculate method.
  • For simplicity, error handling has been ignored in this example. Entering a value that is not a number will cause the program to crash. This can be avoided by catching and handling the NumberFormatException thrown by Integer.parseInt(String).

The following are brief definitions of the keywords for the Java programming language. ... In computer science, data that has several parts can be divided into fields. ... In object-oriented programming, a constructor (sometimes shortened to ctor) in a class is a special block of statements called when an object is created, either when it is declared (statically constructed on the stack, possible in C++ but not in Java and other object-oriented languages) or dynamically constructed... Return types are what results from calling a method or function in high-level programming languages, such as Java, C++, C, Prolog and many others. ... In strictly mathematical branches of computer science the term object is used in a purely mathematical sense to refer to any thing. While this interpretation is useful in the discussion of abstract theory, it is not concrete enough to serve as a primitive datatype in the discussion of more concrete... This article is about a general notion of reference in computing. ... The following are brief definitions of the keywords for the Java programming language. ... The following are brief definitions of the keywords for the Java programming language. ... This article is about a general notion of reference in computing. ... The following are brief definitions of the keywords for the Java programming language. ... In computer science, a local variable is a variable that is given local scope. ... Exception handling is a programming language mechanism designed to handle runtime errors or other problems (exceptions) inside a computer program. ...

Applet

Main article: Java applet

Java applets are programs that are embedded in other applications, typically in a Web page displayed in a Web browser. A Java applet is an applet delivered in the form of Java bytecode. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ...

 // Hello.java import java.applet.Applet; import java.awt.Graphics; public class Hello extends Applet { public void paint(Graphics gc) { gc.drawString("Hello, world!", 65, 95); } } 

The import statements direct the Java compiler to include the java.applet.Applet and java.awt.Graphics classes in the compilation. The import statement allows these classes to be referenced in the source code using the simple class name (i.e. Applet) instead of the fully qualified class name (i.e. java.applet.Applet). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Java programming language. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


The Hello class extends (subclasses) the Applet class; the Applet class provides the framework for the host application to display and control the lifecycle of the applet. The Applet class is an Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) Component, which provides the applet with the capability to display a graphical user interface (GUI) and respond to user events. In object-oriented programming, a subclass is a class that inherits some properties from its superclass. ... In computer science, the object lifetime (or life cycle) of an object in object-oriented programming is the time between an objects creation (also known as instantiation or construction) till the object is no longer used, and is destructed or freed. ... The Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) is Javas platform_independent windowing, graphics, and user_interface widget toolkit. ... GUI redirects here. ... Event-driven programming is a computer programming paradigm. ...


The Hello class overrides the paint(Graphics) method inherited from the Container superclass to provide the code to display the applet. The paint() method is passed a Graphics object that contains the graphic context used to display the applet. The paint() method calls the graphic context drawString(String, int, int) method to display the "Hello, world!" string at a pixel offset of (65, 95) from the upper-left corner in the applet's display. Method overriding, in object oriented programming, is a language feature that allows a subclass to provide a specific implementation of a method that is already provided by one of its superclasses. ... In computer science, a superclass is a class from which other classes are derived. ... This article is about the picture element. ...

 <!-- Hello.html --> <html> <head> <title>Hello World Applet</title> </head> <body> <applet code="Hello" width="200" height="200"> </applet> </body> </html> 

An applet is placed in an HTML document using the <applet> HTML element. The applet tag has three attributes set: code="Hello" specifies the name of the Applet class and width="200" height="200" sets the pixel width and height of the applet. Applets may also be embedded in HTML using either the object or embed element,[13] although support for these elements by Web browsers is inconsistent.[14] However, the applet tag is deprecated, so the object tag is preferred where supported. HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... In computing, an HTML element indicates structure in an HTML document and a way of hierarchically arranging content. ...


The host application, typically a Web browser, instantiates the Hello applet and creates an AppletContext for the applet. Once the applet has initialized itself, it is added to the AWT display hierarchy. The paint method is called by the AWT event dispatching thread whenever the display needs the applet to draw itself. The event dispatching thread (EDT) is a background thread used in Java to process events from the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) graphical user interface event queue. ...


Servlet

Main article: Java Servlet

Java Servlet technology provides Web developers with a simple, consistent mechanism for extending the functionality of a Web server and for accessing existing business systems. Servlets are server-side Java EE components that generate responses (typically HTML pages) to requests (typically HTTP requests) from clients. A servlet can almost be thought of as an applet that runs on the server side—without a face. The Java Servlet API allows a software developer to add dynamic content to a Web server using the Java platform. ... In computer networking, the term server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client-server relationship. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... In computing, a client is a system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer by some kind of network. ...

 // Hello.java import java.io.*; import javax.servlet.*; public class Hello extends GenericServlet { public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { response.setContentType("text/html"); final PrintWriter pw = response.getWriter(); pw.println("Hello, world!"); pw.close(); } } 

The import statements direct the Java compiler to include all of the public classes and interfaces from the java.io and javax.servlet packages in the compilation. An interface in the Java programming language is an abstract type which is used to specify an interface (in the generic sense of the term) that classes must implement. ... A Java package is a Java programming language mechanism for organizing classes into namespaces. ...


The Hello class extends the GenericServlet class; the GenericServlet class provides the interface for the server to forward requests to the servlet and control the servlet's lifecycle. In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ...


The Hello class overrides the service(ServletRequest, ServletResponse) method defined by the Servlet interface to provide the code for the service request handler. The service() method is passed a ServletRequest object that contains the request from the client and a ServletResponse object used to create the response returned to the client. The service() method declares that it throws the exceptions ServletException and IOException if a problem prevents it from responding to the request. An interface in the Java programming language is an abstract type which is used to specify an interface (in the generic sense of the term) that classes must implement. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ...


The setContentType(String) method in the response object is called to set the MIME content type of the returned data to "text/html". The getWriter() method in the response returns a PrintWriter object that is used to write the data that is sent to the client. The println(String) method is called to write the "Hello, world!" string to the response and then the close() method is called to close the print writer, which causes the data that has been written to the stream to be returned to the client. For mime as an art form, see mime artist. ...


JavaServer Page

Main article: JavaServer Pages

JavaServer Pages (JSPs) are server-side Java EE components that generate responses, typically HTML pages, to HTTP requests from clients. JSPs embed Java code in an HTML page by using the special delimiters <% and %>. A JSP is compiled to a Java servlet, a Java application in its own right, the first time it is accessed. After that, the generated servlet creates the response. JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a Java technology that allows software developers to dynamically generate HTML, XML or other types of documents in response to a Web client request. ... In computer networking, the term server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client-server relationship. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... In computing, a client is a system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer by some kind of network. ... Delimiters are marks which are used to seperate subfields of data. ...


Swing application

Main article: Swing (Java)

Swing is a graphical user interface library for the Java SE platform. This example Swing application creates a single window with "Hello, world!" inside: Example Swing widgets in Java 5. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ...

 // Hello.java (Java SE 5) import java.awt.BorderLayout; import javax.swing.*; public class Hello extends JFrame { public Hello() { super("hello"); setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); getContentPane().setLayout(new BorderLayout()); getContentPane().add(new JLabel("Hello, world!")); pack(); } public static void main(String[] args) { new Hello().setVisible(true); } } 

The first import statement directs the Java compiler to include the BorderLayout class from the java.awt package in the compilation; the second import includes all of the public classes and interfaces from the javax.swing package.


The Hello class extends the JFrame class; the JFrame class implements a window with a title bar and a close control. An example of a graphical user interface in Windows XP, with the My Music window displayed In computing, a window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer... The title bar is that part of a window where the title of the window appears. ... A widget (or control) is an interface component that a computer user interacts with, such as a window or a text box. ...


The Hello() constructor initializes the frame by first calling the superclass constructor, passing the parameter "hello", which is used as the window's title. It then calls the setDefaultCloseOperation(int) method inherited from JFrame to set the default operation when the close control on the title bar is selected to JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE — this causes the JFrame to be disposed of when the frame is closed (as opposed to merely hidden), which allows the JVM to exit and the program to terminate. Next, the layout of the frame is set to a BorderLayout; this tells Swing how to arrange the components that will be added to the frame. A JLabel is created for the string "Hello, world!" and the add(Component) method inherited from the Container superclass is called to add the label to the frame. The pack() method inherited from the Window superclass is called to size the window and lay out its contents, in the manner indicated by the BorderLayout. In object-oriented programming, a constructor (sometimes shortened to ctor) in a class is a special block of statements called when an object is created, either when it is declared (statically constructed on the stack, possible in C++ but not in Java and other object-oriented languages) or dynamically constructed... Layout managers, used in Widget toolkits, are software components which have the ability to lay out widgets by their relative positions without using distance units. ...


The main() method is called by the JVM when the program starts. It instantiates a new Hello frame and causes it to be displayed by calling the setVisible(boolean) method inherited from the Component superclass with the boolean parameter true. Note that once the frame is displayed, exiting the main method does not cause the program to terminate because the AWT event dispatching thread remains active until all of the Swing top-level windows have been disposed. In object-oriented programming, an instance is an object that belongs to a class. ... The event dispatching thread (EDT) is a background thread used in Java to process events from the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) graphical user interface event queue. ...


Criticism

Main article: Criticism of Java

The Java programming language was intended to serve as a novel way to manage software complexity. ...

Performance

Main article: Java performance

Java's performance has increased substantially since the early versions, and performance of JIT compilers relative to native compilers has in some tests been shown to be quite similar.[15][16][17] The performance of the compilers does not necessarily indicate the performance of the compiled code; only careful testing can reveal the true performance issues in any system. This article is a general presentation of the Java Platform performance. ... See also Just in time for the business technique In computing, just-in-time compilation (JIT), also known as dynamic translation, is a technique for improving the performance of interpreted programs. ...


In a paper written in 1999 by Lutz Prechelt it is outlined that, statistically, programmer efficiency and experience has a bearing many standard deviations greater on run-time and memory usage than language choice. This paper specifically uses Java as a basis for the comparison, due to its then bad reputation.[18]


Look and feel

The default look and feel of GUI applications written in Java using the Swing toolkit is very different from native applications. It is possible to specify a different look and feel through the pluggable look and feel system of Swing. Clones of Windows, GTK and Motif are supplied by Sun. Apple also provides an Aqua look and feel for Mac OS X. Though prior implementations of these look and feels have been considered lacking, Swing in Java SE 6 addresses this problem by using more native widget drawing routines of the underlying platforms. Alternatively, third party toolkits such as wx4j or SWT may be used for increased integration with the native windowing system. Look and feel refers to design aspects of a graphical user interface - in terms of both colours, shapes, layout, typefaces, etc (the look); and, the behaviour of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the feel). It is used in reference to both software and websites. ... GUI redirects here. ... Example Swing widgets in Java 5. ... Pluggable look and feel is a mecanism used in some Widget toolkits allowing to change the look and feel of a graphical user interface at runtime. ... Windows redirects here. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Screenshot of an application that uses the Open Motif toolkit Motif is a widget toolkit for building graphical user interfaces under the X Window System on Unix and other POSIX-compliant systems. ... Apple Inc. ... Mac OS X 10. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... A widget (or control) is an interface component that a computer user interacts with, such as a window or a text box. ... wx4j is a binding for the wxWidgets toolkit to the Java programming language. ... The Eclipse IDE, the first application to use SWT The Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT) is a graphical widget toolkit for the Java platform. ...


Object orientation caveat

As in C++ and some other object-oriented languages, variables of Java's primitive types are not objects. Values of primitive types are either stored directly in fields (for objects) or on the stack (for methods) rather than on the heap, as is the common case for objects (but see Escape analysis). This was a conscious decision by Java's designers for performance reasons. Because of this, Java is not considered to be a pure object-oriented programming language. However, as of Java 5.0, autoboxing enables programmers to write as if primitive types are their wrapper classes, with their object-oriented counterparts representing classes of their own, and freely interchange between them for improved flexibility. In computer science, primitive types — as distinct from composite types — are data types provided by a programming language as basic building blocks. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In programming language compiler optimization theory, escape analysis is a method for determining the dynamic scope of pointers. ... In computer science, an object type (a. ...


Lack of features

Unlike C++, Java suppresses several features (such as operator overloading and multiple inheritance), in order to simplify the language, and to "save the programmers from themselves", to prevent possible errors and anti-pattern design. This has been a source of criticism, relating to a lack of low-level features and some of these may be worked around. In computer programming, operator overloading (less commonly known as operator ad-hoc polymorphism) is a specific case of polymorphism in which some or all of operators like +, = or == have different implementations depending on the types of their arguments. ... Multiple inheritance refers to a feature of object-oriented programming languages in which a class can inherit behaviors and features from more than one superclass. ...


Communications API

Java does not have officially or good support for cross-platform environment Communications API like USB, Bluetooth, RS-232 hardware (serial ports) and limited access to IEEE-1284 (parallel ports), SPP mode [19][20]. Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ...


Resources

Java Runtime Environment

The Java Runtime Environment, or JRE, is the software required to run any application deployed on the Java Platform. End-users commonly use a JRE in software packages and Web browser plugins. Sun also distributes a superset of the JRE called the Java 2 SDK (more commonly known as the JDK), which includes development tools such as the Java compiler, Javadoc, Jar and debugger. Java Logo The Java Runtime Environment, or JRE, or J2RE is a software bundle from Sun Microsystems that allows a computer system to run a Java application. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... Economics and commerce define an end-user as the person who uses a product. ... A software package is a bundle of one or several files that either are necessary for the execution of a computer program, or add features for a program already installed on the computer or network of computers. ... For other uses, see Plug in. ... A Software Development Kit, or SDK for short, is typically a set of development tools that allows a software engineer to create applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, operating system or similar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Java programming language. ... Javadoc is a computer software tool from Sun Microsystems for generating API documentation into HTML format from Java source code. ... JAR is a tool for creating compressed file archives. ... A debugger is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs. ...


One of the unique advantages of the concept of a runtime engine is that errors (exceptions) should not 'crash' the system. Moreover, in runtime engine environments such as Java there exist tools that attach to the runtime engine and every time that an exception of interest occurs they record debugging information that existed in memory at the time the exception was thrown (stack and heap values). These Automated Exception Handling tools provide 'root-cause' information for exceptions in Java programs that run in production, testing or development environments. Runtime engines such as those for the Java language or Microsoft . ...


Components

Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Managed code. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... Look up list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An associative array (also map, hash, dictionary, finite map, lookup table, and in query-processing an index or index file) is an abstract data type composed of a collection of keys and a collection of values, where each key is associated with one value. ... A tree structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. ... In computer science, the set is a collection of certain values without any particular order. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... Internationalization and localization are means of adapting products such as publications or software for non-native environments, especially other nations and cultures. ... JDBC is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. ... API and Api redirect here. ... The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is an API for directory service that allows clients to discover and lookup data and objects via a name. ... A typical implementation model of Java-RMI using Stub and Skeleton objects. ... In computing, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard for software componentry, created and controlled by the Object Management Group (OMG). ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... The term native mode is used in computing as follows. ... The Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) is Javas platform_independent windowing, graphics, and user_interface widget toolkit. ... GUI redirects here. ... Example Swing widgets in Java 5. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... A Java applet is an applet delivered in the form of Java bytecode. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Java Web Start, introduced in Java 2, allows provisioning applications over the Web by clicking a desktop icon or a link on a website. ... Economics and commerce define an end-user as the person who uses a product. ...

APIs

See also: Free Java implementations#Class library

Sun has defined three platforms targeting different application environments and segmented many of its APIs so that they belong to one of the platforms. The platforms are: Free Java implementations are software projects that reimplement Suns Java technologies and are distributed under free software licences, thus making them free software / open source software. ... API and Api redirect here. ...

The classes in the Java APIs are organized into separate groups called packages. Each package contains a set of related interfaces, classes and exceptions. Refer to the separate platforms for a description of the packages available. In computing, the Java Platform, Micro Edition or Java ME (previously known as Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition or J2ME) is a specification of a subset of the Java platform aimed at providing a certified collection of Java APIs for the development of software for small, resource-constrained devices such... Java Platform, Standard Edition or Java SE (formerly known up to version 5. ... Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE is a widely used platform for server programming in the Java programming language. ... In object-oriented programming, a class is a programming language construct used to group related fields and methods. ... A Java package is a Java programming language mechanism for organizing classes into namespaces. ... An interface in the Java programming language is an abstract type which is used to specify an interface (in the generic sense of the term) that classes must implement. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ...


The set of APIs is controlled by Sun Microsystems in cooperation with others through the Java Community Process program. Companies or individuals participating in this process can influence the design and development of the APIs. This process has been a subject of controversy. The Java Community Process or JCP, established in 1995, is a formalized process which allows interested parties to be involved in the definition of future versions and features of the Java platform. ...


See also

C to Java Virtual Machine compilers attempt to marry the highly popular C language with the platform independent Java Virtual Machine for Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) using the C language. ... Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer). ... Groovy is an object-oriented programming language for the Java Platform as an alternative to the Java programming language. ... Join Java is a programming language that extends the standard Java programming language with the Join Semantics of the Join Calculus. ... Attendees at the 2004 JavaOne conference described their vision of the future of Java on a whiteboard. ... JavaOS is an operating system with a Java virtual machine as a fundamental component. ... Javapedia is a project openly inspired by Wikipedia[1]. The project was launched in June 2003[2] during the JavaOne developer conference. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Comparison of integrated development environments. ... This is a list of Java Virtual Machines. ... This is a list of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for the Java Programming Language. ... This is a list of scripting languages available for the Java platform: Groovy JavaScript (via Rhino) Jython Jelly BeanShell JRuby Tcl/Java Sleep ObjectScript Pnuts Judoscript the Bean Scripting Framework (BSF) Yoix Hecl A more comprehensive list (along with other languages beyond scripting) is available on the Languages for the... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Java Web Start, first introduced for J2SE 1. ... The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun Microsystems product aimed at Java developers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Java Language Environment (May 1996).
  2. ^ Java 5.0 added several new language features (the enhanced for loop, autoboxing, varargs and annotations), after they were introduced in the similar (and competing) C# language. [1][2]
  3. ^ Jon Byous, Java technology: The early years. Sun Developer Network, no date [ca. 1998]. Retrieved April 22, 2005.
  4. ^ http://blogs.sun.com/jonathan/entry/better_is_always_different.
  5. ^ Heinz Kabutz, Once Upon an Oak. Artima, Retrieved April 29, 2007.
  6. ^ Java Study Group
  7. ^ Why Java™ Was - Not - Standardized Twice
  8. ^ What is ECMA--and why Microsoft cares
  9. ^ Java Community Process website
  10. ^ http://open.itworld.com/4915/070508opsjava/page_1.html
  11. ^ http://java.sun.com/javase/licensees.jsp
  12. ^ http://www.research.att.com/~bs/bs_faq2.html#memory-leaks
  13. ^ http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/deployment/applet/applettag.html
  14. ^ http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/deployment/applet/mixedbrowser.html
  15. ^ Performance of Java versus C++, J.P.Lewis and Ulrich Neumann, Computer Graphics and Immersive Technology Lab, University of Southern California
  16. ^ The Java is Faster than C++ and C++ Sucks Unbiased Benchmark
  17. ^ FreeTTS - A Performance Case Study, Willie Walker, Paul Lamere, Philip Kwok
  18. ^ Lutz Prechelt. Technical opinion: comparing Java vs. C/C++ efficiency differences to interpersonal differences. Communications of the ACM, Vol 42, #10, 1999
  19. ^ The Java Communications 3.0 API for available for Solaris SPARC, Solaris x86, and Linux x86
  20. ^ Java and USB article on whether or not Java should officially support the USB by by Jeff Friesen 07/06/2006 [3]

For each (or foreach) is a computer language idiom for traversing items in a collection. ... In computer science, an object type (a. ... In computer programming, a variadic function is a function of variable arity; that is, one which can take different numbers of arguments. ... In computer programming, a Java annotation is a way of adding metadata to Java source code that can also be available to the programmer at run-time. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... Communications of the ACM (CACM) is the flagship monthly magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery. ...

References

  • Jon Byous, Java technology: The early years. Sun Developer Network, no date [ca. 1998]. Retrieved April 22, 2005.
  • James Gosling, A brief history of the Green project. Java.net, no date [ca. Q1/1998]. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
  • James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy Steele, and Gilad Bracha, The Java language specification, third edition. Addison-Wesley, 2005. ISBN 0-321-24678-0 (see also online edition of the specification.
  • Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin. The Java Virtual Machine specification, second edition. Addison-Wesley, 1999. ISBN 0-201-43294-3 (see also online edition of the specification).

is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bill Joy William Nelson Joy (born Nov 8, 1954), commonly known as Bill Joy, is an American computer scientist. ... Guy Lewis Steele, Jr. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Java Programming
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
java

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