FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Jaundice" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Jaundice
Look up jaundice in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Jaundice, NOS
Classification & external resources
Yellowing of the skin and sclera caused by Hepatitis A.
ICD-10 R17.
ICD-9 782.4
DiseasesDB 7038
MedlinePlus 003243
MeSH D007565

Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: "icteric"), is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in red blooded animals). Usually the concentration of bilirubin in the blood must exceed 2–3 mg/dL for the coloration to be easily visible. Jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow. Jaundice typically appears in a 'top to bottom' progression (starting with the face, progressing toward the feet), and resolves in a 'bottom to top' manner. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links PHIL_2860_lores. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Schematic diagram of the human eye. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... Schematic diagram of the human eye. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... A decilitre (or deciliter), abbreviated dL or dl, is one tenth of a litre, or 1×10−4 m3, or 100 millilitre. ...

Contents

Causes

When red blood cells die, the heme in their hemoglobin is converted to bilirubin in the spleen and in the hepatocytes in the liver. The bilirubin is processed by the liver, enters bile and is eventually excreted through feces. “Red cell” redirects here. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...


Consequently, there are three different classes of causes for jaundice. Pre-hepatic or hemolytic causes, where too many red blood cells are broken down, hepatic causes where the processing of bilirubin in the liver does not function correctly, and post-hepatic or extrahepatic causes, where the removal of bile is disturbed. Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ...


Pre-hepatic

'Pre-hepatic' -(or hemolytic) jaundice is caused by anything which causes an increased rate of hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells). In tropical countries, malaria can cause jaundice in this manner. Certain genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can lead to increased red cell lysis and therefore hemolytic jaundice. Commonly, diseases of the kidney, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, can also lead to coloration. Defects in bilirubin metabolism also present as jaundice. Jaundice usually comes with high fevers. {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... Sickle-shaped red blood cells Sickle cell anemia (American English), sickle cell anaemia (British English) or sickle cell disease is a genetic disease in which red blood cells may change shape under certain circumstances. ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease featuring nonimmune hemolytic anemia in response to a number of causes. ... In medicine, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, abbreviated HUS) is a disease characterised by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure and a low platelet count (thrombopenia). ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are broken down in the spleen, liver sinusioids, and bones. ...


The laboratory findings include

  • Urine: no bilirubin present, urobilirubin > 2 units (except in infants where gut flora has not developed).
  • Serum: increased unconjugated bilirubin.

Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ...

Hepatic

Cat with noticeable jaundice from Feline Hepatic Lipidosis. Note the ears and eye-membrane.
Cat with noticeable jaundice from Feline Hepatic Lipidosis. Note the ears and eye-membrane.

Hepatic causes include acute hepatitis, hepatotoxicity and alcoholic liver disease, whereby cell necrosis reduces the liver's ability to metabolise and excrete bilirubin leading to a buildup in the blood. Less common causes include primary biliary cirrhosis, Gilbert's syndrome (a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism which can result in mild jaundice, which is found in about 5% of the population) and metastatic carcinoma. Jaundice seen in the newborn, known as neonatal jaundice, is common, occurring in almost every newborn as hepatic machinery for the conjugation and excretion of bilirubin does not fully mature until approximately two weeks of age.. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1350 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1350 pixel, file size: 1. ... Cat with noticeable jaundice from late-stage Feline Hepatic Lipidosis. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gilberts syndrome (pr. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ...


Laboratory Findings: Urine: bilirubin present, Urobilirubin > 2 units but variable (Except in children)


Post-hepatic

Post-hepatic (or obstructive) jaundice, also called cholestasis, is caused by an interruption to the drainage of bile in the biliary system. The most common causes are gallstones in the common bile duct, and pancreatic cancer in the head of the pancreas. Also, a group of parasites known as "liver flukes" live in the common bile duct, causing obstructive jaundice. Other causes include strictures of the common bile duct, biliary atresia, ductal carcinoma, pancreatitis and pancreatic pseudocysts. A rare cause of obstructive jaundice is Mirizzi's syndrome. In medicine, cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ... Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor within the pancreatic gland. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Liver flukes are a polyphyletic group of a trematodes (a kind of flatworm). ... Biliary atresia is a rare condition in newborn children in which the biliary tract between the liver and the intestine is blocked or absent. ... Ductal carcinoma can refer to: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma Ductal carcinoma in situ This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... A pancreatic pseudocyst is a circumscribed collection of pancreatic fluid typically located in the lesser omentum. ... Mirizzis syndrome is a rare cause of acquired jaundice. ...


The presence of pale stools and dark urine suggests an obstructive or post-hepatic cause as normal feces get their color from bile pigments. Bilins or bilanes are biological pigments formed in many organisms as a metabolic product of certain porphyrins. ...


Patients often complain of severe itching or "pruritus".


Neonatal jaundice

Main article: Neonatal jaundice

Neonatal jaundice is usually harmless: this condition is often seen in infants around the second day after birth, lasting until day 8 in normal births, or to around day 14 in premature births. Serum bilirubin normally drops to a low level without any intervention required: the jaundice is presumably a consequence of metabolic and physiological adjustments after birth. In extreme cases, a brain-damaging condition known as kernicterus can occur; there are concerns that this condition has been rising in recent years due to inadequate detection and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal jaundice is a risk factor for hearing loss.[1] Jaundice, also known as icterus (adjective:Icteric), is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Kernicterus is damage to the brain centers of infants caused by jaundice. ...


Jaundiced Eye

It was once believed persons suffering from the medical condition jaundice saw everything as yellow. By extension, the jaundiced eye came to mean a prejudiced view, usually rather negative or critical. Alexander Pope, in 'An Essay on Criticism' (1711), wrote: "All seems infected that the infected spy, As all looks yellow to the jaundiced eye." [2] For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ...


See also

In medicine, cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Increased vigilance needed to prevent kernicterus in newborns -- O�Keefe 18 (5): 231 -- AAP News. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  2. ^ From "The Dictionary of Cliches" by James Rogers (Ballantine Books, New York, 1985).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jaundice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (611 words)
Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: "icteric"), is a yellowing of the skin, conjuctiva (clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body (or the body of another red blooded animal).
Pre-hepatic (or hemolytic) jaundice is caused by anything which causes an increased rate of hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells).
Jaundice seen in the newborn, known as neonatal jaudice, is common, occurring in almost every newborn as hepatic machinery for the conjugation and excretion of bilirubin does not fully mature until approximately two weeks of age.
Jaundice (1327 words)
A temporary jaundice of newborn babies is however quite common, due to the relative immaturity of the baby's liver cells and the higher than normal rate of cell breakdown that occurs in the first few weeks of life.
Jaundice of the newborn is commoner in premature babies as their liver is even more immature than a baby born at term.
When jaundice is due to obstruction of the bile duct the person will often notice that their urine becomes dark and stools become pale, as the excess bilirubin 'spills over' into the urine and no longer colours the stool.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m