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Encyclopedia > Japanese people
Japanese people
日本人
Total population

About 130 million Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1532 × 1092 pixel, file size: 334 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Japan Japan      127 million
Significant Nikkei populations in:
Flag of Brazil Brazil 1,400,000 [12]
Flag of the United States United States 1,200,000 [13]
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 150,000
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 99,000 [14]
Flag of Canada Canada 85,000 [15]
Flag of Peru Peru 81,000 [16]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 51,000 [17]
Flag of Germany Germany 35,000 [18]
Flag of Argentina Argentina 30,000 [19]
Flag of Australia Australia 27,000 [20]
Flag of Singapore Singapore 23,000 [21]
Flag of Mexico Mexico 20,000 [22]
Flag of the Republic of China Taiwan 16,000 [23]
Flag of South Korea South Korea 15,000 [24]
Languages
Japanese
Religions

Shinto, Buddhism, large secular groups Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei, are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


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The Japanese people (日本人 Nihonjin, Nipponjin?) is the ethnic group that identifies as Japanese by culture or ancestry, or both. The term is often used less discriminately to refer to the group of people holding Japanese citizenship. Worldwide, approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 127 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries are referred to as Nikkeijin (日系人?). The term "Japanese people" may also be used in some contexts to refer to a locus of ethnic groups including the Yamato people, Ainu people, and Ryukyuans. Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei, are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants. ... The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei, are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants. ... The Yamato people ) are the dominant native ethnic group of Japan. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... Ryukyuan people (Japanese: 琉球民族) are the indigenous people of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan between the islands of KyÅ«shÅ« and Taiwan. ...

Contents

Culture

Language

Main article: Japanese language

The Japanese language is the mother tongue of the majority of the world's Japanese. It is a Japonic language that is usually treated as a language isolate, although it is also related to the Okinawan language (Ryukyuan). The Japanese language has a tripartite writing system based upon Chinese characters. Domestic Japanese people use primarily Japanese for daily interaction. The adult literacy rate in Japan exceeds 99%;[1] however, this may not accurately reflect functional literacy rates due to the complex nature of the Japanese writing system.[2] Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... The Japonic languages or Japanese-Ryukyuan languages constitute a language family that is agreed to have descended from a common ancestral language known as Proto-Japonic or Proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Ryukyuan people (Japanese: 琉球民族, of which Okinawans, Miyako people, and Yaeyama people are subgroups), are the indigenous people of the Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, located between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. ... This article describes the modern writing system and its history. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Japan

Japanese religion has traditionally been syncretic in nature, combining elements of Buddhism and Shintoism. Shintoism, a polytheistic religion with no book of religious canon, is Japan's native folk religion. Shinto was one of the traditional grounds for the right to the throne of the Japanese imperial family, and was codified as the state religion in 1868 (State Shinto was abolished by the American occupation in 1945). Mahayana Buddhism came to Japan in the sixth century and evolved into many different sects. Today the largest form of Buddhism among Japanese people is the Jodo Shinshu sect founded by Shinran. The primary religions of Japan are Buddhism and Shintoism (the latter is a pagan, animist religion). ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Jōdo ShinshÅ« ), also known as Shin Buddhism, was founded by the former Tendai Japanese monk Shinran Shonin. ... Shinran Shonin (親鸞聖人) (1173-1263) was a pupil of Honen and the founder of the Jodo Shinshu (or True Pure Land) sect in Japan. ...


According to the CIA World Factbook, when asked to identify their religion, most Japanese people (84%) profess to believe in both Shinto and Buddhism. The Japanese people's religious concerns are mostly directed towards mythology, traditions, and neighborhood activities rather than as the single source of moral guidelines for one's life. Confucianism or Taoism is sometimes considered the basis for morality. World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...


Literature

Main article: Japanese literature
Bisque doll of Momotarō,a character from Japanese literature and folklore.
Bisque doll of Momotarō,
a character from Japanese literature and folklore.

Certain genres of writing originated in and are often associated with Japanese society. These include the haiku, tanka, and I Novel, although modern writers generally avoid these writing styles. Historically, many works have sought to capture or codify traditional Japanese cultural values and aesthetics. Some of the most famous of these include Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji (1021), about Heian court culture; Miyamoto Musashi's The Book of Five Rings (1645), concerning military strategy; Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi (1691), a travelogue; and Jun'ichirō Tanizaki's essay "In Praise of Shadows" (1933), which contrasts Eastern and Western cultures. Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... Image File history File links Momotaro Japanese traditional dolls doll I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Image File history File links Momotaro Japanese traditional dolls doll I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Bisque doll of Momotarō Momotarō (桃太郎) is a hero from Japanese folklore. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... Japanese folklore is the folklore of Japan. ... Shut up Nick, youre wrong. ... Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. ... I-Novel (私小説, Watakushi shōsetsu, or Shishōsetsu) is a literary genre in Japanese literature used to describe writing about oneself. ... Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部 Murasaki Shikibu, c. ... Ilustration of ch. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Miyamoto Miyamoto Musashi ) (c. ... Miyamoto Musashi in his prime, wielding two bokken. ... A statue of Bashō in Hiraizumi, Iwate. ... Statue of Bashō at ChÅ«sonji, Hiraizumi, Iwate Prefecture Oku no Hosomichi (Japanese: 奥の細道, meaning Narrow Road to Oku [the Deep North]) is a major work by Matsuo Bashō. Oku no Hosomichi was written based on a journey taken by Bashō in the late spring of 1689. ... This article is in the process of being merged into Travel literature, and may be outdated. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tanizaki Junichirō Tanizaki , 24 July 1886—30 July 1965) was a Japanese author who was one of the major writers of modern Japanese literature, and remains perhaps the most popular Japanese novelist after Natsume Sōseki. ... In Praise of Shadows ) is the title of a short book on aesthetics by the Japanese author Junichiro Tanizaki. ...


Following the opening of Japan to the West in 1854, some works of this style were written in English by natives of Japan; they include Bushido: The Soul of Japan by Nitobe Inazo (1900), concerning samurai ethics, and The Book of Tea by Okakura Kakuzo (1906), which deals with the philosophical implications of the Japanese tea ceremony. Western observers have often attempted to evaluate Japanese society as well, to varying degrees of success; one of the most well-known and controversial works resulting from this is Ruth Benedict's The Chrysanthemum and the Sword (1946). Japanese 1854 print describing Commodore Matthew Perrys Black Ships. The Black Ships (in Japanese, 黒船, kurofune) was the name given to Western vessels arriving in Japan between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Inazo Nitobe (新渡戸 稲造; Nitobe Inazō, September 1, 1862 - October 15, 1933) was a Christian Japanese agriculturist, philosopher, educator and international political activist from Morioka, Iwate. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th century. ... Okakura Tenshin (岡倉 天心, February 14, 1863 - September 2, 1913) was a Japanese scholar who contributed the development of arts in Japan. ... A woman wearing a kimono performs a tea ceremony outdoors, while seated in seiza position. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Twentieth-century Japanese writers recorded changes in Japanese society through their works. Some of the most notable authors included Natsume Sōseki, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Osamu Dazai, Yasunari Kawabata, Fumiko Enchi, Yukio Mishima, and Ryotaro Shiba. In contemporary Japan popular authors such as Ryu Murakami, Haruki Murakami, and Banana Yoshimoto are highly regarded. Natsume Soseki on the former 1000 yen note. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tanizaki Junichirō Tanizaki , 24 July 1886—30 July 1965) was a Japanese author who was one of the major writers of modern Japanese literature, and remains perhaps the most popular Japanese novelist after Natsume Sōseki. ... Osamu Dazai (太宰 æ²» Dazai Osamu, June 19, 1909 in Aomori Prefecture - June 13, 1948) was a Japanese author. ... Yasunari Kawabata ); (14 June 1899 - 16 April 1972) was a Japanese short story writer and novelist whose spare, lyrical, subtly-shaded prose won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968, the first Japanese to receive the award. ... Enchi Fumiko (円地文子) (October 2, 1905- November 12, 1986) was one of the prominent women writers of twentieth century Japan. ... Yukio Mishima ) was the public name of Kimitake Hiraoka , January 14, 1925–November 25, 1970), a Japanese author and playwright, famous for both his highly notable nihilistic post-war writings and the circumstances of his ritual suicide by seppuku. ... Ryotaro Shiba (司馬遼太郎 Shiba Ryōtarō), born Teiichi Fukuda (福田 定一 Fukuda Teiichi, 1923-1996), is best known for his novels and essays based on historical events in Japan. ... Ryu Murakami (村上龍 Murakami RyÅ«, born 19 February 1952 in Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan) is a Japanese novelist and filmmaker. ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... Banana Yoshimoto , born July 24, 1964[1], in Tokyo) is the pen name of Mahoko Yoshimoto (吉本 真秀子 Yoshimoto Mahoko), a Japanese contemporary writer. ...


Arts

Decorative arts in Japan date back to prehistoric times. Jōmon pottery includes examples with elaborate ornamentation. Pottery and ceramics have been important in Japan in every subsequent period, and exports of Imari ware and other ceramics reached Europe. Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... Japanese architecture ) has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... Imari plate, made at Arita, 18th century Imari porcelain is the European collectors name for Japanese porcelain wares made in the town of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern KyÅ«shÅ«, and exported from the port of Imari, Saga, specifically for the European export trade. ...


In the Yayoi period, artisans produced fine mirrors, spears, and ceremonial bells known as dōtaku. Later burial mounds, or kofun, preserve characteristic clay haniwa, as well as wall paintings. Beginning in the Nara period, painting, calligraphy, and sculpture in wood and metal flourished under strong Confucian and Buddhist influences from Korea and China. Among the architectural achievements of this period are the Hōryū-ji and the Yakushi-ji, two Buddhist temples in Nara Prefecture. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... A Yayoi period Dōtaku, 3rd century CE. Dōtaku ) are Japanese bells smelted from relatively thin bronze and richly decorated. ... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... Kofun Haniwa soldier. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... “Sculptor” redirects here. ... Horyu-ji. ... Yakushi-ji Yakushi-ji (薬師寺) is one of the famous imperial and ancient Buddhist temples, located in Nara, Japan. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Nara Prefecture ) is part of the Kinki region on HonshÅ« Island, Japan. ...


After the cessation of official relations with the Tang dynasty in the ninth century, Japanese art and architecture gradually became less influenced by China. Extravagant art and clothing was commissioned by nobles to decorate their court life, and although the aristocracy was quite limited in size and power, many of these pieces are still extant. Contemporary literature notes that nobles enjoyed emakimono, a pair of scrolls, one for painting and another for text. While the noble enjoyed paintings, servants (nyobo) read out the text. Trade with China was reinstated during the Song dynasty, but it didn't rapidly influence the Japanese art scene. Panel from the Tale of Genji handscroll (detail) Emakimono ), often simply called emaki (絵巻), is a horizontal, illustrated narrative form created during the 11th to 16th centuries in Japan. ...


Todai-ji was attacked and many building including its main hall were burned and lost during the Gempei War. A special office of restoration was founded at the beginning of the Kamakura period, and Todai-ji became a center of Japanese architecture and sculpture. The leading masters were Unkei and Kaikei. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shōsō-in (Tōdai-ji). ... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平戦争)(1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... Unkei (1151-1223?) was a Japanese sculptor, a member of the Kei school that flourished in the Kamakura period. ... Kaikei (å¿«æ…¶) was a Japanese Busshi (sculptor of Buddha statue) of Kamakura period, known alongside Unkei. ...


Painting advanced in the Muromachi period in the form of ink and wash painting under the influence of Zen Buddhism as practiced by such masters as Sesshū Tōyō. Zen Buddhist tenets were also elaborated into the tea ceremony during the Sengoku period. During the Edo period, the polychrome painting screens of the Kano school were made influential thanks to their powerful patrons (including the Tokugawas). Popular artists created ukiyo-e, woodblock prints for sale to commoners in the flourishing cities. The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... Ink and wash painting, also known as wash painting or (by its Japanese name) sumi-e, is an East Asian school of brush painting. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Shukei-sansui (Autumn Landscape), by Sesshu Toyo SesshÅ« Tōyō ) or often also simply SesshÅ«, 1420-1506, was one of the most prominent masters of suiboku (ink painting), and a Zen Buddhist priest. ... A tea ceremony is a ritualised form of making tea. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Tokugawa (徳川) is a surname in Japan. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of...


The Muromachi period also gave rise to noh, a spare dramatic form for the warrior class. Together with kyogen farce, it descended from earlier religious performances. In stark contrast to the restrained refinement of noh, kabuki, an "explosion of color," used every possible stage trick for dramatic effect to appeal to an audience of commoners. Plays included sensational events of the day such as suicides, and many works went back and forth between kabuki and the bunraku puppet theaters. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ...


Since the Meiji Restoration, Japan has absorbed elements of Western culture. Its modern decorative, practical and performing arts works span a spectrum ranging from the traditions of Japan to purely Western modes. Products of popular culture, including J-pop, manga, and anime have found audiences around the world. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... J-pop (or Jpop) is an abbreviation of Japanese pop. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... “Animé” redirects here. ...


Origins

See also: History of Japan

A recent study by Michael F. Hammer has shown genetic similarity to a variety of populations in Asia.[3] This and other genetic studies have also claimed that several thousand years ago a small number of proto-Korean Y-chromosome patrilines crossed from the Korean peninsula into the Japanese Archipelago, where they comprise a significant fraction of the extant male lineages of the Japanese population. These patrilines seem to have experienced extensive genetic admixture with the long-established Jōmon period populations of Japan.[3] The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ...


Paleolithic era

Archaeological evidences indicates that Stone Age people lived in the Japanese Archipelago during the Paleolithic period between 33,000 and 21,000 years ago.[citation needed] Japan was then connected to mainland Asia by at least one land bridge, and nomadic hunter-gatherers crossed to Japan from East Asia, Siberia, and possibly Kamchatka. They left flint tools but no evidence of permanent settlements.[citation needed] Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... Flint tools were made by stone age peoples worldwide. ...


Jōmon and Ainu people

Incipient Jōmon pottery
Incipient Jōmon pottery

The world's oldest known pottery was developed by the Jōmon people in the Upper Paleolithic period, 14th millennium BCE. The name, "Jōmon" (縄文 Jōmon), which means "cord-impressed pattern", comes from the characteristic markings found on the pottery. The Jōmon people were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, though at least one middle to late Jōmon site (Minami Mosote (南溝手?), ca. 1200-1000 BCE) had a primitive rice-growing agriculture. They relied primarily on fish for protein. It is believed that the Jōmon had very likely migrated from North Asia or Central Asia and became the Ainu of today. Research suggests that the Ainu retain a certain degree of uniqueness in their genetic make-up, while having some affinities with different regional populations in Japan as well as the Nivkhs of the Russian Far East. Based on more than a dozen genetic markers on a variety of chromosomes and from archaeological data showing habitation of the Japanese Archipelago dating back 30,000 years, it is argued that the Jōmon actually came from northeastern Asia and settled on the islands far earlier than some have proposed.[4] This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period ) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Regions of Asia:  Northern Asia  Central Asia  Western Asia  Southern Asia  Eastern Asia  Southeastern Asia North Asia or Northern Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... The Nivkhs (also Nivkh or Gilyak; ethnonym: Nivxi; language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) are an indigenous people inhabiting the region of the region of the Amur River estuary and on nearby Sakhalin Island. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ...

Yayoi people

Around 400-300 BCE, the Yayoi people began to enter the Japanese islands, intermingling with the Jōmon. Most modern scholars say that the Yayoi emigrated from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula to northern Kyūshū, though it has also been proposed that they came from southeastern China. The Yayoi brought wet-rice farming and advanced bronze and iron technology to Japan. Although the islands were already abundant with resources for hunting and dry-rice farming, Yayoi farmers created more productive wet-rice paddy field systems. This allowed the communities to support larger populations and spread over time, in turn becoming the basis for more advanced institutions and heralding the new civilization of the succeeding Kofun Period. This article is about a Japanese historical era. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... Central New York City. ...


Controversy

Currently, the most well-regarded theory is that present-day Japanese are descendants of both the indigenous Jōmon people and the immigrant Yayoi people. The origins of the Jōmon and Yayoi peoples have often been a subject of dispute, but it is now widely accepted that the Jōmon people were very similar to the modern Ainu of northern Japan, and lived in Japan since the time of the last glacial age. Han Chinese and Southeast Asian ethnic groups were sometimes proposed as the origin of the modern Japanese ethnic group. Recently, however, both Japanese and non-Japanese academics predominantly argue that the Japanese are descended from both the Yayoi, who emigrated from the Korean peninsula, and the long-established native Jōmon people, with whom the Yayoi intermarried. A clear consensus has not been reached.[5] The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Map of the world with countries colored according to their immigrant population as a percentage of total population: Immigration is the movement of people from one nation-state to another. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Intermarriage normally refers to marriage between people belonging to different religions, tribes, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. ...


Japanese colonialism

See also: Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Location Map of Japan
Location Map of Japan

During the Japanese colonial period of 1867 to 1945, the phrase "Japanese people" was used to refer not only to residents of the Japanese archipelago, but also to people from occupied territories who held Japanese citizenship, such as Taiwanese people and Korean people. The official term used to refer to ethnic Japanese during this period was "inland people" (内地人 naichijin?). Such linguistic distinctions facilitated forced assimilation of colonized ethnic identities into a single Imperial Japanese identity. [6] Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ... Image File history File links LocationMapJapan. ... Image File history File links LocationMapJapan. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... “Citizen” redirects here. ... This article is about the people of Taiwan. ... Languages Korean speakers: 72 million Religions Nonreligious, Buddhist, Christian, Shamanism, Chondogyo(indigenous), Confucian, Taoist, other The Korean people are an East Asian ethnic group [1]. Most Koreans live in the Korean Peninsula and speak the Korean language. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


After World War II, many Nivkh people and Orok people from southern Sakhalin who held Japanese citizenship were forced to repatriate to Hokkaidō by the Soviet Union. However, many Sakhalin Koreans who had held Japanese citizenship until the end of the war were left stateless by the Soviet occupation.[7] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Nivkhs (also Nivkh or Gilyak; ethnonym: Nivxi; language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) are an indigenous people inhabiting the region of the region of the Amur River estuary and on nearby Sakhalin Island. ... Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self designation: ульта, or ulta) are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly, eastern part of the island) in Russia. ... Karafuto (樺太) is the Japanese name for the southern part of the island of Sakhalin or the entire island of Sakhalin. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... Sakhalin Koreans trace their roots back to immigrants from Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces in the late 1930s and early 1940s. ...


Japanese living abroad

See also: Japanese diaspora

The term nikkeijin (日系人?) is used to refer to Japanese people who either emigrated from Japan or are descendants of a person who emigrated from Japan. The usage of this term excludes Japanese citizens who are living abroad, but includes all descendants of nikkeijin who lack Japanese citizenship regardless of their place of birth. The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei, are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants. ...


Emigration from Japan was recorded as early as the 12th century to the Philippines, but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji Era, when Japanese began to go to the United States and Canada, and later Latin America, Peru, and Brazil. There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period; however, most such emigrants repatriated to Japan after the end of World War II in Asia.[7] History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... The Pacific War, which is known in Japan as the Greater East Asia War and in China as the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression (kang-Ri zhanzheng, literally Resist Japan War), occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia. ...


According to the Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad, there are about 2.5 million nikkeijin living in their adopted countries. The largest of these foreign communities are in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Paraná.[citation needed] There are also significant cohesive Japanese communities in the Philippines, Peru, and in the American state of Hawaiʻi. Separately, the number of Japanese citizens living abroad is over one million according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[citation needed] Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo City Area 248,176. ... Flag of Paraná See other Brazilian States Capital Curitiba Largest City Curitiba Area 199,544 km² Population   - Total   - Density 9,150,000 48 inh. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (外務省; gaimu-sho) is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ...


See also

In 2005, a United Nations report expressed concerns about racism in Japan and that government recognition of the depth of the problem was not total. ... A foreign-born Japanese is a person who was originally born outside Japan and later acquired Japanese citizenship. ... Japantown is a common name for official Japanese American or Japanese Canadian communities in big cities. ... This is a list of Japanese people who are famous. ... Nihonjinron (, discourse on, theories about, the Japanese) is a highly popular genre of writing purporting to examine the characteristics—national, social, cultural, behavioural and spiritual—which are presumed to be unique to the Japanese people. ... Birth and death rates of Japan since 1950 Japans population, currently 127,463,611, experienced a high growth rate during the 20th century, as a result of scientific, industrial, and social changes. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern Honshū, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... Dekasegi (also spelt as Dekasegui or Dekassegui) is a term used in Latin American cultures to refer to people of Japanese descent who have migrated to Japan, having taken advantage of Japanese citizenship and immigration laws. ... Ryukyuan people (Japanese: 琉球民族) are the indigenous people of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan between the islands of Kyūshū and Taiwan. ... The Yamato people ) are the dominant native ethnic group of Japan. ...

References

  1. ^ United States CIA factbook. Accessed 2007-01-15.
  2. ^ Galan, C. (2005). Learning to read and write in Japanese (kokugo and nihongo): a barrier to multilingualism? International journal of the sociology of language, Issue 175-176
  3. ^ a b Michael F. Hammer (2005). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes" (PDF). The Japan Society of Human Genetics and Springer-Verlag. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  4. ^ Abstract of article from The Journal of Human Genetics. Accessed 2007-01-15.
  5. ^ See the following for more information: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]
  6. ^ Eika Tai (September 2004). ""Korean Japanese"" Volume 36: pp. 355-382. DOI:10.1080/1467271042000241586. 
  7. ^ a b Lankov, Andrei. "Stateless in Sakhalin", The Korea Times, 2006-01-05. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • CIA The World Fact Book 2006
  • The Association of Nikkei & Japanese Abroad
  • Discover Nikkei- Information on Japanese emigrants and their descendants
  • Jun-Nissei Literature and Culture in Brazil
  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (English)
  • The National Museum of Japanese History (English)
  • Japanese society and culture

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