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Encyclopedia > Java
Java
Native name: Jawa

Topography of Java
Geography
Location Southeast Asia
Coordinates 7°30′10″S, 111°15′47″E
Archipelago Greater Sunda Islands
Area 126,700 km² (48,919.1 sq mi)
Highest point Semeru
3,676 meters (12,060 ft)
Administration
 Indonesia
Provinces Banten,
Jakarta Special Capital City District,
West Java,
Central Java,
East Java,
Yogyakarta Special Region
Largest city Jakarta
Demographics
Population 124 million (as of 2005)
Density 979/km²
Indigenous people Sundanese, Javanese, Tenggerese, Badui, Osing, Bantenese, Cirebonese, Betawi

Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. Once the centre of powerful Hindu kingdoms and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies, Java now plays a dominant role in the economic and political life of Indonesia. Housing a population of 124 million, it is the most populous island in the world. Java is also one of the most densely populated regions on Earth. Java language redirects here. ... Look up java, Java in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Indonesias independence in 1945, following the 1928 unifying language declaration in the Indonesian Youth Pledge. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (2688 × 1693 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links JavaLocatie-1-.png Summary Source: Wikipedia NL Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Java (island) ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the west part of the Malay Archipelago. ... Semeru volcano Semeru is the tallest volcano on the island of Java and is also one of its most active. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java The Sundanese are an ethnic group in the western part of the island of Java in Indonesia, numbering approximately 31 million. ... The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. ... The Tenggerese are the descendants of the Majapahit princes. ... Badui man The Badui (also known as Kanekes) are the descendants of the Pajajaran princes. ... The Indonesian Osing people are the descendants of the Majapahit princes who refused to convert to Islam in the 16th century. ... Cirebonese is a mixture of Javanese and Sundanese (with heavier influence of Javanese). ... The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or people of Batavia) are the descendants of the people living around Batavia (the colonial name for Jakarta) from around the 17th century. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ...


Formed mostly as the result of volcanic events, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in Indonesia. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, and most residents are bilingual, with Indonesian as their second language. While the majority of Javanese are Muslim, Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs and cultures. Islands by area. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia. ...

Contents

Etymology

The origins of the name 'Java' are not clear. One possibility is early travellers from India named the island after the jáwa-wut plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization the island had different names.[1] There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant".[2] But it may be connected with Javanese word 'jaba' whose polite form 'jawi' means 'outside', meanwhile 'jawi' is also polite form of 'jawa' ethnonym of Javanese itself. There is also a Javanese verb 'njawa' means 'being understood, being civilized', but subjectively it may be a Javanese concept of 'being javanese is same with being civilized people' or 'Javanese are civilized people' and not really etymologically. And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous.[3] Other source states that the "java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, meaning 'home'.[4] Binomial name Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ...


Outsiders often referred to Java and the neighboring islands by the same name, or use names inconsistently for different islands. For example, Marco Polo refers to neighbouring Sumatra as "little Java"[5] and Ptolemy refers to Sumatra as Jaba-diu.[6] Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...


History

For more details on this topic, see History of Indonesia.

Java is known for several important finds of early hominid specimens.[7] In particular, the 1891 discovery of cranial fossil remains commonly known as "Java man" (now designated as Trinil 2, after the Trinil site on the Bengawan Solo River) is notable as the first early hominid specimen found outside Europe. In the following course of human history, several kingdoms existed on Java. The first kingdoms ruled there were Indianized kingdoms like Tarumanagara and Sunda, influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism. Sailendra (8–9th century), Mataram (752–1045), Kediri (1045–1221), Singhasari (1222–1292) and Majapahit (1293–1500) were among them, leaving evidence of their existence throughout Java. Among many other temples in Java, Borobudur (a Buddhist temple) and Prambanan (a Hindu temple) are the most famous relics of the old Javanese kingdoms, both of which are listed in the UNESCO world heritage site. Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Pithecanthropus erectus redirects here. ... Trinil 2 is the fossilized upper cranium of the species Homo erectus. ... Trinil is a palaeoanthropological site on the banks of the Bengawan Solo River in Java, Indonesia. ... The Bengawan Solo River (alternatively, Solo River) is the longest river on the Indonesian island of Java, approximately 540 km in length. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taruma kingdom. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... This acticle concerns the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram. ... Kediri was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1042 to around 1222. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Candi (pronounced chaan-dee) are Hindu and Buddhist temples or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built between the 8th to the 15th centuries. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia, located in central Java, approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta ( ). It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya dynasty. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Islam spread into the Indonesian archipelago, including Java, in the thirteenth century. At the time, the Wali Songo (the "nine ambassadors") were the most prominent Muslim evangelists in the region. The spread of Islam (1200–1600) took place first in coastal cities, which developed into Muslim states, such as Sultanate of Demak (1475–1518) and Mataram Sultanate (1500s–1700s). For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The nine walis were Sufi teachers who spread Islam and did all variety of powerful and unusual acts across Java. ... Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... This article is about a historic kingdom on Java in what is now Indonesia. ...

Early 18th century Dutch map; only the north coastal ports of Java are well known.

In 1602, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) arrived in the archipelago and subsequently occupied and maintained control of trade and power for more than 300 years. VOC established Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the northern coast of Java as its trading center and administrative headquarters. Other north coastal cities, such as Semarang and Surabaya, developed into major trading harbors. The Dutch also developed Bandung in the inner mountainous region of West Java to which they had planned to move the capital from Batavia. This page is about the year. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - Total 459. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ...


Java was briefly governed by the British East India Company (1811–1816) under the appointed Lieutenant Governor General Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, while Holland was occupied by France during the Napoleonic wars. During Raffles' administration he introduced partial self-government, a land-tenure system, and abolished the slave trade. Besides that, Raffles developed a strong interest in Javanese culture and restored several temples, including Borobudur. Raffles also wrote the famous book of "The History of Java", the first book that described Java's civilization and culture to the outside world. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Thomas Stamford Raffles. ...


After Indonesian independence in 1945 Jakarta remained as the capital, while Java itself has grown into the most crowded area in Indonesia. Although parts of rural Java are still underdeveloped, the urban areas are the wealthiest and most developed parts of Indonesia. The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Geography

Java lies between Sumatra to the northwest and Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island to the south. It is the world's 13th largest island. Image File history File links Semeru_Bromo_Temple. ... Image File history File links Semeru_Bromo_Temple. ... Semeru volcano Semeru is the tallest volcano on the island of Java and one of the most active. ... Mount Bromo also Gunung Bromo, located in the Tengger Caldera, is one of the most popular tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Islands by area. ...


Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains no fewer than thirty-eight mountains forming an east-west spine which have at one time or another been active volcanoes. The highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru (3,676 m). The most active volcano in Java and also in Indonesia is Mount Merapi (2,914 m). See Volcanoes of Java. Further mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world.[8] This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Semeru volcano Semeru is the tallest volcano on the island of Java and is also one of its most active. ... Mount Merapi is a conical volcano in Central Java, Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The area of Java is approximately 132,000km2.[9] The island's longest river is the 600 km long Bengawan Solo River.[10] The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano, the flows north and eastwards to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya. For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... “km” redirects here. ... The Bengawan Solo River (alternatively, Solo River) is the longest river on the Indonesian island of Java, approximately 540 km in length. ... The Java Sea (Jawa Sea) is a large (310,000 km²), shallow sea in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - Total 459. ...


The island is administratively divided into four provinces (Banten, West Java, Central Java, and East Java), one special region (Yogyakarta), and one special capital district (Jakarta). The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Popular tourist destinations include the city of Yogyakarta, the huge Buddhist stupa complex of Borobudur, the Hindu temples at Prambanan, and Mount Bromo in East Java. Yogyakarta (also Jogjakarta in pre-1972 spelling or Jogja) is a city and province on the island of Java, Indonesia. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia, located in central Java, approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta ( ). It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya dynasty. ... Mount Bromo also Gunung Bromo, located in the Tengger Caldera, is one of the most popular tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. ...


Demographics

Central Jakarta

Java is by far the most populous island in Indonesia, with approximately 62% of the country's population,[11] and is the most populous island in the world. With 130 million inhabitants at 1026 people per km², it is also one of the most densely-populated parts of the world. If it were a country, it would be the second-most densely-populated country of the world after Bangladesh, if very small city-states are excluded.[12] Approximately 45% of the population of Indonesia is ethnically Javanese.[13] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 893 KB) Summary created by Daniel Berthold Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jakarta Java (island) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 893 KB) Summary created by Daniel Berthold Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jakarta Java (island) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Since the 1970s the Indonesian government has run transmigration programs aimed at resettling the population of Java on other less-populated islands of Indonesia. This program has met with mixed results; sometimes causing conflicts between the locals and the recently arrived settlers. The transmigration program (transmigrasi in Indonesia) was an initiative by the government of Indonesia to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the Indonesian archipelago. ... Settlers are people who have travelled of their own choice, from the land of their birth to live in new lands or colonies. ...


Ethnicity and culture

See also: Culture of Indonesia

Despite its large population and in contrast to the other larger islands of Indonesia, Java is comparatively homogeneous in ethnic composition. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island - the Javanese and Sundanese. A third group is the Madurese, who inhabit the island of Madura off the north east coast of Java, and have immigrated to East Java in large numbers since the 18th century.[14] The Javanese comprise about two-thirds of the island's population, while the Sundanese and Madurese account for 20% and 10% respectively.[14] Statue of Dewi Sri in Ubud, Bali. ... The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. ... Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java The Sundanese are an ethnic group in the western part of the island of Java in Indonesia, numbering approximately 31 million. ... The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. ... Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ...


Four major cultural areas exist on the island: the kejawen or the Javanese heartland, the north coast of the pasisir region, the Sunda lands of West Java, and the eastern salient, also known as Blambangan. Madura makes up a fifth area having close cultural ties with coastal Java.[14] Javanese beliefs (Kebatinan or Kejawen) have principles embodying a search for inner self but at the core is the concept of Peace Of Mind. ... Sunda may refer to: Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the western part of the Malay archipelago Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands Sunda Strait, the strait between Java and Sumatra Sunda Shelf, part of the continental shelf of Southeast Asia, covered by the South China Sea which isolates... The Regency of Banyuwangi is located at the easternmost end of the Indonesian island of Java, and it is a very strategic area for one who wants to go to Bali. ...


In the southwestern part of Central Java, usually named the Banyumasan region, a cultural mingling occurred; bringing together Javanese culture and Sundanese culture to create the Banyumasan culture. In the central Javanese court cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, contemporary kings trace their lineages back to the pre-colonial Islamic kingdoms that ruled the region, making those places especially strong repositories of classical Javanese culture. Classic arts of Java include gamelan music and wayang puppet shows. For the place, it is better to say Banyumas. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... For the place, it is better to say Banyumas. ... Yogyakarta (also Jogjakarta in pre-1972 spelling or Jogja) is a city and province on the island of Java, Indonesia. ... Surakarta (its formal name; locally it is referred to as Solo) is an Indonesian city of approximately 500,000 people located in Central Java. ... Javanese gamelan at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. ... Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. ...


Java was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian region, and as a result, many literary works have been written by Javanese authors. These include Ken Arok and Ken Dedes, the story of the orphan who usurped his king, and married the queen of the ancient Javanese kingdom; and translations of Ramayana and Mahabarata. Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary Indonesian author, who has written many stories based on his own experiences of having grown up in Java, and takes many elements from Javanese folklore and historical legends. Ken Arok or Ken Angrok, (d. ... This article does not make a clear distinction between fact and fiction. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is the great religious, philosophical and mythological epic of India. ... Pramoedya Ananta Toer (February 6 1925 - April 30 2006) was an Indonesian author of novels, short stories, essays, polemics, and histories of his homeland and its people. ...


Languages

Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white)

The three major languages spoken on Java are Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese. Other languages spoken include Betawi (a Malay dialect local to the Jakarta region), Osing and Tenggerese (closely related to Javanese), Badui (closely related to Sundanese), Kangeanese (closely related to Madurese), and Balinese.[15] The vast majority of the population also speaks Indonesian, generally as a second language. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sundanese (Basa Sunda, literally language of Sunda) is the language of about 27 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population. ... Madurese is the spoken language of people from Madura island in Indonesia; it is also spoken on Kangean Islands, Sapudi Islands, and in parts of province of East Java. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The Indonesian Osing people are the descendants of the Majapahit princes who refused to convert to Islam in the 16th century. ... The Tenggerese are the descendants of the Majapahit princes. ... Badui man The Badui (also known as Kanekes) are the descendants of the Pajajaran princes. ... The Kangean Islands, a part of Indonesia, are located in the Java Sea approximately 120 km (75 miles) north of Bali and 120 km east of Madura. ... Balinese is the language spoken by people in the island of Bali, Indonesia. ...


Religion

More than 90 percent of Javanese are Muslims, on a broad continuum between abangan (more nominal or syncretic) and santri (more orthodox). Small Hindu enclaves are scattered throughout Java, but there is a large Hindu population along the eastern coast nearest Bali, especially around the town of Banyuwangi. There are also Christian communities, mostly in the larger cities, though some rural areas of south-central Java are strongly Roman Catholic. Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities, primarily among the Chinese Indonesian. The Indonesian constitution recognises six official religions. (See Religion in Indonesia.) Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... The Abangan form a large majorty of the Javanese Muslims. ... The Santri are the population of Javanese Muslims who practice more orthodox version of Islam in contrast to the abangan classes. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... The Regency of Banyuwangi is located at the easternmost end of the island of Java, and it is a very strategic area for one who wants to go to Bali. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... Chinese Indonesians (Mandarin: Yìndùníxīyà Huárén (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. ... Indonesia religions map Religion plays a major role in life in Indonesia. ...


Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has created a broad range of religious belief. Indian influences came first with Shivaism and Buddhism penetrating deeply into society, blending with indigenous tradition and culture.[16] One conduit for this were the ascetics, called resi, who taught mystical practices. A resi lived surrounded by students, who took care of their master's daily needs. Resi's authorities was merely ceremonial. At the courts, Brahmin clerics and pudjangga (sacred literati) legitimised rulers and linked Hindu cosmology to their political needs.[16] Śaivism is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Islam, which came after Hinduism, strengthened the status structure of this traditional religious pattern. The Muslim scholar of the writ (kyai) became the new religious elite as Hindu influences receded. Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood, but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools. In Javanese Islamic schools (pesantren), kyai prepertuated the tradition of resi. Students around him provided his needs, even peasants around the school.[16] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the...


Pre-Islamic Javanese traditions have encouraged Islam in a mystical direction. There emerged in Java a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around kyais, possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore, dogma and practice.[16] The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. However, this very looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. There were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who merely instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam with modern scientific concepts. As a result, there is a division between santri, who believe that they are more orthodox in their Islamic belief and practice, with abangan, who has mixed pre-Islamic animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with a superficial acceptance of Islamic dogma.[16] Look up lore in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Abangan form a large majorty of the Javanese Muslims. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


A wider effect of this division is the number of sects. In the middle of 1956, the Department of Religious Affairs in Yogyakarta reported 63 religious sects in Java other than the official Indonesian religions. Of these, 35 were in Central Java, 22 in West Java and 6 in East Java.[16] These include Kejawen, Sumarah, Subud, etc. Their total membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents identify themselves with one of the official religions.[17] The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... Javanese beliefs (Kebatinan or Kejawen) have principles embodying a search for inner self but at the core is the concept of Peace Of Mind. ... Subud (pronounced IPA: ) is an international spiritual association of people of all religions as well as people with no religious affiliation. ...


Further reading

  • Cribb, Robert (2000). Historical Atlas of Indonesia. London and Honolulu: RoutledgeCurzon Press, University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2111-4. 

See also

The 2005 Java-Bali Blackout refers to a massive power outage on Java — the main island of Indonesia in which the capital Jakarta is located — and Bali on August 18, 2005. ... 2007 Java earthquake refers to a magnitude 7. ... The May 2006 Java earthquake occurred at 05:54 local time on 27 May 2006 (22:54 GMT 26 May), in the Indian Ocean around 25 km (15 miles) south-southwest of the Indonesian city of Yogyakarta, near Galur, on the southern side of the island of Java (), 17. ... Map showing location of epicentre The July 2006 Java earthquake was a magnitude 7. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A 1995 AX2/AY Model Ford Telstar TX5 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


References

  1. ^ Raffles, Thomas E. : " The History of Java". Oxford University Press, 1965. Page 2
  2. ^ Raffles, Thomas E. : "The History of Java". Oxford University Press, 1965. Page 3
  3. ^ Raffles, Thomas E. : "The History of Java". Oxford University Press, 1965. Page 3
  4. ^ Hatley, R., Schiller, J., Lucas, A., Martin-Schiller, B., (1984). "Mapping cultural regions of Java" in: Other Javas away from the kraton. pp. 1-32.
  5. ^ The book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, concerning the kingdoms and marvels of the East. Newly tr. and ed. with notes, maps, and other illustrations. By Colonel Henry Yule. London, John Murray, 1875. Page 267
  6. ^ Asiatick researches, or, Transactions of the society instituted in Bengal, for inquiring into the history and antiquities, the arts, sciences, and literature, of Asia. London : Printed by T. Maiden, for Vernor, Hood, and Sharpe ; Cuthell and Martin , 1806–1807. Page 38
  7. ^ Indonesia – Early History Country Studies US. Retrieved 26 July 2006
  8. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300 (2nd edition). London: MacMillan, page 15. ISBN 0-333-57690-X. 
  9. ^ Monk,, K.A.; Fretes, Y., Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd., page 7. ISBN 962-593-076-0. 
  10. ^ Management of Bengawan Solo River Area Jasa Tirta I Corporation 2004. Retrieved 26 July 2006
  11. ^ Embassy of Indonesia, Ottawa
  12. ^ Calder, Joshua (3 May 2006). Most Populous Islands. World Island Information. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  13. ^ CIA factbook
  14. ^ a b c Hefner, Robert (1997). Java. Singapore: Periplus Editions, page 58. ISBN ISBN 962-593-244-5. 
  15. ^ Languages of Java and Bali – Ethnologue. Other sources may list some of these as dialects rather than languages.
  16. ^ a b c d e f van der Kroef, Justus M. (1961). "New Religious Sects in Java". Far Eastern Survey 30 (2): 18—15. 
  17. ^ Beatty, Andrew, Varieties of Javanese Religion: An Anthropological Account, Cambridge University Press 1999, ISBN 0-521-62473-8

is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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