FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Japanese pirates
16th century Japanese pirate raids.
16th century Japanese pirate raids.

Wokou or Japanese pirates (Chinese character: 倭寇; Chinese pronunciation: wōkòu; Japanese pronunciation: wakō; Korean pronunciation: 왜구 waegu) were pirates who raided the coastlines of China and Korea from the 13th century onwards. At their peak, the "Japanese pirates" were often composed of substantial Chinese militia, merchants and smugglers, in addition to Japanese soldiers, ronin, merchants and smugglers; even Portuguese sailors, traders, moneychangers and missionaries[citation needed]. Sixteenth-century Japanese pirate raids. ... Sixteenth-century Japanese pirate raids. ... 漢字 Chinese character in hànzì, hanja, kanji. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Graves of 47 Ronin at Sengakuji A ronin (Japanese: 浪人 rōnin: literally, wave man - one who is tossed about, like a wave in the sea) was a masterless samurai during the feudal period of Japan that lasted from 1185 to 1868. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...


The early phase of Wokou activity began in the 13th century and extended to the second half of the 14th century. BY 1350, however, as Ryukyu Kingdom was forced to pay tribute to China, the Qing and later Ming forbade trade with Japan (effectively an embargo), on the grounds Japan held their Emperor as equal or higher to that of China's, and refused to pay tribute, pirating became a means to secure goods. Japanese pirates from only Japan concentrated on the Korean peninsula and spread across the Yellow Sea to China. The second major phase of Wokou activity occurred in the early to mid-16th century. During this period the composition and leadership of the Wokou changed significantly to become Chinese. At their height in the 1550s, the Wokou operated throughout the seas of East Asia, even sailing up large river systems such as the Yangtze. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The main building of Shuri Castle The Ryukyu Kingdom was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... This article is about the economic term. ... ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Nile in Africa and the Amazon in South America. ...


The term "Wokou" is a combination of "Wo", referring to the Japanese, and "kou", meaning "bandit", "enemy" or "invasion". The earliest textual reference to the term "Wokou" comes from the Gwanggaeto Stele of Goguryeo erected in 414. According to the wikipedia Japan link for this term, it says this term was used as a racist reference to Japanese by Chinese during the 16th century and World War II. Ideogram for Wa, formed by the radical for person (on the left), and the phonetic element Wa on the right (itself represented by a rice plant in the upper part and a woman in the lower part). ... The stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo was erected in 414 by King Jangsu as a memorial to his deceased father. ... Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 B.C. – A.D. 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ...

Contents


Constituent of Wokou

Although the pirate raiders were called "Wokou" - Japanese pirates, they were often composed of more locals than Japanese. According to the Korean annal, Sejong Sirrog (世宗憲録, 세종실록) "The Wo [Japanese] comprise only one or two out of ten; the rest are our countrymen, who dress as the Wo and cause trouble in gangs. (倭人不過一二而本國之民仮著倭服成黨作亂)". Similarly, the History of Ming (明史; Míng Shǐ) states: "[Out of those captured] real Wo comprise about three in every ten (大抵真倭十之三)". King Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 - May 18, 1450), born I Do, was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1418 to 1450. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... Ming redirects here. ...


Kamakura period

The first raid by Wokou on record occurred in the summer of 1223, on the south coast of Goryeo. The history book Goryeosa states that "Japanese (pirates) attacked Gumju". Two more minor attacks are recorded for 1226, and continued intermittently for the next four decades. Most of the Wokou originated from Tsushima and Hizen. Under diplomatic pressure from the Goryeo government, the Kamakura shogunate made an effort to keep seafaring military groups under control. In 1227 Mutō Sukeyori, the shogunate's commissioner in Kyushu, had ninety suspected brigands decapitated in front of a Goryeo envoy. In 1263, after Tsushima Wokou raided Ungjin, Japanese negotiators reconfirmed the policies of limiting trade and prohibiting piracy. The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Tsushima Province (対馬国; Tsushima-no kuni) was an old province of Japan (-19c) on Tsushima Island which occupied the area corresponding to modern-day Tsushima, Nagasaki. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... Kyushu region, Japan Kyushu (九州 kyÅ«shÅ«) is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... Ungjin is a former city on the Korean Peninsula. ...


The period around the Mongol invasions of Japan were a low point for Wokou activity. This was partly due to the higher degree of military preparedness in Goryeo. They fortified Gumju in 1251 and in 1265, after entering into tribute relations with the Mongols, the powerful Sambyeolcho (三別抄) was deployed to the southern provinces. The Kamakura shogunate, for its part, increased its authority in Kyushu and was better able to mobilise and control former Wokou groups against the threat of Mongol invasion. The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. ... Sambyeolcho 三別抄 (also Sampyolcho; literally Three Special Unit) were the most powerful military force of Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty. ...


As the Kamakura shogunate and Goryeo state both declined following the Mongol invasions, the Wokou again became active. In 1323, for example, a large-scale raid took place in Jeolla province. Raids such as this developed into full-scale pirate attacks by the end of the 14th century. Jeolla (Jeolla-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ...


Nanboku-cho period

The Wokou resumed their activities in earnest in 1350, driven by chaotic conditions and the lack of a strong authority in Japan. For the next half-century, sailing principally from Iki and Tsushima, they engulfed the southern half of Goryeo. The worst period was the decade between 1376 and 1385, when no fewer than 174 instances of pirate raids were recorded in Korea. Some involved bands of as many as three thousand penetrating deep into the Korean interior. The raiders repeatedly looted the Korean capital Gaeseong, and on occasion reached as far north as the mouth of the Taedong River and the general area of Pyongyang. They looted grain stores and took people away for slavery and ransom. The conditions caused by the Wokou greatly contributed to the downfall of the Goryeo Dynasty in 1392. General Yi Seonggye, founder of the Joseon Dynasty, rose to prominence due to his successes against the Wokou. Iki (壱岐国;, Iki no-kuni) was a province of Japan which occupied the entire area of Iki Island. ... Tsushima Province (対馬国; Tsushima-no kuni) was an old province of Japan (-19c) on Tsushima Island which occupied the area corresponding to modern-day Tsushima, Nagasaki. ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty. ... The Taedong River rises in the Nangnim Mountains of northern North Korea. ... Pyongyang (평양 / 平壤) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the bottom third (almost direct center) of the country, situated on the Taedong River. ... King Taejo of Joseon (original name Yi Seong-gye, 이성계(李成桂) was the founder and the first king of Koreas Joseon Dynasty. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye of the Jeonju clan of Yi in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty at what is today the city of Gaeseong. ...


Goryeo's King U sought redress in 1375 from the Muromachi shogunate and the cooperation of the shogunal deputy (tandai 探題) in Kyushu, Imagawa Ryōshun. In 1377 the great statesman Chong Mong-Chu was received warmly by Ryōshun. Several hundred prisoners captured by Wokou were returned to Goryeo. Nevertheless Kyushu was under the sway of the Southern Court, and neither the shogunate nor its deputy could suppress the pirates as requested despite promises to the contrary. In 1381, for instance, the Muromachi shogunate issued an order prohibiting the akutō (悪党, loosely translated as "outlaws," literally "bad gangs" or "evil political-parties/factions") of the provinces from crossing over to Goryeo and "committing outrages". In 1389 and in 1419, the Koreans attacked the pirate bases on Tsushima themselves and received ineffective assurances from the governer of Tsushima that the pirate raids would be stopped. King U was born in 1363, and ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1374 until 1388. ... The Ashikaga shogunate (Jp. ... Imagawa Sadayo ), 1326-1420 CE, was a renowned Japanese poet and military commander who served as tandai (constable) of Kyushu under the Ashikaga Bakufu from 1371 to 1395. ... Chong Mong_Chu (pen name: Po_Eun; 1337-1392) was born at the time when the Goryeo dynasty ruled the Korean peninsula. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ...


The Wokou bands were also active in China, where the earliest record of Japanese pirates is from 1302. In addition, the economic embargo forced upon Japan by Qing and later Ming made pirate trade the only and a lucrative way to secure Chinese goods, as trade through the Ryukyu Kingdom was halted by China, and eventually in 1609 Satsuma (Japan) seized the kingdom. In 1358, and again in 1363, the raids continued along the entire eastern seaboard, but particularly on the coast of what is now Shandong. Toward the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the Wokou threat began to intensify. The first Wokou raid in the Ming Dynasty occurred in 1369, in Zhejiang province. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... The main building of Shuri Castle The Ryukyu Kingdom was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. ... Ming redirects here. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In response, the Hongwu Emperor sent his commanders to construct a number of forts along the coast and dispatched two envoys to Prince Kanenaga, the Southern Court's "General of the Western Pacification Command" in Kyushu. The first, in 1396, threatened an invasion of Japan unless the Wokou raids were stopped. Unimpressed, Prince Kaneyoshi had the Ming envoy killed and refused the demands. However, when the second envoy arrived in 1370 (??? this cannot be right), he submitted to the Ming as a "subject". He sent an embassy the next year, returning more than seventy men and women who had been captured at Mingzhou (Ningbo) and Taizhou. The Hongwu Emperor (September 21, 1328 – June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder and first emperor 1368 - 1398 of the Míng Dynasty of China. ... Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo Tennō) (November 26, 1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Ningbo (Simplified Chinese: 宁波; Traditional Chinese: 寧波; pinyin: Níngbō; Wade-Giles: Ning-po; literally Tranquil Waves) is a seaport sub-provincial city with a population of 800,000 in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taizhou (Simplified Chinese: 台州; pinyin: Tāizhōu) is a prefecture-level city in the east of Zhejiang province, China. ...


Ming Dynasty tribute system

Attacks by the Wokou. 14th century painting.
Attacks by the Wokou. 14th century painting.

In 1392, Yi Seonggye (who had become famous for defeating these pirates) founded the Joseon Dynasty, supplanting the Goryeo regime on the Korean peninsula. In the same year, the conflict between the Southern and Northern courts in Japan was finally resolved under the auspices of Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Image File history File links WakouAttack. ... Image File history File links WakouAttack. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... King Taejo of Joseon (original name Yi Seong-gye, 이성계(李成桂) was the founder and the first king of Koreas Joseon Dynasty. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye of the Jeonju clan of Yi in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty at what is today the city of Gaeseong. ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Kinkaku, the Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji, originated as the villa of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. ...


Fang Guozhen and Zhang Shicheng, who held sway in Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas, established bases on the coastal islands. They linked up with the Wokou. There may also have been some Wokou involvement in the rebellion of Hu Weiyong and Liu Xian. Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ...


For the Ming, the Wokou were not simply a foreign concern. The Ming reinforced the policy of forbidding Chinese to go overseas and controlled trade with Japan through the tribute system, both policies aimed at monopolising trade and protecting against piracy.


Though diplomatic initiatives brought by China and Korea were successful in gaining the cooperation of the Muromachi shogunate at its height, it did not put down the Wokou.


They went on raiding China in force until at least 1419. In that year, a large pirate fleet of more than thirty sail assembled in Tsushima and headed north along Korea's Yellow Sea coast. Kept under observation, it was finally ambushed and smashed off Wanghaiguo in Liaodong by a provincial military commander, who was said to have taken between 700 and 1500 heads. After that, the Wokou steered clear of Liaodong, though they hit other areas of China sporadically. Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ...


In Korea, the Wokou were stemmed by action from regional notables of western Japan, whom the Koreans influenced with concessions.


Later Wokou raids

The 1550s and 1660s saw a resurgence of the Wokou tide. The period of greatest Wokou activity was during the Jiajing and Wanli eras, also some of the weakest in Ming history. To illustrate, in the period 1369 to 1466, the wokou raided Zhejiang 34 times, on average once every three years. By comparison, in the period 1523 to 1588, they made 66 raids, on average once a year. Jiajing Emperor Birth and death: Sept. ... Wanli Emperor Birth and death: Sept. ...


In contrast with previous Wokou, however, the pirate bands of the middle 16th century no longer consisted preponderantly of Japanese. Although Wokou remained the common label by which they were identified, most of these bandits were in fact, if not in name, Chinese.


The term often used for Japanese pirates was bahan (Portuguese transcription: bafan). The term is written as bafan (Hachiman) or pofan ("tattered sails"). According to the Zhouhai Tubian, Satsuma, Higo, and Nagato were the Japanese provinces that were the most prolific breeding grounds of the pirates; next came Ōsumi, Chikuzen, Chikugo, Hakata, Hyuga, Settsu, Harima, and the island of Tanegashima. Natives of Buzen, Bungo and Izumi also took part in raids on occasion, often when the opportunity of joining a Satsuma expedition to China presented itself. Hachiman in the Guise of a Buddhist Monk, statue from Kamakura period, 1201 AD Hachiman (Japanese, 八幡神 -shin, also can be read as Yawata no kami) is the Shinto god of war, and divine protector of Japan and the Japanese people. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... Nagato (Japanese: 長門国, Nagato no kuni), often called Choshu (é•·å·ž, ChōshÅ«), was a province of Japan. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... Chikugo (筑後国; Chikugo no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today the southern part of Fukuoka prefecture, on Kyushu. ... Hakata (博多区; -ku) is a ward in Fukuoka, Japan with a population of 176,585. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... This article is about the city of Setttsu, for the old province of Japan, see Settsu province Settsu (摂津市; -shi) is a city located in Osaka, Japan. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... Yoshinobu Launch Complex (© JAXA) in Tanegashima Tanegashima (Japanese: 種子島) is an island lying to the south of Kyushu, south Japan, and is part of the Kagoshima Prefecture. ... Buzen was also an old province of Japan. ... Japan in eastern Kyushu, which bordered on Buzen, Hyuga, Higo, Chikugo, and Chikuzen provinces. ... Izumi (和泉国; -no kuni) or Senshu (泉州 senshÅ«) was a province of Japan, which today composes the south-western part of Osaka Prefecture (not including the city of Osaka itself). ...


An inequitable taxation and property system, combined with endemic corruption, forced many Chinese farmers in Fujian, Guangdong and Zhejiang to seek livelihoods in the sea. The Ming ban on ocean-going, selectively enforced by local authorities, made these people dissidents. Sometimes pirates and sometimes merchants, they used their local knowledge to make successful raiding expeditions. In 1533 the Ming government Ministry of War complained that armed fleets were pillaging at will along the coast. They often also engaged in illegal smuggling operations and raided rival merchant marine. During the 1540s the disparate groups of Chinese pirates and traders became more organised. They gathered on islands off the eastern coastline and colluded with the Japanese. (Chinese: 福建; Pinyin: Fújiàn; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... China, and should not be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...


In this way, the acts of piracy and overseas trade were interconnected. In 1523, for example, the Hosokawa trading party in Ningbo attacked its rival mission from the Ōuchi family and then proceeded to loot the city. It seized a number of ships, and set sail. The Ming commander sent in pursuit was killed in a sea battle. The Hosokawa clan is one of strong Shugo Daimyo. ... Ningbo (Simplified Chinese: 宁波; Traditional Chinese: 寧波; pinyin: Níngbō; Wade-Giles: Ning-po; literally Tranquil Waves) is a seaport sub-provincial city with a population of 800,000 in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Proposals to appoint a governor with jurisdiction over coastal defense first appeared in 1524 after the Ningbo affray. Supporters argued that the Japanese were as much a threat as the Mongols and that administrative arrangements in effect on the northern borders should therefore be applied to the coast as well. In 1529, after a garrison on the coast had rioted and fled to join pirate bands, a censor was sent to inspect coastal defenses, to coordinate the suppression of piracy, and to punish the leaders of the riot. In 1531 this official was transferred and not replaced.


Zhu Wan

From 1539, the tribute trade system broke down altogether. The size of Japanese fleets sailing from Japan to trade with private Chinese merchants grew each year and so did the violence associated with it. The typical wokou attack at this time was for the sea-based raiders to make swift attacks from their island strongholds and then retreat to their ships. In many cases violent altercations were the result of conflict over payment of debts by wealthy families to their trading creditors. One of the Xie family's estates in Shaoxing was looted and burned in the summer of 1547 for this reason. Shaoxing (Simplified Chinese: 绍兴; Traditional Chinese: 紹興; Pinyin: Shàoxīng; Wade-Giles: Shao-hsing) is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


In November 1547 Zhu Wan, was put in charge of Zhejiang and Fujian coastal defense, to eradicate the cause of piracy - overseas trade. In February 1548 a large body of pirates raided the coastal counties of Ningbo and Taizhou, killing, burning, and looting without encountering any effective resistance. Zhu arrived in Ningbo in April and shortly thereafter, he led an attack on wokou harbour at Shuangyu Island. In March 1549 he attacked a large merchant fleet anchored of the coast of southern Fujian. Despite Zhu's successes, he was dismissed from office and during impeachment proceedings, he committed suicide in January 1550. His coastal defense fleet was dispersed. Taizhou (Simplified Chinese: 台州; pinyin: Tāizhōu) is a prefecture-level city in the east of Zhejiang province, China. ...


Wang Zhi

By the 1550s the Chinese merchant Wang Zhi had organised a large trading consortium and commanded a well-armed fleet with sailors and soldiers to protect it. Between 1539 and 1552 he cooperated with local military intendants on several occasions, expecting relaxation of the ban on overseas trade. When the ban was instead tightened in 1551, Wang began organising large attacks on official establishments, granaries, county and district treasuries, and incidentally on the surrounding countryside, which was thoroughly pillaged. Brigandage along the coast of Zhejiang became so widespread and common that towns and villages had to erect palisades for security.


In the spring of 1552 raiding parties of several hundred people attacked all along the coast of Zhejiang. In the summer of 1553 Wang Zhi assembled a large fleet of hundreds of ships to raid the coast of Zhejiang from Taizhou north. Several garrisons were briefly taken, and several district seats were besieged. Early in 1554 fortified bases were established along the coast of Zhejiang from which larger raiding parties set out on long inland campaigns. By 1555 they were approaching the great cities of the Yangzi Delta, Hangzhou, Suzhou, and Nanjing. Wokou raiders had established fortified bases in various towns and forts on the coast of Zhejiang and garrisoned them with a combined force of 20,000 men. The Yangzi Delta generally comprises the triangular-shaped territory of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. ... Old houses of Hangzhou in oil painting by Chen Cheng-po. ... Suzhou (Simplified Chinese: 苏州; Traditional Chinese: 蘇州; pinyin: Sūzhōu; Wade-Giles: Su-chou; sometimes seen transliterated as Su-chow, Suchow, or Soochow) is a famous city on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu, China. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京 [ ]; Romanizations: Nánjīng (Pinyin) , Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal System Pinyin) ) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ...


The two Chinese commanders most famous in resisting the Wokou were Qi Jiguang and Yu Dayou. Both men were from coastal provinces and had good knowledge of naval warfare. Qi organised a force of some 4000, known as the "Qi Family Army", made up mostly of farmers and miners. He won a succession of victories in 1555 in defending Taizhou. Yu Dayou's first significant victory was in 1553, when his marines stormed the island of Putuoshan and expelled the Wokou camp there. Two years later, he killed some two thousand Wokou north of Jiaxing, winning the greatest victory in the Wokou wars. Statue of Qi Jiguang in Penglai, Shandong Province Qi Jiguang ( Simplified Chinese: 戚继光; Traditional Chinese: 戚繼光; Pinyin: qī jì gūang) ( November 12, 1528 - January 5, 1588) was a Chinese military general and national hero during the Ming Dynasty. ... Taizhou (Simplified Chinese: 台州; pinyin: Tāizhōu) is a prefecture-level city in the east of Zhejiang province, China. ... Mount Putuo (Chinese 普陀山; pinyin pu tuo shan) or Putuo Shan is an island located to the south-east of Shanghai, off the coast of Zhejiang province, China. ... Jiaxing (嘉兴市; Postal System Pinyin: Kashing; Wade-Giles: Chia-hsing) is a prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang Province, China. ...


Hideyoshi

When Toyotomi Hideyoshi's assumed Regency of Japan in the 1580s, the Ming and the Regent worked together to stop the raids, and were very successful. However, once Hideyoshi ended the bloodline of his last enemy, the Hōjō clan in Japan, he demanded from Joseon Dynasty in Korea the right of passage to invade China. Korea refused, and Hideyoshi invaded Korea and Manchuria, the subsequent series of battles being known as the Seven-Year War (1592–1598). The term Wokou was used by both Chinese and Korean troops in reference to the invasion force of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Although the Ming troops had mixed success against Hideyoshi's army[citation needed], it was in battling the Admiral I Sun-sin of Jeolla (Korean province) that Japan suffered the heaviest losses, forcing Hideyoshi's invading army to retreat. Hideyoshi in old age. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye of the Jeonju clan of Yi in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty at what is today the city of Gaeseong. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea Ming Dynasty China Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Adm. ... Hideyoshi in old age. ... Yi Sun-sin (March 8, 1545 – November 19, 1598), was a Korean naval leader best known for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Seven Year War, during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Jeolla (Jeolla-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ...


Decline of the Wokou

The presence of the Wokou eventually declined before disappearing completely. There are several theories about the cause of the decline.


As a general rule, most of the Wokou began returning to more traditional seafaring activities as enforcement of the bans on maritime trade subsided. There is anecdotal evidence that the Portuguese were given permission to settle Macao in the 1550s in exchange for cooperation with the Ming authorities against the Wokou. There are two accounts of anti-piracy activity by the Portuguese. The first dates from the 1520s and is recounted in a letter to Zhu Wan, one of the leaders of the anti-piracy campaigns. The second account is better documented and discusses a 1564 joint Chinese-Portuguese action in the Pearl River Delta. Map of Pearl River Delta (details) The Pearl River Delta (PRD, Chinese: 珠江三角洲; Mandarin Pinyin: Zhū Jiāng Sānjiǎozhōu; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: zyu1 gong1 saam1 gok3 zau1), China, occupies the low-lying areas alongside the Pearl River estuary where the river flows into the South China Sea. ...


Additionally, the acceptance of the Portuguese resulted in the relaxing of anti-trade restrictions, particularly in the region surrounding Canton. The mere presence of the better armed Portuguese ships may have served to decrease pirate activity. Additionally, the accommodation with the Portuguese also contributed to the demise of the tribute-trade system, which would have increased opportunities for legitimate Chinese traders as well. More likely, however, is that the Portuguese were able to sell tropical goods from Indonesia and India at a better price than the Wokou, many of whom were smugglers before pirates. The cost of illegal activity made the Wokou unable to compete with the Portuguese and drove the Wokou back into legitimate seafaring activities.


Toyotomi Hideyoshi also served as a great detriment to Wokou activities. Two regulations in particular damaged the Wokou raids, the first of which is the sword hunt put in motion in 1588. The Sword Hunt was a major confiscation of all weaponry in the storage of peasants and turned over to the daimyo. This took away the possibility of making war by people suspect of Hideyoshi. Obscure daimyo whose loyalty was in question or religious establishments that possessed the capabilities to arm a rebellion were all purged in an operation that have parallels with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. In effect, this took away the means by which Wakou could arm and supply themselves. The other, lesser known, ordinance was a move aimed directly at the Wokou. Representatives of the daimyo sought to obtain written oaths that no seafarer partake in piracy. If any daimyo should fail to obey with this order and allow Wokou to continue their craft, his fief would be confiscated. Hideyoshi in old age. ... Several times in Japanese history, the new ruler sought to ensure his position by calling a Sword Hunt (刀狩, katanagari). ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... The Dissolution of the Monasteries (referred to by Roman Catholic writers as the Suppression of the Monasteries) was the formal process, taking place between 1538 and 1541, by which King Henry VIII confiscated the property of the Roman Catholic monastic institutions in England and took them to himself, as the... The Han ) were the fiefs of feudal clans of Japan that were created by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and existed until their abolition in 1871, three years after the Meiji Restoration. ...


See also

The sub-pages of this article aim to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to China, including Hong Kong and Macau. ... Lists of articles List of Japan-related topics 123-K List of man eating monsters topics L-Z See also Wikipedia:Manual of Style (Japan-related articles) Wikipedia:WikiProject Japanese prefectures Wikipedia:WikiProject Japanese districts and municipalites Wikipedia:Wikipedians/Japan Template:Japan Wikipedia:Japanese Wikipedians notice board See also: Lists... This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... The history of China is detailed by historical records dating as far back as 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#History. ... Joseon dynasty court architecture This article is about the history of Korea, through the division of Korea before the Korean War. ...

References

Primary Sources:

  • Zheng Ruohui, Zhouhai Tubian (籌海図編)
  • 老松堂日本行録

Secondary Sources:

  • So, Kwan-wai. Japanese Piracy in Ming China During the 16th Century. East Lansing, 1975.
  • Boxer, C.R. “Piracy in the South China Sea,” in History Today, XXX, 12 (December), p. 40-44.
  • Stephen Turnbull "Samurai: The World of the Warrior" p. 155-157.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wokou - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2621 words)
Japanese pirates concentrated on the Korean peninsula and spread across the Yellow Sea to China.
Supporters argued that the Japanese were as much a threat as the Mongols and that administrative arrangements in effect on the northern borders should therefore be applied to the coast as well.
In 1529, after a garrison on the coast had rioted and fled to join pirate bands, a censor was sent to inspect coastal defenses, to coordinate the suppression of piracy, and to punish the leaders of the riot.
The History Cooperative | Conference Proceedings | Seascapes, Littoral Cultures, and Trans-Oceanic Exchanges | Japanese ... (7138 words)
Japanese pirate bands tended to be community-based, taking their name from their lord and his putative site of origin.
Pirates such as the Kurushima and Noshima Murakami participated in medieval maritime commerce through administration of the sea-peoples in their formal domain.
Pirates found toll barriers especially effective means of collecting income without destroying the source because—as in other pirate communities around the world—kaizoku lived in a symbiotic relationship with mercantile shipping and landed powers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m