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Encyclopedia > Japanese war crimes
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Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. Other names, such as the Asian Holocaust and Japanese war atrocities, are also used for these war crimes. Some war crimes were committed by military personnel from the Empire of Japan in the late 19th century, although most took place during the first part of the Shōwa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the military defeat of the Empire of Japan, in 1945. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Flag of Japan adopted 1870, official 1999 Japanese Naval Ensign adopted 1889, re-adopted 1954 The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai Nippon Teikoku) was the official title of Japan before the end of World War II. The names Imperial Japan and Japanese Empire are also used. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901–January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Japanese representatives on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Historians and governments of many countries officially hold Japanese military forces, namely the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy, responsible for killings and other crimes committed against many millions of civilians and prisoners of war (POWs). A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

Contents

Definitions

Hsuchow, China, 1938. A ditch full of the bodies of Chinese civilians, killed by Japanese soldiers.
Hsuchow, China, 1938. A ditch full of the bodies of Chinese civilians, killed by Japanese soldiers.[1]

War crimes may be broadly defined as unconscionable behavior by a government or military personnel against either enemy civilians or enemy combatants. Military personnel from the Empire of Japan have been accused and/or convicted of committing many such acts during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. They have been accused of conducting a series of human rights abuses against civilians and prisoners of war (POWs) throughout East Asia and the western Pacific region. These events reached their height during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 193745 and the Asian and Pacific campaigns of World War II (1941-45) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Xuzhou (Chinese: 徐州; Hanyu Pinyin: ), known as Pengcheng (Chinese: 彭城; Hanyu Pinyin: ) in ancient times, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... There are differences from one country to another regarding the definition of Japanese war crimes. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Flag of Japan adopted 1870, official 1999 Japanese Naval Ensign adopted 1889, re-adopted 1954 The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai Nippon Teikoku) was the official title of Japan before the end of World War II. The names Imperial Japan and Japanese Empire are also used. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Human rights violation. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Geographic East Asia. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic subdivisions. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants China Allies (entered 1941):  United States  Philippines  United Kingdom  Australia Free France  Netherlands  New Zealand  Canada  Soviet Union (1945) Japan  Germany (from 1941)  Manchukuo Thailand (from 1942) Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Manuel L. Quezon Jose P. Laurel from 1943 Sergio Osmeña Winston Churchill John Curtin... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


International and Japanese law

Although the Empire of Japan did not sign the Geneva Conventions, which have provided the standard definition of war crimes since 1864, the crimes committed fall under other aspects of international and Japanese law. For example, many of the alleged crimes committed by Japanese personnel broke Japanese military law, and were not subject to court martial, as required by that law.[2] The Empire also violated international agreements signed by Japan, including provisions of the Treaty of Versailles such as a ban on the use of chemical weapons, and the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907), which protect prisoners of war (POWs). The Japanese government also signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1929), thereby rendering its actions in 1937-45 liable to charges of crimes against peace, a charge that was introduced at the Tokyo Trials to prosecute "Class A" war criminals. "Class B" war criminals were those found guilty of war crimes per se, and "Class C" war criminals were those guilty of crimes against humanity. The Japanese government also accepted the terms set by the Potsdam Declaration (1945) after the end of the war. The declaration alluded, in Article 10, to two kinds of war crime: one was the violation of international laws, such as the abuse of prisoners of war; the other was obstructing "democratic tendencies among the Japanese people" and civil liberties within Japan. The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of illegally starting a war. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Democracy describes a number of related forms of government. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


In Japan, the term "Japanese war crimes" generally only refers to cases tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, also known as the Tokyo Trials, following the end of the Pacific War. However, the tribunal did not prosecute war crimes allegations involving mid-ranking officers or more junior personnel. Those were dealt with separately in other cities throughout the Asia-Pacific region. President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Combatants China Allies (entered 1941):  United States  Philippines  United Kingdom  Australia Free France  Netherlands  New Zealand  Canada  Soviet Union (1945) Japan  Germany (from 1941)  Manchukuo Thailand (from 1942) Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Manuel L. Quezon Jose P. Laurel from 1943 Sergio Osmeña Winston Churchill John Curtin...

Aitape, New Guinea, 1943. An Australian soldier, Sgt Leonard Siffleet, about to be beheaded with a katana sword. Many Allied prisoners of war were summarily executed by Japanese forces during the Pacific War.

Japanese law does not define those convicted in the post-1945 trials as criminals, despite the fact that Japan's governments have accepted the judgments made in the trials, and in the Treaty of San Francisco (1952). This is because the treaty does not mention the legal validity of the tribunal. Had Japan certified the legal validity of the war crimes tribunals in the San Francisco Treaty, the war crimes would have became open to appeal and overturning in Japanese courts. This would have been unacceptable in international diplomatic circles.[citation needed] The current Japanese jurists' consensus regarding the legal standing of the Tokyo tribunal is that the execution and/or incarceration of an individual as result of the post-war trials is valid, but has no relationship to Japanese criminal law.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata LeonardGSiffleet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LeonardGSiffleet. ... Aitape is a small town of about 8,000 people on the north coast of Papua New Guinea in the Sandaun province. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... Summary execution of NVA spy during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants China Allies (entered 1941):  United States  Philippines  United Kingdom  Australia Free France  Netherlands  New Zealand  Canada  Soviet Union (1945) Japan  Germany (from 1941)  Manchukuo Thailand (from 1942) Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Manuel L. Quezon Jose P. Laurel from 1943 Sergio Osmeña Winston Churchill John Curtin... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru gives a speech on reconciliation and rapport ) at the San Francisco Peace conference. ...

Historical and geographical extent

Outside Japan, different societies use widely different timeframes in defining Japanese war crimes. For example, the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910 was followed by the deprivation of civil liberties and exploitations against the Korean people. Thus, some Koreans refer to "Japanese war crimes" as events occurring during the period of 1910 (or earlier) to 1945.[3] Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or 조선 in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


By comparison, the Western Allies did not come into military conflict with Japan until 1941, and North Americans, Australasians, South East Asians and Europeans may consider "Japanese war crimes" to be events that occurred in 1941-45.[4] The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States, (from 1941), Italy... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Japanese war crimes were not always carried out by ethnic Japanese personnel. A small minority of people in every Asian and Pacific country invaded and/or occupied by Japan collaborated with the Japanese military, or even served in it, for a wide variety of reasons, such as economic hardship, coercion, or antipathy to other imperialist powers.[citation needed] Languages Japanese Religions Shinto, Buddhism, large secular groups      The Japanese people ) is the ethnic group that identifies as Japanese by culture and/or ancestry. ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ...


Japan's sovereignty over Korea and Formosa, in the first half of the 20th century, was recognized by international agreements — the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) and the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty (1910) — and they were considered at the time to be integral parts of the Japanese Empire. However, the legality of these treaties is in question,[5] the native populations were not consulted, there was armed resistance to Japan's annexations, and war crimes may also be committed during civil wars. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Annexation of Korea by Japan, also called in Korea 경술국치(庚戌國恥), meaning Humiliation of the Nation in the Year of the Dog, was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


Background

Two Japanese officers, Toshiaki Mukai and Tsuyoshi Noda competing to see who could kill (with a sword) one hundred people first. The bold headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest To Cut Down 100 People—Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings"

Image File history File links Slayers. ... Image File history File links Slayers. ... The Contest To Behead 100 People was an event that occurred in China during the Nanking Massacre. ...

Japanese military culture and imperialism

Main articles : Militarism-Socialism in Showa Japan, Japanese militarism, Eugenics in Showa Japan, Xenophobia in Showa Japan This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Japanese militarism (日本軍国主義) refers to militarism, the philosophical belief that military personnel (army or navy) should exercise full power in a nation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Military culture, especially during Japan's imperialist phase had great bearing on the conduct of the Japanese military before and during World War II. Flag of Japan adopted 1870, official 1999 Japanese Naval Ensign adopted 1889, re-adopted 1954 The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai Nippon Teikoku) was the official title of Japan before the end of World War II. The names Imperial Japan and Japanese Empire are also used. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Centuries previously, the samurai of Japan had been taught unquestioning obedience to their lords, as well as to be fearless in battle. After the Meiji Restoration and the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate, the Emperor became the focus of military loyalty. During the so-called "Age of Empire" in the late 19th century, Japan followed the lead of other world powers in developing an empire, pursuing that objective aggressively. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As with other imperial powers, Japanese popular culture became increasingly jingoistic through the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century. The rise of Japanese nationalism was seen partly in the adoption of Shinto as a state religion from 1890, including its entrenchment in the education system. Shinto held the Emperor to be divine because he was deemed to be a descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu. This provided justification for the requirement that the emperor and his representatives be obeyed without question. The Spirit of 76 by Archibald McNeal Willard, 1891 Jingoism is a term describing chauvinistic patriotism, especially with regard to a hawkish political stance. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ...


Victory in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) signified Japan's rise to the status of a world power. Unlike the other major powers, Japan did not sign the Geneva Convention — which stipulates the humane treatment of civilians and POWs — until after World War II. Nevertheless, the treatment of prisoners by the Japanese military in wars such as the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) and World War I (1914-18), was at least as humane as that of other militaries.[citation needed] Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


During the Meiji and Taisho eras, the prisoners were generally treated in a much less brutal manner than in the Showa era. The Imperial Proclamation of War of 1894 stated that Japanese soldiers should make every effort to win the war without violating international law. The Meiji forces released 1,790 Chinese prisoners after demanding they sign an agreement not to take up arms against the Japanese state again. Upon signing this agreement, the prisoners were released on the battlefield without being held in detention camps. During the Russo-Japanese war, all 79,367 Russian prisoners were released at the end of the war after having been paid accordingly to the Hague Convention. [6] Meiji (明 bright, brilliant æ²» reign, government) may refer to: Meiji Restoration, the revolution that ushered in the Meiji Era Meiji period - the period in Japanese history when the Meiji Emperor reigned Emperor Meiji of Japan - Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor, who reigned during Meiji Era Meiji Constitution - ie. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Taisho period (大正 Taishō, lit. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ...


The events of the 1930s and 1940s

By the late 1930s, the rise of militarism in Japan created at least superficial similarities between the wider Japanese military culture and that of Nazi Germany's elite military personnel, such as those in the Waffen-SS. Japan also had a military secret police force, known as the Kempeitai, which resembled the Nazi Gestapo in its role in annexed and occupied countries. Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


As in other dictatorships, irrational brutality, hatred and fear became commonplace. Perceived failure, or insufficient devotion to the Emperor would attract punishment, frequently of the physical kind. In the military, officers would assault and beat men under their command, who would pass the beating on to lower ranks, all the way down. In POW camps, this meant prisoners received the worst beatings of all.[citation needed]


The crimes

Because of the sheer scale of suffering caused by the Japanese military during the 1930s and 1940s, it is often compared to the military of Nazi Germany during 1933–45. The historian Chalmers Johnson has written that: Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Chalmers Ashby Johnson is a professor emeritus of the University of California, San Diego. ...

It may be pointless to try to establish which World War Two Axis aggressor, Germany or Japan, was the more brutal to the peoples it victimised. The Germans killed six million Jews and 20 million Russians [i.e. Soviet citizens]; the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese. Both nations looted the countries they conquered on a monumental scale, though Japan plundered more, over a longer period, than the Nazis. Both conquerors enslaved millions and exploited them as forced labourers — and, in the case of the Japanese, as [forced] prostitutes for front-line troops. If you were a Nazi prisoner of war from Britain, America, Australia, New Zealand or Canada (but not Russia) you faced a 4 % chance of not surviving the war; [by comparison] the death rate for Allied POWs held by the Japanese was nearly 30 %.[7]

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the up to 200,000 women who served in the Japanese armys brothels during World War II. Historians and researchers into the subject have stated that the majority were from Korea, China and other occupied territories and were recruited... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Mass killings

R. J. Rummel, a professor of political science at the University of Hawaii, states that between 1937 and 1945, the Japanese military murdered near 3,000,000 to over 10,000,000 people, most probably 6,000,000 Chinese, Indonesians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Indochinese, among others, including Western prisoners of war. This democide was due to a morally bankrupt political and military strategy, military expediency and custom, and national culture."[8] Among the most infamous incidents in Southeast Asia were the Manila massacre, which resulted in the deaths of 100,000 civilians in the Phillipines and the Sook Ching massacre, in which between 25,000 and 50,000 ethnic Chinese in Singapore were taken to beaches and massacred. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended...


In China alone, during 1937-45, approximately 3.9 million Chinese were killed, mostly civilians as a direct result of the Japanese invasion.[9] The most infamous incident during this period was the Nanking Massacre of 1937-38, when, according to the findings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, the Japanese Army massacred as many as 430,000 civilians and prisoners of war, although the accepted figure is somewhere in the hundreds of thousands.[10] Herbert Bix, citing the works of Mitsuyoshi Himeta and Akira Fujiwara, claims that the "Three Alls Policy" (Sankō Sakusen) a scorched earth strategy used by Japanese forces in China in 1942-45, and sanctioned by Hirohito himself, was in itself responsible for the deaths of 2.7 million Chinese civilians. The mystery behind Hirohito's role is explained in the authoritative book by David Bergamini, who translated war diaries and depositions from the tribunals from the original Japanese, and interviewed sources directly.Similar crimes such as Changjiao massacre did occur from time to time.[citation needed] For the 2007 documentary film about the Nanking Massacre, see Nanking (film). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Herbert P. Bix is the author of Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, an acclaimed account of the Japanese Emperor and the events which shaped modern Japanese imperialism. ... The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901–January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... David Bergamini (b. ... The Changjiao massacre (Chinese:厂窖惨案) was a massacre aiming the chinese civilians by Japanese China Expeditionary Army in Hunan,ChangJiao. ...


Experiments on humans and biological warfare

Special Japanese military units conducted experiments on civilians and POWs in China. One of the most infamous was Unit 731. Victims were subjected to vivisection without anesthesia, amputations, and were used to test biological weapons, among other experiments. Anesthesia was not used because it was considered to affect results. In some victims, animal blood was injected into their bodies. Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ...

To determine the treatment of frostbite, prisoners were taken outside in freezing weather and left with exposed arms, periodically drenched with water until frozen solid. The arm was later amputated; the doctor would repeat the process on the victim’s upper arm to the shoulder. After both arms were gone, the doctors moved on to the legs until only a head and torso remained. The victim was then used for plague and pathogens experiments.[11]

According to GlobalSecurity.org, the experiments carried out by Unit 731 alone caused 3,000 deaths.[12] Furthermore, "tens of thousands, and perhaps as many 200,000, Chinese died of bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax and other diseases...", resulting from the use of biological warfare.


One of the most notorious cases of human experimentation occurred in Japan itself. At least nine out of 12 crew members survived the crash of a U.S. Army Air Forces B-29 bomber on Kyūshū, on May 5, 1945. The bomber's commander was sent to Tokyo for interrogation, while the other survivors were taken to the anatomy department of Kyushu University, at Fukuoka, where they were subjected to vivisection and/or killed.[13] On March 11, 1948, 30 people including several doctors were brought to trial by the Allied war crimes tribunal. Charges of cannibalism were dropped, but 23 people were found guilty of vivisection and/or wrongful removal of body parts. Five were sentenced to death, four to life imprisonment, and the rest to shorter terms. In 1950, the military governor of Japan, General Douglas MacArthur, commuted all of the death sentences and significantly reduced most of the prison terms. All of those convicted in relation to the university vivisection were free by 1958. The United States Army Air Forces, or USAAF, was a part of the U.S. military during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... KyÅ«shÅ« region of Japan and the current prefectures on KyÅ«shÅ« island KyÅ«shÅ« ), literally Nine Provinces, is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... New Hospital bldg Campus of Maidashi area in prior to Greater East Asia War (This picture exists in Department of Medicine attachment library ) Kyushu University ), abbreviated to Kyudai ), is one of Japans most prestigious national universities and the largest public university on the island of KyÅ«shÅ«. It is... Fukuoka can refer to several locations in Japan: Fukuoka Prefecture (福岡県) Fukuoka City (福岡市) in Fukuoka Prefecture Two towns in Japan are named Fukuoka (福岡町): Fukuoka in Toyama Prefecture and Fukuoka in Gifu Prefecture. ... General of the Army Douglas MacArthur KCB (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964), was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippines Army. ...


In 2006, former IJN medical officer Akira Makino stated that he was ordered — as part of his training — to carry out vivisection on about 30 civilian prisoners in The Philippines between December 1944 and February 1945.[14] The surgery included amputations and the victims included women and children.[15] Akira Makino ) was a former medic in the Imperial Japanese Navy who, in 2006, became the first Japanese ex-soldier to admit to the experiments conducted on human beings in the Philippines during World War II. // Makino was born in 1922, in a small town in Osaka Prefecture. ...


Use of chemical weapons

See also: Changde chemical weapon attack The Changde Chemical Weapon Attack refers to the Japanese chemical/biological attacks during the Battle of Changde, in the Chinese Province of Hunan during April and May 1943 In the intense fighting around Changde, Japanese forces could not punch through the heavy Chinese resistance, and decided to launch poison gas...


According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Emperor Hirohito authorized by specific orders (rinsanmei) the use of chemical weapons in China.[16] For example, during the invasion of Wuhan from August to October 1938, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions, despite Article 171 of the Versailles Peace Treaty and a resolution adopted by the League of Nations on May 14, condemning the use of poison gas by Japan. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners For other treaties with this name, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ...


In 2004, Yoshimi and Yuki Tanaka discovered in the Australian National archives documents showing that cyanide gas was tested on Australian and Dutch prisoners in November 1944 on Kai islands (Indonesia). [17]


Preventable famine

Deaths caused by the diversion of resources to the Japanese military in occupied countries are also regarded as war crimes by many people. Millions of civilians in southern Asia — especially Vietnam and the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), both of which were major rice-growing countries — died during a preventable famine in 1944–45.[citation needed] (See, for example, the articles on the Vietnamese Famine of 1945 and Japanese occupation of Indonesia.) This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Vietnamese: Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the At Dau year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam during the Japanese occupation of the country. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ...


Torture of POWs

Japanese imperial forces are also reported to have utilized widespread use of torture on prisoners, usually in an effort to gather military intelligence quickly.[citation needed] Tortured prisoners were often later executed. A former Japanese Army officer who served in China, Uno Shintaro, stated:

The major means of getting intelligence was to extract information by interrogating prisoners. Torture was an unavoidable necessity. Murdering and burying them follows naturally. You do it so you won't be found out. I believed and acted this way because I was convinced of what I was doing. We carried out our duty as instructed by our masters. We did it for the sake of our country. From our filial obligation to our ancestors. On the battlefield, we never really considered the Chinese humans. When you're winning, the losers look really miserable. We concluded that the Yamato [i.e. Japanese] race was superior.[18]

The Yamato people ) are the dominant native ethnic group of Japan. ...

Cannibalism

Many written reports and testimonies collected by the Australian War Crimes Section of the Tokyo tribunal, and investigated by prosecutor William Webb (the future Judge-in-Chief), indicate that Japanese personnel in many parts of Asia and the Pacific committed acts of cannibalism against Allied prisoners of war. In many cases this was inspired by ever-increasing Allied attacks on Japanese supply lines, and the death and illness of Japanese personnel as a result of hunger. However, according to historian Yuki Tanaka: "cannibalism was often a systematic activity conducted by whole squads and under the command of officers".[19] This frequently involved murder for the purpose of securing bodies. For example, an Indian POW, Havildar Changdi Ram, testified that: "[on November 12, 1944] the Kempeitai beheaded [an Allied] pilot. I saw this from behind a tree and watched some of the Japanese cut flesh from his arms, legs, hips, buttocks and carry it off to their quarters... They cut it small pieces and fried it."[20] Hon Sir William Flood Webb KBE (21 January 1887 – 11 August 1972), Australian judge, was a Justice of the High Court of Australia. ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ... Havildar was the equivalent rank to Sergeant in the British Indian Army, next above Naik, and is still used in the modern Indian Army and Pakistan Armys. ...

November 9, 1945. Jemadar (junior commissioned officer) Chint Singh of the Indian Army at an identification parade in New Guinea, indicating a Japanese soldier whom he claimed mistreated him while he was a prisoner of war. Japanese forces used many Indian Army personnel captured in Malaya and Singapore as forced labour in the South West Pacific.
November 9, 1945. Jemadar (junior commissioned officer) Chint Singh of the Indian Army at an identification parade in New Guinea, indicating a Japanese soldier whom he claimed mistreated him while he was a prisoner of war. Japanese forces used many Indian Army personnel captured in Malaya and Singapore as forced labour in the South West Pacific.

In some cases, flesh was cut from living people: another Indian POW, Lance Naik Hatam Ali (later a citizen of Pakistan), testified that in New Guinea: Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Jemadar was a rank used in the British Indian Army, where it was the was the lowest rank for a Viceroys Commissioned Officer (VCO). ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ... Lance Naik (L/Nk) was the equivalent rank to Lance Corporal in the British Indian Army, ranking below Naik. ...

the Japanese started selecting prisoners and everyday one prisoner was taken out and killed and eaten by the soldiers. I personally saw this happen and about 100 prisoners were eaten at this place by the Japanese. The remainder of us were taken to another spot 50 miles [80 km] away where 10 prisoners died of sickness. At this place, the Japanese again started selecting prisoners to eat. Those selected were taken to a hut where their flesh was cut from their bodies while they were alive and they were thrown into a ditch where they later died.[21]

Perhaps the most senior officer convicted of cannibalism was Lt Gen. Yoshio Tachibana, who with 11 other Japanese personnel was tried in relation to the execution of U.S. Navy airmen, and the cannibalism of at least one of them, in August 1944, on Chichi Jima, in the Bonin Islands. They were beheaded on Tachibana's orders. As military and international law did not specifically deal with cannibalism, they were tried for murder and "prevention of honorable burial". Tachibana was sentenced to death.[22] Chichi-jima (父島, lit. ... A map of the Ogasawara Islands south of Japan The Ogasawara Islands ) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1,000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. ...


Forced labour

The Japanese military's use of forced labour, by Asian civilians and POWs also caused many deaths. According to a joint study by historians including Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyoshi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the Kôa-in (Japanese Asia Development Board) for forced labour.[23] More than 100,000 civilians and POWs died in the construction of the Burma-Siam Railway.[24] Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support...


The U.S. Library of Congress estimates that in Java, between four and 10 million romusha (Japanese: "manual laborer"), were forced to work by the Japanese military.[25] About 270,000 of these Javanese laborers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia. Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%.[citation needed] Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Romushas were Indonesian forced laborers during the Japanese occupation in World War II. The word is Japanese and (reportedly) translates to wood log, indicating the disposable nature of the Indonesian labor force. ...


The Geneva Convention exempted POWs of sergeant rank or higher from manual labour, and stipulated that prisoners performing work should be provided with extra rations and other essentials. According to historian Akira Fujiwara, Emperor Hirohito personally ratified the decision to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners of war in the directive of 5 August 1937. This notification also advised staff officers to stop using the term "prisoners of war".[26] During World War II, such rules were largely respected in German POW camps, except in the case of Soviet POWs. However, Japan was not a signatory to the Geneva Convention at the time, and Japanese forces did not follow the convention. Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organisations around the world. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901–January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Comfort women

Main article: Comfort women

The terms "comfort women" (慰安婦 ianfu?) (or "military comfort women" (従軍慰安婦 jūgun-ianfu?) are euphemisms for women in Japanese military brothels in occupied countries, many of whom were recruited by force or deception, and regard themselves as having been sexually assaulted and/or sex slaves.[27] The extent to which individuals were forced to become comfort women has been disputed. Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the up to 200,000 women who served in the Japanese armys brothels during World War II. Historians and researchers into the subject have stated that the majority were from Korea, China and other occupied territories and were recruited... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ... Sexual assault is any physical contact of a sexual nature without voluntary consent. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is...


In 1992, historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi published material based on his research in archives at Japan's National Institute for Defense Studies. Yoshimi claimed that there was a direct link between imperial institutions such as the Kôa-in and "comfort stations". When Yoshimi's findings were published in the Japanese news media on January 12, 1993, they caused a sensation and forced the government, represented by Chief Cabinet Secretary Kato Koichi, to acknowledge some of the facts that same day. On January 17, Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa presented formal apologies for the suffering of the victims, during a trip in South Korea. On July 6 and August 4, the Japanese government issued two statements by which it recognized that "Comfort stations were operated in response to the request of the military of the day", "The Japanese military was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women" and that the women were "recruited in many cases against their own will through coaxing and coercion".[28] Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ... Kōichi Katō is the name of two House of Representatives of Japans members. ... Kiichi Miyazawa Kiichi Miyazawa (宮澤 喜一 Miyazawa Kiichi) (born 1919) is a Japanese politician and was the 78th Prime Minister from November 5, 1991 to August 9, 1993. ...


The controversy was re-ignited on March 1, 2007, when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe mentioned suggestions that a U.S. House of Representatives committee would call on the Japanese Government to "apologize for and acknowledge" the role of the Japanese Imperial military in wartime sex slavery. However, Abe denied that it applied to comfort stations. "There is no evidence to prove there was coercion, nothing to support it." [29] Abe's comments provoked negative reactions overseas. For example, a New York Times editorial on March 6 said:[30] Shinzo Abe , ; born September 21, 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on September 26, 2006. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

These were not commercial brothels. Force, explicit and implicit, was used in recruiting these women. What went on in them was serial rape, not prostitution. The Japanese Army’s involvement is documented in the government’s own defense files. A senior Tokyo official more or less apologized for this horrific crime in 1993... Yesterday, he grudgingly acknowledged the 1993 quasi apology, but only as part of a pre-emptive declaration that his government would reject the call, now pending in the United States Congress, for an official apology. America isn’t the only country interested in seeing Japan belatedly accept full responsibility. Korea and China are also infuriated by years of Japanese equivocations over the issue.

The same day, veteran soldier Kaneko Anji admitted to The Washington Post that the women "cried out, but it didn't matter to us whether the women lived or died. We were the emperor's soldiers. Whether in military brothels or in the villages, we raped without reluctance."[31] The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ...


On April 17, 2007, Yoshimi and another historian, Hirofumi Hayashi, announced the discovery, in the archives of the Tokyo Trials, of seven official documents suggesting that Imperial military forces, such as the Tokeitai (naval secret police), directly coerced women to work in frontline brothels in China, Indochina and Indonesia. These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial. In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokeitai members having arrested women on the streets, and after enforced medical examinations, putting them in brothels.[32] The Tokeitai (Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navys police equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Armys Kempeitai military police service. ...


On 12 May 2007, journalist Taichiro Kaijimura announced the discovery of 30 Netherland government documents submitted to the Tokyo tribunal as evidence of a forced massed prostitution incident in 1944 in Magelang. [33] Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Magelang is the largest town in the Kedu Plain between Mount Merbabu and Mount Sumbing in Central Java, Indonesia. ...


In other cases, some victims from East Timor testified they were forced when they were not old enough to have started menstruating and repeatedly raped by Japanese soldiers. [34]


A Dutch-Indonesian "comfort woman", Jan Ruff-O'Hearn (now resident in Australia), who gave evidence to the U.S. committee, said the Japanese Government had failed to take responsibility for its crimes, that it did not want to pay compensation to victims and that it wanted to rewrite history.[35] Ruff-O'Hearn said that she had been raped "day and night" for three months by Japanese soldiers when she was 21.


To this day, only one Japanese woman published her testimony. This was done in 1971, when a former "comfort woman" forced to work for showa soldiers in Taiwan, published her memoirs under the pseudonym of Suzuko Shirota [36].


There are different theories on the breakdown of the comfort women's place of origin. While some sources claim that the majority of the women were from Japan, others, including Yoshimi, argue as many as 200,000 women,[37] mostly from Korea and China, and some other countries such as the Philippines, Taiwan, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Netherlands,[38] and Australia[39] were forced to engage in sexual activity.[40]


On 26 June 2007, the U.S. House of representatives Foreign Affairs Comitte passed a resolution asking that Japan "should acknowledge, apologize and accept historical responsibility in a clear and unequivocal manner for its military's coercion of women into sexual slavery during the war". [41]


Looting

General Tomoyuki Yamashita (second right) was responsible for hiding the loot known as Yamashita's gold. He was tried in Manila between October 29 and December 7, 1945, by a U.S. military commission, on charges relating to the Manila Massacre and earlier occurrences in Singapore, and was sentenced to death. The case set a precedent regarding the responsibility of commanders for war crimes, and is known as the Yamashita Standard. The legitimacy of the hasty trial has been called into question.
General Tomoyuki Yamashita (second right) was responsible for hiding the loot known as Yamashita's gold. He was tried in Manila between October 29 and December 7, 1945, by a U.S. military commission, on charges relating to the Manila Massacre and earlier occurrences in Singapore, and was sentenced to death. The case set a precedent regarding the responsibility of commanders for war crimes, and is known as the Yamashita Standard. The legitimacy of the hasty trial has been called into question.
Main article: Yamashita's gold

Many historians state that violence by Japanese personnel was closely tied to looting. For example, Sterling and Peggy Seagrave, in a 2003 book on "Yamashita's Gold" — secret repositories of loot from across Southeast Asia, in the Philippines — argued that the theft was organized on a massive scale, either by yakuza gangsters such as Yoshio Kodama, or by officials at the behest of Emperor Hirohito, who wanted to ensure that as many of the proceeds as possible went to the government.[42] The Seagraves allege that Hirohito appointed his brother, Prince Chichibu, to head a secret organisation called Kin no yuri (Golden Lily) for this purpose. Image File history File links Japanese_General_Tomoyuki_Yamashita_02. ... Image File history File links Japanese_General_Tomoyuki_Yamashita_02. ... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Army during the World War II era. ... Yamashitas Gold is the name given to loot worth tens of billions of dollars stolen in Southeast Asia by Japanese forces during World War II and hidden in caves, tunnels and underground complexes in The Philippines. ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (Asenso Manilenyo/PDP-Laban) Area... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Yamashitas Gold is the name given to loot worth tens of billions of dollars stolen in Southeast Asia by Japanese forces during World War II and hidden in caves, tunnels and underground complexes in The Philippines. ... Loot has several meanings: Loot is a stage play by Joe Orton; see loot (play). ... Sterling Seagrave is best-selling author of The Soong Dynasty. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Yakuza ), also known as gokudō (極道), are members of traditional organized crime groups in Japan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gang. ... Yoshio Kodama (児玉誉士夫 Kodama Yoshio; February 18, 1911 - January 17, 1984) was a prominent figure in the rise of organized crime in Japan. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ...


Post-1945 reactions

Soon after the war, the Allied powers indicted 25 individuals as Class-A war criminals, and 5,700 individuals were indicted as Class-B or Class-C war criminals by Allied criminal trials. Of these, 984 were initially condemned to death, 920 were actually executed, 475 received life sentences, 2,944 received some prison terms, 1,018 were acquitted, and 279 were not sentenced or not brought to trial. These numbers included 178 ethnic Taiwanese and 148 ethnic Koreans. [43] The Class-A charges were all tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, also known as "the Tokyo Trials". Other courts were formed in many different places in Asia and the Pacific. A Class A war criminal is someone who is found to have used war as an instrument of national policy (eg Hideki Tojo, the Japanese Premier during WWII) (Class B: Crimes against humanity; Class C: planning, ordering, authorization, or failure to prevent such transgressions at higher levels in the command... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ...


The Tokyo Trials

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was formed to try accused people in Japan itself. President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ...


High ranking officers who were tried included Koichi Kido and Sadao Araki. Three former (unelected) prime ministers: Koki Hirota, Hideki Tojo, and Kuniaki Koiso were convicted of Class-A war crimes. Many military leaders were also convicted. Two people convicted as Class-A war criminals later served as ministers in post-war Japanese governments. Marquis Koichi Kido (木戸幸一 Kido Kōichi, July 18, 1889 - April 6, 1977), grandson of Kido Takayoshi, served as Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was Emperor Hirohitos closest advisor throughout World War II. He was also one of the more cautious advisors... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Koki Hirota Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during the time when Japan was Empire of Japan; he served as prime minister during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ...

  • Mamoru Shigemitsu served as foreign minister both during the war and in the post-war Hatoyama government.
  • Okinori Kaya was finance minister during the war and later served as justice minister in the government of Hayato Ikeda. However, these two had no direct connection to alleged war crimes committed by Japanese forces, and foreign governments never raised the issue when they were appointed.

Hirohito and all members of the imperial family implicated in the war such as Prince Chichibu, Prince Asaka, Prince Takeda and Prince Higashikuni were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by MacArthur, with the help of Bonner Fellers who allowed the major criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the Emperor would be spared from indictment [44]. Many historians criticize this decision. According to John Dower, "with the full support of Mac Arthur's headquarters, the prosecution functioned, in effect, as a defense team for the emperor" [45] and even Japanese activists who endorse the ideals of the Nuremberg and Tokyo charters, and who have labored to document and publicize the atrocities of the showa regime "cannot defend the American decision to exonerate the emperor of war responsibility and then, in the chill of the Cold war, release and soon afterwards openly embrace accused right-winged war criminals like the later prime minister Nobusuke Kishi."[46] For Herbert Bix, "MacArthur's truly extraordinary measures to save Hirohito from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war."[47] Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Ichirō Hatoyama (鳩山 一郎 Hatoyama Ichirō, January 1, 1883–March 7, 1959) was a Japanese politician and the 52nd, 53rd and 54th Prime Minister of Japan, serving terms from December 10, 1954 to March 19, 1955, from then to November 22, 1955, and from then to December 23, 1956. ... Hayato Ikeda Hayato Ikeda (æ± ç”° 勇人 Ikeda Hayato; December 3, 1899–August 13, 1965) born in Hiroshima Prefecture, was a Japanese politician and the 58th, 59th and 60th Prime Minister of Japan from July 19, 1960 to December 8, 1960, to December 9, 1963, and to November 9, 1964 respectively. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901–January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... The ōke (王家), literally Prince Houses, were branches of the Imperial Family formed from branches of the Fushimi-no-miya house. ... Prince Higashikuni Prince Higashikuni (Naruhiko) of Japan (東久邇 稔彦 Higashikuni Naruhiko, also Higashikuni no miya Naruhiko ō (東久邇宮 稔彦王)) (3 December 1887 – 26 January 1990) was the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. ... Bonner Frank Fellers (1896 - 1973), during World War II, was a Colonel who served as the USA military attaché to Cairo, Egypt. ... General of the Army Douglas MacArthur KCB (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964), was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippines Army. ... Nobusuke Kishi Nobusuke Kishi (岸 信介 Kishi Nobusuke, November 13, 1896–August 7, 1987) was a Japanese politician and the 56th and 57th Prime Minister of Japan from February 25, 1957 to June 12, 1958 and from then to July 19, 1960. ...


Other trials

See also : Khabarovsk War Crime Trials Khabarovsk War Crime Trials - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

October 26, 1945, Sandakan, North Borneo. During the investigation into Sandakan Death Marches and other incidents, Sergeant Hosotani Naoji (left, seated), a member of the Kempeitai unit at Sandakan, is interrogated by Squadron Leader F. G. Birchall (second right) of the Royal Australian Air Force, and Sergeant Mamo (right), a Nisei member of the U.S. Army/Allied Translator and Interpreter Service. Naoji confessed to shooting two Australian POWs and five ethnic Chinese civilians.

Between 194651, some 5,600 Japanese personnel were prosecuted in more than 2,200 trials outside Japan. The judges presiding came from the United States, China, the United Kingdom, Australia, the Netherlands, France, the Soviet Union, New Zealand, India and the Philippines. Additionally, the Chinese Communists also held a number of trials for Japanese personnel. More than 4,400 Japanese personnel were convicted and about 1,000 were sentenced to death. The largest single trial was that of 93 Japanese personnel charged with the summary execution of more than 300 Allied POWs, in the Laha massacre (1942). Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... October 24, 1945. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... A Squadron Leaders sleeve/shoulder insignia Squadron Leader (Sqn Ldr in the RAF, SQNLDR in the RNZAF and RAAF and S/L in the former RCAF) is a commissioned rank in some air forces. ... The Nisei Japanese Americans (二世 pronounced , lit. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Battle of Ambon occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies, on January 30-February 3, 1942 during the Pacific campaign of World War II. During 1941, as the western Allies perceived the possibility of war with Japan, Ambon was seen to be a strategic location...


The most prominent ethnic Korean convicted was Lieutenant General Hong Sa Ik, who orchestrated the organization of prisoner of war camps in south east Asia. In 2006, the South Korean government "pardoned" 83 of the 148 convicted Korean war criminals.[48] Hong Sa-ik (March 4, 1889–September 26, 1946)[1] was a Lieutenant General in the Imperial Japanese Army, and the highest-ranking ethnic Korean in Japan to be charged with war crimes relating to the conduct of the Empire of Japan in World War II. A graduate of the...


Official apologies

The Japanese government considers that the legal and moral positions in regard to war crimes are separate. Therefore, while maintaining that Japan violated no international law or treaties, Japanese governments have officially recognised the suffering which the Japanese military caused, and numerous apologies have been issued by the Japanese government. For example, Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama, in August 1995, stated that Japan "through its colonial rule and aggression, caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to those of Asian nations", and he expressed his "feelings of deep remorse" and stated his "heartfelt apology". Also, on September 29, 1972, Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka stated: "[t]he Japanese side is keenly conscious of the responsibility for the serious damage that Japan caused in the past to the Chinese people through war, and deeply reproaches itself."[49] Tomiichi Murayama Tomiichi Murayama (村山 富市 Murayama Tomiichi, born March 3, 1924) was the 81st Prime Minister of Japan from June 30, 1994 to January 11, 1996 and was replaced by Ryutaro Hashimoto. ... Kakuei Tanaka (田中 角栄 Tanaka Kakuei May 4, 1918–December 16, 1993) was a Japanese politician and the 64th and 65th Prime Minister of Japan from July 7, 1972 to December 22, 1972 and from December 22, 1972 to December 9, 1974 respectively. ...


However, the official apologies are widely viewed as inadequate by many of the survivors of such crimes and/or the families of dead victims. The subject of official apologies is controversial as many people aggrieved by alleged Japanese war crimes maintain that no apology has been issued for particular acts and/or that the Japanese government has merely expressed "regret" or "remorse".[12] On 2 March 2007, the issue was raised again by Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe, in which he denied that the military had forced women into sexual slavery during World War II. He stated, "The fact is, there is no evidence to prove there was coercion." Before he spoke, a group of Liberal Democratic Party lawmakers also sought to revise Yohei Kono's 1993 apology to former comfort women.[50][51] However, this provoked negative reaction from Asian and Western countries. For example, The New York Times said in an editorial on March 6: Shinzo Abe , ; born September 21, 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on September 26, 2006. ...

These were not commercial brothels. Force, explicit and implicit, was used in recruiting these women. What went on in them was serial rape, not prostitution. The Japanese Army’s involvement is documented in the government’s own defense files. A senior Tokyo official more or less apologized for this horrific crime in 1993. [...] Yesterday, [Abe] grudgingly acknowledged the 1993 quasi apology, but only as part of a pre-emptive declaration that his government would reject the call, now pending in the United States Congress, for an official apology. America isn’t the only country interested in seeing Japan belatedly accept full responsibility. Korea and China are also infuriated by years of Japanese equivocations over the issue.[52]

Some in Japan have asserted that what is being demanded is that the Japanese Prime Minister and/or the Emperor perform dogeza, in which an individual kneels and bows his head to the ground — a high form of apology in east Asian societies that Japan appears unwilling to do.[53] Some point to an act by German Chancellor Willy Brandt, who knelt at a monument to the Jewish victims of the Warsaw Ghetto, in 1970, as an example of a powerful and effective act of apology and reconciliation similar to dogeza, although not everyone agrees.[54] Dogeza (土下座, literally to sit down on the ground) is to sit directly on the ground and to prostrate oneself, bowing while sitting. ... Geographic East Asia. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Warschauer Kniefall is a German term meaning Warsaw Genuflection (kneeling), referring to an event on December 7th, 1970 where the social democratic Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt, very surprisingly and to all appearences spontaneously, knelt at a monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in what was then the communist Peoples... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1940 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Citing Brandt's action as an example, John Borneman, associate professor of anthropology at Cornell,[55] states that, "an apology represents a non-material or purely symbolic exchange whereby the wrongdoer voluntarily lowers his own status as a person." Borneman further states that once this type of apology is given, the injured party must forgive and seek reconciliation, or else the apology won't have any effect. The injured party may reject the apology for several reasons, one of which is to prevent reconciliation, because, "By keeping the memory of the wound alive, refusals prevent an affirmation of mutual humanity by instrumentalizing the power embedded in the status of a permanent victim."[56]


Therefore, some argue that a nation's reluctance to accept the conciliatory gestures that Japan has made may be because that nation doesn't think that Japan has "lowered" itself enough to provide a sincere apology. On the other hand, others state their belief that that particular nation is choosing to reject reconciliation in pursuit of permanent "victimhood" status as a way to try to assert power over Japan.[57]


Compensation

There is a widespread perception that the Japanese government has not accepted the legal responsibility for compensation and, as a direct consequence of this denial, it has failed to compensate the individual victims of Japanese atrocities. In particular, a number of prominent human rights and women's rights organisations insist that Japan still has a moral and/or legal responsibility to compensate individual victims, especially the sex slaves conscripted by the Japanese military in occupied countries and known as comfort women. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution (which can include religious prostitution) single-owner sexual slavery slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is de facto available... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the up to 200,000 women who served in the Japanese armys brothels during World War II. Historians and researchers into the subject have stated that the majority were from Korea, China and other occupied territories and were recruited...


The Japanese government officially accepted the requirement for monetary compensation to victims of war crimes, as specified by the Potsdam Declaration. The details of this compensation have been left to bilateral treaties with individual countries, except North Korea, because Japan recognises South Korea as the sole legitimate government of the Korean peninsula. In the case of POWs from the western Allies, compensation was paid to the victims through the Red Cross. The total amount Japan paid was £4,500,000. However, in a number of Asian countries, claims for compensation were either: abandoned for political reasons, or; paid by Japan, under the specific understanding that it would be used for individual compensation, but was not paid out to the victims by the governments concerned. Therefore a large number of individual victims in Asia received no compensation. The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States, (from 1941), Italy... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... “GBP” redirects here. ...


Therefore, the Japanese government's position is that the proper avenues for further claims are the governments of the respective claimants. As a result, every individual compensation claim brought to Japanese court has failed. Such was the case in regard to a British POW who was unsuccessful in an attempt to sue the Japanese government for additional money for compensation. As a result, the UK Government later paid additional compensation to all British POWs. There were complaints in Japan that the international media simply stated that the former POW was demanding compensation and failed to clarify that he was seeking further compensation, in addition to that paid previously by the Japanese government.


A small number of claims have also been brought in US courts, though these have also been rejected.


During the treaty negotiation with South Korea, the Japanese government proposed that it pay monetary compensation to individual Korean victims, in line with the payments to western POWs. The Korean government instead insisted that Japan pay money collectively to the Korean government, and that is what occurred. The South Korean government then used the funds for economic development. The content of the negotiations was not released by the Korean government until 2004, although it was public knowledge in Japan.


There are those that insist that because the governments of China and Taiwan abandoned their claims for monetary compensation, then the moral and/or legal responsibility for compensation belongs with these governments. Such critics also point out that even though these governments abandoned their claims, they signed treaties that recognised the transfer of Japanese colonial assets to the respective governments. Therefore, to claim that these governments received no compensation from Japan is incorrect, and they could have compensated individual victims from the proceeds of such transfers. However, others dispute that Japanese colonial assets in large proportion were built or stolen with extortion or force in occupied countries as artworks collected (or stolen) by Nazis during WWII throughout Europe.


The Japanese government, while admitting no legal responsibility for the so-called "comfort women", set up the Asian Women's Fund in 1995, which gives money to people who claim to have been forced into prostitution during the war. Though the organisation was established by the government, legally, it has been created such that it is an independent charity. The activities of the fund have been controversial in Japan, as well as with international organisations supporting the women concerned.[13] Some argue that such a fund is part of an ongoing refusal by the Japanese government to face up to its responsibilities, while others say that the Japanese government has long since finalised its responsibility to individual victims and is merely correcting the failures of the victims' own governments. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


The reality is that without a sincere and unequivocal apology from the government of Japan, the majority of surviving Comfort Women refused to accept these funds.[58]


Intermediate compensation

The term "intermediate compensation" (or intermediary compensation) was applied to the removal and reallocation of Japanese industrial (particularly military-industrial) assets to Allied countries. It was conducted under the supervision of Allied occupation forces. This reallocation was referred to as "intermediate" because it did not amount to a final settlement by means of bilateral treaties, which settled all existing issues of compensation. By 1950, the assets reallocated amounted to 43,918 items of machinery, valued at ¥165,158,839 (in 1950 prices). The proportions in which the assets were distributed were: China, 54.1%; the Netherlands, 11.5%; the Philippines 19%, and; the United Kingdom, 15.4%. Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor of Japan  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Peace Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ...


Compensation under the San Francisco Treaty

Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru gives a speech on reconciliation and rapport ) at the San Francisco Peace conference. ...

Compensation from Japanese overseas assets

Japanese overseas assets refers to all assets owned by the Japanese government, firms, organisation and private citizens, in colonised or occupied countries. In accordance with Clause 14 of the San Francisco Treaty, Allied forces confiscated all Japanese overseas assets, except those in China, which were dealt with under Clause 21. It is considered that Korea was also entitled to the rights provided by Clause 21.

Japanese overseas assets in 1945
Country/region Value (1945, ¥15=US$1)
Korea 70,256,000,000
Taiwan 42,542,000,000
North East China 146,532,000,000
North China 55,437,000,000
Central South China 36,718,000,000
Others 28,014,000,000
Total ¥379,499,000,000

Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ...

Compensation to Allied POWs

Clause 16 of the San Francisco Treaty stated that Japan would transfer its assets and those of its citizens in countries which were at war with any of the Allied Powers or which were neutral, or equivalents, to the Red Cross, which would sell them and distribute the funds to former prisoners of war and their families. Accordingly, the Japanese government and private citizens paid out £4,500,000 to the Red Cross.


Allied territories occupied by Japan

Clause 14 of the treaty stated that Japan would enter into negotiations with Allied powers whose territories were occupied by Japan and suffered damage by Japanese forces, with a view to Japan compensating those countries for the damage.


Accordingly, the Philippines and South Vietnam received compensation in 1956 and 1959 respectively. Burma and Indonesia were not original signatories, but they later signed bilateral treaties in accordance with clause 14 of the San Francisco Treaty.

Japanese compensation to countries occupied during 1941-45
Country Amount in Yen Amount in US$ Date of treaty
Burma 72,000,000,000 200,000,000 November 5, 1955
Philippines 198,000,000,000 550,000,000 May 9, 1956
Indonesia 80,388,000,000 223,080,000 January 20, 1958
Vietnam 14,400,000,000 38,000,000 May 13, 1959
Total ¥364,348,800,000 US$1,012,080,000

The last payment was made to the Philippines on July 22, 1976. Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Debate in Japan

There is a widespread perception, outside Japan, that there is a reluctance inside Japan to discuss such events and/or admit that there were war crimes. However, the controversial events of the Japanese imperial era are openly debated in the media, with the various political parties and ideological groups taking quite different positions. What differentiates Japan from Germany and Austria is that in Japan, there is no restriction to the freedom of speech in regard to this matter, while in Germany, Austria and some other European countries, Holocaust denial is a criminal offence. Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...


Until the 1970s, such debates were considered a fringe topic in the media. In the Japanese media, the opinions of the political centre and left tends to dominate the editorials of newspapers, while the right tend to dominate magazines. Debates regarding war crimes were confined largely to the editorials of tabloid magazines where calls for the overthrow of "Imperialist America" and revived veneration of the Emperor coexisted with pornography. In 1972, to commemorate the normalisation of relationship with China, Asahi Shimbun, a major liberal newspaper, ran a series on Japanese war crimes in China including the Nanking Massacre. This opened the floodgates to debates which have continued ever since. The 1990s are generally considered to be the period in which such issues become truly mainstream, and incidents such as the Nanking Massacre, Yasukuni Shrine, comfort women, the accuracy of school history textbooks, and the validity of the Tokyo Trials were debated, even on television. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Editorial and Op-ed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about views of the historical expansionism and current international influence of the United States. ... Asahi-OSAKA office Asahi is a common name in Japan, for other uses see Asahi. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... For the 2007 documentary film about the Nanking Massacre, see Nanking (film). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Torii Gate at Yasukuni Shrine The main building of Yasukuni Shrine Yasukuni Shrine 75th anniversary Stamp (1944) Yasukuni Shrine ) is a Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan. ... The Japanese history textbook controversies are about government-approved history textbooks used in the secondary education (junior high schools and high schools) of Japan. ...


As the consensus of Japanese jurists is that Japanese forces did not technically commit violations of international law, many right wing elements in Japan have taken this to mean that war crimes trials were examples of victor's justice. They see those convicted of war crimes as "Martyrs of Shōwa" (昭和殉難者 Shōwa Junnansha?), Shōwa being the name given to the rule of Hirohito. This interpretation is vigorously contested by Japanese peace groups and the political left. In the past, these groups have tended to argue that the trials hold some validity, either under the Geneva Convention (even though Japan hadn't signed it), or under an undefined concept of international law or consensus. Alternatively, they have argued that, although the trials may not have been technically valid, they were still just, somewhat in line with popular opinion in the West and in the rest of Asia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The label victors justice (in German, Siegerjustiz) is applied by advocates to a situation in which they believe that a victorious nation is applying different rules to judge what is right or wrong for their own forces and for those of the (former) enemy. ...


By the early 21st century, the revived interest in Japan's imperial past had brought new interpretations from a group which has been labelled both "new right" and "new left". This group points out that many acts committed by Japanese forces, including the Nanjing Incident (they generally do not use the word "massacre"), were violations of the Japanese military code. It is suggested that had war crimes tribunals been conducted by the post-war Japanese government, in strict accordance with Japanese military law, many of those who were accused would still have been convicted and executed. Therefore, the moral and legal failures in question were the fault of the Japanese military and the government, for not executing their constitutionally-defined duty.


The new right/new left also takes the view that the Allies committed no war crimes against Japan, because Japan was not a signatory to the Geneva Convention, and as a victors, the Allies had every right to demand some form of retribution, to which Japan consented in various treaties.


However, under the same logic, the new right/new left considers the killing of Chinese who were suspected of guerilla activity to be perfectly legal and valid, including some of those killed at Nanjing, for example. They also take the view that many Chinese civilian casualties resulted from the scorched earth tactics of the Chinese nationalists. Though such tactics are arguably legal, the new right/new left takes the position that some of the civilian deaths caused by these scorched earth tactics are wrongly attributed to the Japanese military. A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...


Similarly, they take the position that those who have attempted to sue the Japanese government for compensation have no legal and/or moral case.


The new right/new left also takes a less sympathetic view of Korean claims of victimhood, because prior to annexation by Japan, Korea was a tributary of the Qing Dynasty and, according to them, the Japanese colonisation, though undoubtedly harsh, was better than the previous rule in terms of human rights and economic development. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late...


They also argue that, the Kantōgun (also known as the Kwantung Army) was at least partly culpable. Although the Kantōgun was nominally subordinate to the Japanese high command at the time, its leadership demonstrated significant self-determination, as shown by its involvement in the plot to assassinate Zhang Zuolin in 1928, and the Manchurian Incident of 1931, which led to the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932. Moreover, at that time, it was the official policy of the Japanese high command to confine the conflict to Manchuria. But in defiance of the high command, the Kantōgun invaded China proper, under the pretext of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. However, the Japanese government not only failed to court martial the officers responsible for these incidents, but it also accepted the war against China, and many of those who were involved were even promoted. (Some of the officers involved in the Nanking Massacre were also promoted.) The Kantogun (Kanji: 関東軍; Nihon-shiki: Kantōgun; Postal System Pinyin: Kwantungchun; Pinyin: Guandongjun), more commonly known as the Kwantung Army or Guandong Army, was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). ... Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... One aspect of the Manchurian Incident (January 1931) was an engagement of the Imperial Japanese Army with Chinese forces. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Not specified Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1945 Puyi Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui History  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945, , State of Manchuria) was a former country in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Song Zheyuan Kanichiro Tashiro Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變 or the Lugouqiao Incident) was a battle between the Republic of Chinas National Revolutionary Army and the Empire of Japans... For the 2007 documentary film about the Nanking Massacre, see Nanking (film). ...


Whether or not Hirohito himself bears any responsibility for such failures is a sticking point between the new right and new left. Officially, the imperial constitution, adopted under Emperor Meiji, gave full powers to the Emperor. Article 4 prescribed that "The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution" and article 11 prescribed that "The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and the Navy". Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ...


For historian Akira Fujiwara, the thesis that the emperor as an organ of responsibility could not reverse cabinet decisions is a myth (shinwa) fabricated after the war.[59] Others argue that Hirohito deliberately styled his rule in the manner of the British constitutional monarchy, and he always accepted the decisions and consenses reached by the high command. According to this position, the moral and political failure rests primarily with the Japanese High Command and the Cabinet, most of whom were later convicted at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal as class-A war criminals, apart all members of the imperial family such as prince Chichibu, prince Asaka, prince Higashikuni, prince Fushimi and prince Takeda. This does not cite any references or sources. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... Prince Higashikuni Prince Higashikuni (Naruhiko) of Japan (東久邇 稔彦 Higashikuni Naruhiko, also Higashikuni no miya Naruhiko ō (東久邇宮 稔彦王)) (3 December 1887 – 26 January 1990) was the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. ... The ōke (王家), literally Prince Houses, were branches of the Imperial Family formed from branches of the Fushimi-no-miya house. ...


Controversial reinterpretations outside Japan

Some activists outside Japan are also attempting controversial reinterpretations of Japanese imperialism. For example, the views of a South Korean ex-military officer and right wing commentator, Ji Man-Won, have caused controversy in Korea and further abroad. Ji has praised Japan for "modernising" Korea, and has said of women forced to become sex slaves: "most of the old women claiming to be former comfort women, or sex slaves to the Japanese military during World War II, are fakes." In East Asia, such views are widely regarded as being offensive, libellous of the women concerned, and as representing historical revisionism in a similar fashion to the Holocaust deniers of Europe. Motto None (Unofficial: Broadly benefit humankind also translated as Devotion to the welfare of humanity) Anthem Aegukga Patriotic Hymn Capital (and largest city) Seoul Official languages Korean Government Presidential republic  -  President Roh Moo-hyun  -  Prime Minister Han Duck-soo Establishment  -  Independence declared March 1, 1919 (de jure)   -  Liberation August 15... Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. ... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the up to 200,000 women who served in the Japanese armys brothels during World War II. Historians and researchers into the subject have stated that the majority were from Korea, China and other occupied territories and were recruited... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...


Later investigations

As with investigations of Nazi war criminals, official investigations and inquiries are still ongoing. During the 1990s, the South Korean government started investigating some individuals who had allegedly become wealthy while collaborating with the Japanese military. In South Korea, it is also alleged that, during the political climate of the Cold War, many such individuals and/or their associates or relatives were able to acquire influence with the wealth they had acquired collaborating with the Japanese and assisted in the covering-up, or non-investigation, of war crimes in order not to incriminate themselves. With the wealth they had amassed during the years of collaboration, they were able to further benefit their families by obtaining higher education for their relatives. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Motto None (Unofficial: Broadly benefit humankind also translated as Devotion to the welfare of humanity) Anthem Aegukga Patriotic Hymn Capital (and largest city) Seoul Official languages Korean Government Presidential republic  -  President Roh Moo-hyun  -  Prime Minister Han Duck-soo Establishment  -  Independence declared March 1, 1919 (de jure)   -  Liberation August 15... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Non-government bodies and individuals have also undertaken their own investigations. For example, in 2005, a South Korean freelance journalist, Jung Soo-woong, located in Japan some descendants of people involved in the 1895 assassination of Empress Myeongseong (Queen Min), the last Empress of Korea. The assassination was conducted by the Dark Ocean Society, perhaps under the auspices of the Japanese government, because of the Empress's involvement in attempts to reduce Japanese influence in Korea. Jung recorded the apologies of the individuals. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... Her Imperial Majesty Empress Myeongseong of Korea (October 19, 1851 – October 8, 1895), more commonly known as Queen Min (明成皇后), was the last empress of Korea. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The Genyosha (玄洋社) (or Dark Ocean Society) is a Japanese criminal society formed in 1881 by Toyama Mitsura. ...


As these investigations continue more evidence is discovered each day. It has been claimed that the Japanese government intentionally destroyed the reports on Korean comfort women.[60][61] Some have cited Japanese inventory logs and employee sheets on the battlefield as evidence for this claim. For example, one of the names on the list was of a comfort woman who stated she was forced to be a prostitute by the Japanese. She was classified as a nurse along with at least a dozen other verified comfort women who were not nurses or secretaries. Currently, the South Korean government is looking into the hundreds of other names on these lists.[62]


Sensitive information regarding the Japanese occupation of Korea is often difficult to obtain. Many argue that this is due to the fact that the Government of Japan has gone out of its way to cover up many incidents that would otherwise lead to severe international criticism.[63][64][65] On their part, Koreans have often expressed their abhorrence of Human experimentations carried out by the Imperial Japanese Army where people often became fodder as human test subjects in such macabre experiments as liquid nitrogen tests or biological weapons development programs (See articles: Unit 731 and Shiro Ishii). Though some vivid and disturbing testimonies have survived, they are largely denied by the Japanese Government even to this day. Human experimentation involves medical experiments performed on human beings. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Shiro Ishii Microbiologist Shiro Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō, June 25, 1892-1959) was the Lieutenant General of Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Sino-Japanese War. ...


Major incidents

Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (8,293 sq km on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengal at about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennai and 120 miles from Cape Nargis in Burma. ... The Banka Island Massacre, took place on 16 February 1942. ... Batu Lintang camp at Kuching, Sarawak on the island of Borneo was a Japanese internment camp during the Second World War. ... The Bataan Death March (aka The Death March of Bataan) was a Japanese war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war -- with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities -- by Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1942. ... The Bridge over the River Kwai Map of the Burma Railway The Burma Railway, also known also as the Death Railway, the Thailand-Burma Railway and similar names, is a 415 km (258 mi) railway between Bangkok, Thailand and Rangoon, Burma (now Myanmar), built by the Empire of Japan during... The Changjiao massacre (Chinese:厂窖惨案) was a massacre aiming the chinese civilians by Japanese China Expeditionary Army in Hunan,ChangJiao. ... Changteh Chemical Weapon Attack: Reffering to Japanese Chemical toxic gas agent agression during Battle of Changteh,in Chinese Province of Hunan during May 1943. ... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the up to 200,000 women who served in the Japanese armys brothels during World War II. Historians and researchers into the subject have stated that the majority were from Korea, China and other occupied territories and were recruited... The term Hell Ship refers to any of the ships used by the Imperial Japanese Navy to transport prisoners of war out of the Philippines, Hong Kong and Singapore during World War II. The POWs would be taken to Japan, Taiwan, Manchuria, or Korea to be used as forced labor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Japanese war crimes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Battle of Ambon occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies, on January 30-February 3, 1942 during the Pacific campaign of World War II. During 1941, as the western Allies perceived the possibility of war with Japan, Ambon was seen to be a strategic location... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... For the 2007 documentary film about the Nanking Massacre, see Nanking (film). ... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... The Panjiayu trajedy (潘家峪惨案) was a massacre made by Japanese army on Jan 25, 1941 in Panjiayu, Hebei, China. ... October 24, 1945. ... The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended... The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more... The Battle of Rabaul, around the main town of Rabaul on the island of New Britain, in early February 1942, represented a strategically-significant defeat of Allied forces by Japan, in the Pacific campaign of World War II. Following the capture of Rabaul, Japanese forces turned it into a major... Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of chemical weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit 200 was a secret military medical unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War(1937-1945) and World War II era. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Unit 516 was a top secret Japanese chemical weapons facility, operated by the Kempeitai, in Qiqihar (齊齊哈爾), China. ... Unit 543 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit 773 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit 1855 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Unit 9420 or Oka Unit was formed in 1942 in Singapore by Naito Ryoichi. ... Unit Ei 1644, also known as Unit 1644 was a medical research unit of the Japanese Imperial Army based in Nanjing, China. ... Combatants Empire of Japan United States Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Sadamichi Kajioka Shigematsu Sakaibara Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personnel, Others[2] Casualties 700-900 dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft... War crimes in Manchukuo are war crimes committed during the Japanese rule of Manchukuo, from 1931 to 1945. ...

See also

Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Japan-China Joint Declaration On Building a Partnership of Friendship and Cooperation for Peace and Development (平和と発展のための友好協力パートナーシップの構築に関する日中共同宣&#35328... The Joint Communique of the Government of Japan and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China was signed in Beijing on September 29, 1972. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... // 29 September 1972. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... Ernest Gordon (1917 - 16 January 2002) was the former Presbyterian dean of the chapel at Princeton University. ... To End All Wars To End All Wars is a movie starring Robert Carlyle, Keifer Sutherland and Sakae Kimura. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ China Weekly Review October 22, 1938
  2. ^ See, for example: Wai Keng Kwok, 2001, "Justice Done? Criminal and Moral Responsibility Issues In the Chinese Massacres Trial Singapore, 1947" (Genocide Studies Program Working Paper No. 18, Yale University), p. 27. Access date: April 23, 2007.
  3. ^ See, for example, Yutaka Kawasaki, “Was the 1910 Annexation Treaty Between Korea and Japan Concluded Legally?” Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, v.3, no. 2 (July 1996) Access date: February 15, 2007.
  4. ^ See, for example: Craig Symonds, “War, Politics, and Grand Strategy in the Pacific, 1941-1945”, Air University Review, November-December 1979 (Access date: February 15, 2007): “most American historians, date the war from December 1941” . See also Edward Drea, "Introduction", in Edward Drea, Greg Bradsher, Robert Hanyok, James Lide, Michael Petersen & Daqing Yang, 2006, Researching Japanese War Crimes Records (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.; p. 15): "The atrocities at Nanjing occurred four years before the United States entered the war. At that time, the U.S. government did not have a large military or diplomatic intelligence network in China. A handful of trained military or embassy personnel reported on events, sometimes second-hand; compared with the sensational press coverage, the official U.S. documentation was scant. As a result, with the exception of the records produced during the postwar Class A war crimes trial of the commanding general of Japanese forces deemed responsible for the Rape of Nanking, there are few materials on this subject at the National Archives." See also, Ben-Ami Shillony, "Book Review, Book Title: A History of Japan, 1582-1941 Internal and External Worlds, Author: L. M. Cullen Professor of History, Trinity College, Dublin", (Institute of Historical Research, February 2004) (Access date: February 15, 2007); Grant K. Goodman, "Review 'The Kempei Tai in the Philippines: 1941-1945' by Ma. Felisa A. Syjuco" Pacific Affairs, v. 64, no. 2 (Summer, 1991), pp. 282-283 (Access date: February 15, 2007); United Nations Human Rights Committee,"Fifty-Ninth Session, 24 March - 11 April 1997, Decisions, Communication No. 601/1994" (April 3, 1997) (Access date: February 15, 2007);Gary K. Reynolds, 2002, U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan(Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress, December 17, 2002) Access date: February 15, 2007).
  5. ^ Kawasaki, Ibid.
  6. ^ Yuki Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, Japanese War crimes in WW II, 1996, p.72
  7. ^ Johnson, Looting of Asia, [1]
  8. ^ Rummell, Statistics, [2]
  9. ^ [3]
  10. ^ Chang, p. 102
  11. ^ Byrd, Gregory Dean, General Ishii Shiro: His Legacy is that of a Genius and Madman, p. ? (PDF document), [4]
  12. ^ GlobalSecurity.org, 2005 "Biological Weapons Program". Downloaded November 26, 2006
  13. ^ The Denver Post, June 1, 1995, cited by Gary K. Reynolds, 2002, "U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan" (Library of Congress)
  14. ^ BBC "Japanese doctor admits POW abuse" Downloaded November 26 2006, 12:52 GMT
  15. ^ Kyodo News Agency, "Ex-navy officer admits to vivisection of war prisoners in Philippines," reported in Yahoo! Asia News: [5]
  16. ^ Yoshimi annd Matsuno, Dokugasusen kankei shiryô II, Kaisetsu 1997
  17. ^ Japan tested chemical weapons on Aussie POW : new evidence, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/member/nn20040727a9.html
  18. ^ Haruko Taya Cook & Theodore F. Cook, Japan at War 1993 ISBN 1-56584-039-9, p. 153
  19. ^ Tanaka, Hidden horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II, Westview press, 1996, p.127.
  20. ^ Lord Russell of Liverpool (Edward Russell), The Knights of Bushido, a short history of Japanese War Crimes, Greenhill books, 2002, p.236.
  21. ^ Ibid., p.121.
  22. ^ Case No. 21 Trial Of General Tomoyuki Yamashita[, United States Military Commission, Manila, (8th October-7th December, 1945), and the Supreme Court Of The United States (Judgments Delivered On 4th February, 1946). Part VI] (Retrieved on December 18, 2006); Jeanie M. Welch, "Without a Hangman, Without a Rope: Navy War Crimes Trials After World War II", International Journal of Naval History, v.1, No. 1, April 2002, p.5-6
  23. ^ Zhifen Ju, Japan's atrocities of conscripting and abusing north China draftees after the outbreak of the pacific war, 2002
  24. ^ http://www.mansell.com/pow_resources/links.html
  25. ^ Library of Congress, 1992, "Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942-50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942-45" Access date: February 9, 2007.
  26. ^ Fujiwara, Nitchû sensô ni okeru horyo gyakusatsu, 1995
  27. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/east/03/29/japan.comfort.women.02/
  28. ^ Yoshiaki Yoshimi, 2001-02, Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military during World War II. Columbia University Press
  29. ^ Washington Post, "Japan's Abe : no proof of WWII sex slaves"
  30. ^ New York Times, " No comfort", March 6, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/06/opinion/06tues3.html, accessed March 8, 2007
  31. ^ Washington Post, Ibid.
  32. ^ Evidence documenting sex-slave coercion revealed, [6]
  33. ^ Files : Females forced into sexual servitude in wartime Indonesia http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070512a6.html
  34. ^ East Timor former sex slaves speak out http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070428f1.html
  35. ^ Todd Cardy, 2007, "Japanese PM's denial upsets 'comfort woman'" (News.com.au; March 5, 2007). Access date: March 7, 2007)
  36. ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2007-07/06/content_911759.htm
  37. ^ http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/east/03/29/japan.comfort.women/index.htm & http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/10/15/congress_backs_off_of_wartime_japan_rebuke/
  38. ^ Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  39. ^ Abe ignores evidence, say Australia's 'comfort women'
  40. ^ Yoshimi, ibid., http://hnn.us/articles/printfriendly/9954.html, http://www.jpri.org/publications/workingpapers/wp77.html and http://hnn.us/articles/13533.html] [http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=10155
  41. ^ U.S. Panel OKs sex slave resolution, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070628a1.html
  42. ^ http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n22/john04_.html
  43. ^ Dower, John (2000). Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II, p. 447
  44. ^ Kumao Toyoda, Senso saiban yoroku, 1986, p.170-172, H. Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2000, p.583, 584
  45. ^ Dower,Embracing defeat, 1999, p.326
  46. ^ Dower, ibid., p.562.
  47. ^ Bix, ibid., p.585, 583
  48. ^ The Korea Times, "Truth Commission Should Be Truthful", Michael Breen, http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200611/kt2006111619251454330.htm
  49. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (quoted on the Taiwan Documents Project), Joint Communiqué of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China, [7]
  50. ^ New York Times, "Japan's Abe Denies Proof of World War II Sex Slaves". Associated Press. March 1, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/world/AP-Japan-Sex-Slaves.html?ref=world, accessed March 1, 2007
  51. ^ Washington Post, "Japan's Abe: No Proof of WWII Sex Slaves". By Hiroko Tabuchi. The Associated Press. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030100578.html Accessed March 1, 2007.
  52. ^ New York Times, " No comfort” Published: March 6, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/06/opinion/06tues3.html, accessed March 8, 2007
  53. ^ Freeman, Laurie A., "Japan's Press Clubs as Information Cartels," Japan Policy Research Institute, (April, 1996), [8]. Discusses impending visit in 1990 to Japan by Korean president Roh Tae Woo in which Japanese cabinet secretary Ozawa Ichiro reportedly said, "it is because we have reflected on the past that we cooperate with Korea economically. Is it really necessary to grovel on our hands and knees and prostrate ourselves any more than we already have?". This alleged remark is called the dogeza hatsugen (prostration comment).
  54. ^ Facing History and Ourselves, Willy Brandt's Silent Apology, [9].
  55. ^ www.cornell.edu, [10]
  56. ^ Borneman, Apologies Contribute to Peace?
  57. ^ McCormack, Gavan, "Difficult Neighbors: Japan, North Korea and the Quest for a New East Asian Order," Modern Asia Series, Harvard University Asia Center, (May 3, 2004), [11]
  58. ^ . Official homepage of US Congressman of 15th district California. http://www.house.gov/apps/list/press/ca15_honda/comfortwomentestimony.html, accessed March 8, 2007
  59. ^ Fujiwara, Shôwa tennô no jû-go nen sensô, Aoki Shoten, 1991, p.122
  60. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4749467.stm
  61. ^ http://theseoultimes.com/ST/?url=/ST/db/read.php?idx=1846
  62. ^ http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200501/200501110028.html
  63. ^ http://goldsea.com/Asiagate/609/17wartime.html
  64. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4749467.stm
  65. ^ http://theseoultimes.com/ST/?url=/ST/db/read.php?idx=1846

Baron Russell of Liverpool, of Liverpool in the County Palatine of Lancaster, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ...

Books

  • Barnaby, Wendy. The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, Frog Ltd, 1999. ISBN 1-883319-85-4 ISBN 0-7567-5698-7 ISBN 0-8264-1258-0 ISBN 0-8264-1415-X
  • Bayly, C.A. & Harper T. Forgotten Armies. The Fall of British Asia 1941-5 (London: Allen Lane) 2004
  • Bergamini, David. Japan's Imperial Conspiracy, William Morrow, New York, 1971.
  • Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking, Perseus books LLC, 1997. ISBN 0-465-06835-9
  • Cook, Haruko Taya; Theodore F. Cook (1993). Japan at War: An Oral History. New Press. ISBN 1-56584-039-9. - Compilation of interviews with Japanese survivors of World War II, including several who describe war crimes that they were involved with.
  • Dower, John W. (1987). War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-394-75172-8. 
  • Endicott, Stephen and Edward Hagerman. The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-253-33472-1
  • Gold, Hal. Unit 731 Testimony, Charles E Tuttle Co., 1996. ISBN 4-900737-39-9
  • Handelman, Stephen and Ken Alibek. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World--Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It, Random House, 1999. ISBN 0-375-50231-9 ISBN 0-385-33496-6
  • Harries, Meirion; Susie Harries (1994). Soldiers of the Sun : The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. 
  • Harris, Robert and Jeremy Paxman. A Higher Form of Killing : The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Random House, 2002. ISBN 0-8129-6653-8
  • Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-Up, Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-09105-5 ISBN 0-415-93214-9
  • Kratoksa, Paul (2005). Asian Labor in the Wartime Japanese Empire: Unknown Histories. M.E. Sharpe and Singapore University Press. ISBN 0765612631. 
  • Latimer, Jon, Burma: The Forgotten War, London: John Murray, 2004. ISBN 0-7195-6576-6
  • Lord, of Liverpool Russell (2006). The Knights of Bushido: A Short History of Japanese War Crimes. Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-651-9. 
  • Neier, Aryeh. War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror and the Struggle for Justice," Times Books, Random House, New York, 1998.
  • Rees, Laurence. Horror in the East, published 2001 by the British Broadcasting Company
  • Seagrave, Peggy & Seagrave, Sterling. Gold Warriors: The Covert History of Yamashita's Treasure, Verso Books, 2003. ISBN 1-85984-542-8
  • Sherman, Christine (2001). War Crimes: International Military Tribunal. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 1563117282. -Detailed account of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East proceedings in Tokyo
  • Tsurumi, Kazuko (1970). Social change and the individual;: Japan before and after defeat in World War II. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09347-4. 
  • Williams, Peter. Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II, Free Press, 1989. ISBN 0-02-935301-7
  • Yamamoto, Masahiro (2000). Nanking : Anatomy of an Atrocity. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-96904-5. - A rebuttal to Iris Chang's book on the Nanking massacre.

Pantheon Books was an American publishing company that was acquired by Random House in 1961. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ...

Audio/visual media

  • The History Channel. (2000) Japanese War Crimes: Murder Under The Sun [Video documentary (DVD & VHS)]. A & E Home Video.

External links

Imperial Japanese Army special research units
Unit 100 (Shenyang) | Unit 516 (Qiqihar) | Unit 543 (Hailar) | Unit 731 (Pingfang) / Unit 200 (Manchuria) / Unit 8604 or Nami Unit (Guangzhou) | Unit 773 (Songo) | Unit Ei 1644 (Nanjing) | Unit 1855 (Nanjing) | Unit 2646 or Unit 80 (Hailar) | Unit 9420 or Oka Unit (Singapore)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese War Crimes Trials 1946-1948 - World War II Multimedia Database (603 words)
The American public largely ignored the war crimes trials in Tokyo and throughout Asia in 1946-1948.
The Japanese argued that they were subject to war crimes trials simply because of the heinous crimes of their German allies, essentially claiming the Allies were finding them guilty by association.
The actions of Unit 731 in China were ever examined at the War Crimes Trials in Tokyo.
The Knights of Bushido: A Short History of Japanese War Crimes - by Lord of Liverpool Russell (400 words)
This is the classic, standard account of Japanese war crimes; a best seller in its time, but out of print for many years.
Between 1931 and 1945 Japanese troops rampaged through one defeated country after another, executing civilians, despoiling cities, massacring prisoners and cruelly exploiting prisoners of war and native populations.
Japanese troops behaved with considerable brutality in their war against China a campaign designed to punish the people of China.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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