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Encyclopedia > Japanese numerals
Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
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Indian family
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2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
3, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 60, more…
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The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language. The Japanese numerals in writing are entirely based on the Chinese numerals and the grouping of large numbers follow the Chinese tradition of grouping by 10,000. Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Japanese, one is based on Sino-Japanese (on'yomi) readings of the Chinese characters and the other is based on the Japanese kun'yomi readings. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Āryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodian. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... It has been suggested that Radix-64 be merged into this article or section. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... Different cultures have different traditional numeral systems used for writing numbers and for naming large numbers. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The characters for Kanji, lit. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The characters for Kanji, lit. ...

Contents

Basic numbering in Japanese

There are two ways of writing the numbers in Japanese, in Hindu-Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) or in Chinese numerals (一, 二, 三). The Hindu-Arabic numerals are more often used in horizontal writing, and the Chinese numerals are more common in vertical writing. Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. ... Nihongo (meaning Japanese language), written vertically in kanji Yokogaki (横書き, horizontal writing, also known as yokogumi, 横組み) and tategaki (縦書き, vertical writing, also known as tategumi, 縦組み) are two forms of Japanese writing. ... Nihongo (meaning Japanese language), written vertically in kanji Yokogaki (横書き, horizontal writing, also known as yokogumi, 横組み) and tategaki (縦書き, vertical writing, also known as tategumi, 縦組み) are two forms of Japanese writing. ...


(Some numbers have multiple names.)

Number Character Preferred reading On reading Kun reading
0 / 〇* zero rei / れい -
1 ichi ichi / いち hito(tsu) / ひと(つ)
2 ni ni, ji / に、じ futa(tsu) / ふた(つ)
3 san san / さん mi(ttsu) / み(っつ)
4 yon shi / し yon, yo(ttsu) / よん、よ(っつ)
5 go go / ご itsu(tsu) / いつ(つ)
6 roku roku / ろく mu(ttsu) / む(っつ)
7 nana shichi / しち nana(tsu) / なな(つ)
8 hachi hachi / はち ya(ttsu) / や(っつ)
9 kyū kyū, ku / きゅう、く kokono(tsu) / ここの(つ)
10 jū / じゅう tō / とお
20 二十 ni-jū ni-jū / にじゅう hata(chi) / はた(ち)
30 三十 san-jū san-jū / さんじゅう miso / みそ
100 hyaku hyaku / ひゃく (momo / もも)
1,000 sen sen / せん (chi / ち)
10,000 man man / まん (yorozu / よろず)
100,000,000 oku oku / おく -
1,000,000,000,000 chō chō / ちょう -

* The special reading "maru" is also found. It is used when reading individual digits of a number one after another, instead of as a full number. A popular example is the famous 109 store in Shibuya which is read as "ichi-maru-kyū". This usage of "maru" for numerical 0 is similar to reading numeral 0 in English as "oh". Etymologically, it derives from 丸 or 円 (both "maru"). However, as a number, it is only written as 0 or 零. Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... For other senses of this word, see zero or 0. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up three in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the number Four. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up six in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seven Days of Creation - 1765 book, title page 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ... Look up eight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the number. ... This article is about the number 10. ... 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... 30 (thirty) is the natural number following 29 and preceding 31. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up ten thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One hundred million (100,000,000) is the natural number following 99999999 and preceding 100000001. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Categories: Wards of Tokyo | Japan geography stubs ...


The numbers 4 and 9 are considered unlucky in Japanese: 4, pronounced shi, is a homophone for "death" (死); 9, when pronounced ku, is a homophone for "suffering" (苦). The number 13 is sometimes considered unlucky, though this is a carryover from Western tradition. For the series of slasher films, see Friday the 13th (series). ...


In modern Japanese, the kun readings are only used for single digit numbers and day-of-month names, although in many contexts the on readings will be used instead. Intermediate numbers are made by combining these elements:

  • Tens from 20 to 90 are "(digit)-jū".
  • Hundreds from 200 to 900 are "(digit)-hyaku".
  • Thousands from 2000 to 9000 are "(digit)-sen".
  • Additionally, the tens from 30 to 90 in kun reading are formed by "(digit)-so", where the digit is also in kun reading: miso (30), yoso (40), iso (50), muso (60), nanaso (70), yaso (80), kokonoso (90). Variations include i for 50 and the suffix -ji for 20 through 90. However, for the most part, these are not in use in modern Japanese.

There are some phonetic modifications to larger numbers, but they are a minor detail.


In large numbers, elements are combined from largest to smallest, and zeros are implied.

Number Character Reading
11 十一 jū ichi
17 十七 jū nana, jū shichi
151 百五十一 hyaku go-jū ichi
302 三百二 san-byaku ni*
469 四百六十九 yon-hyaku roku-jū kyū
2025 二千二十五 ni-sen ni-jū go

* Hyaku becomes byaku due to rendaku. Rendaku (連濁, lit. ...


Powers of 10

Large numbers

Following Chinese tradition, large numbers are created by grouping digits in myriads (every 10,000) rather than the Western thousands (1000): Look up myriad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Rank 104 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 1048 1052 or 1056 1056 or 1064 1060 or 1072 1064 or 1080 1068 or 1088
Character 恒河沙 阿僧祇 那由他/那由多 不可思議 無量大数
Reading man oku chō kei gai shi kan sei sai goku gōgasha asōgi nayuta fukashigi muryōtaisū

Variation is due to Jinkōki, Japan's oldest mathematics text. The initial edition was published in 1627. It had many errors. Most of these were fixed in the 1631 edition. In 1634 there was yet another edition which again changed a few values. The above variation is due to inconsistencies in the latter two editions. Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement...


Examples: (spacing by groups of four digits is given only for clarity of explanation)

  • 1 0000 : 一万 (ichi-man)
  • 983 6703 : 九百八十三万 六千七百三 (kyū-hyaku hachi-jū san man, roku-sen nana-hyaku san)
  • 20 3652 1801 : 二十億 三千六百五十二万 千八百一 (ni-jū oku, san-zen rop-pyaku go-jū ni-man, sen hap-pyaku ichi)

However, numbers written in Arabic numerals are separated by commas every three digits following Western convention. If Arabic numbers and kanji are used in combination, Western orders of magnitude may be used for numbers smaller than 10,000 (e.g. 2,500万 for 25,000,000).


In Japanese, when long numbers are written out in kanji, zeros are omitted for all powers of ten. Hence 302 is 三百二 (In contrast, Chinese requires the use of 零 wherever a zero appears, e.g. 三百零二 for 302). However, in reading, the letter zero is sometimes pronounced as "tobi" (飛び) to make sure the lack of numbers, e.g. "san-byaku tobi ni".


Decimal fractions

Japanese has two systems of numerals for decimal fractions. They are no longer in general use, but are still used in some instances such as batting and fielding averages of baseball players, winning percentages for sports teams, and in some idiomatic phrases (such as 五分五分の勝負 "fifty-fifty chance"), and when representing a rate or discount.


One system is as follows:

Rank 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5
Character
Reading bu rin shi kotsu

This is the system used with the traditional Japanese units of measurement. Several of the names are used "as is" to represent a fraction of a shaku. Shakkan-hō ) is the traditional Japanese system of measurement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Japanese unit. ...


The other system of representing these decimal fractions of rate or discount uses a system "shifted down" with a bu becoming a "one hundredth" and so on, and the unit for "tenth" becoming wari:

Rank 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5
Character
Reading wari bu rin shi

This is often used with prices. For example:

  • 一割五分引き (ichi-wari go-bu biki): 15% discount
  • 打率三割八分九厘 (daritsu san-wari hachi-bu kyū-rin): batting average .389

With the exception of wari, these are rarely seen in modern usage. Decimal fractions are typically written with either kanji numerals (vertically) or Arabic numerals (horizontally), preceded by a decimal point, and are read as successive digits, as in Western convention. Note that they can be combined with either the traditional system of expressing numerals (42.195 kilometers: 四十二・一九五 キロメートル), in which powers of ten are written, or with the place value system, which uses zero (50.04 percent: 五〇・〇四 パーセント).


Formal numbers

Like in Chinese numerals, there exists in Japanese a separate set of kanji for numerals called daiji (大字) used in legal and financial documents to prevent unscrupulous individuals from adding a stroke or two, turning a one into a two or a three. The formal numbers are identical to the Chinese formal numbers except for minor stroke variations. Some formal numbers are obsolete and not used in legal documents today. Those that remain are the ones whose common forms can be changed to a higher value by adding strokes (1 and 2 were explained above, while 3 can be changed to 5, and 10 to 1000). The digit 1 is explicitly written like 壱百壱拾 for 110, as opposed to 百十 in common writing. Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. ...


Formal numbers:

Number Common Formal
Modern Obsolete
1
2
3
4  
5  
6  
7  
8  
9  
10  
100  
1000 阡 (仟)  
10000  

Old Japanese

Old Japanese shares some vocabulary with later periods, but there are also some unique numbers which are not used any more. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Notes:

  • The transcription is based on the phoneme and is not phonetic. See Old Japanese language for further information.
  • See Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai for information on subscript notation.
Number Reading Examples Notes
1 hi1to2 hi1to2hi1 (1 day), hi1to2to2se (1 year)  
2 huta hutayo1 (2 nights)  
3 mi1 mi1so1 (30)  
4 yo2 yo2so1 (40), yo2tari (4 people)  
5 itu ituto2se (5 years)  
6 mu mutuma (6 claws)  
7 nana nanase (many rapids) Often used to mean many.
8 ya yakumo1 (many clouds) Often used to mean many.
9 ko2ko2no2 ko2ko2no2hasira (9 nobles / gods)  
10 to2 / to2wo to2woka (10 days)  
10 so1 mi1so1 (30), yo2so1 (40), muso1 (60), yaso (80) Found only in compound words; not used alone.
20 hata hatati (20), hatatari (20 people), hatato2se (20 years)  
50 i ika (50 days)  
100 ho iho (500), ihoto2se (500 years), ihoyo2 (500 nights), yaho (800), mi1ho (300), muho (600), ko2ko2no2ho (900) Used for multiple hundreds. Often used to mean many.
100 mo1mo1 mo1mo1ka (many days) Used for non-multiple hundred. Often used to mean many.
1000 ti tito2se (1000 years, many years) Often used to mean many.

In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai ) is an archaic kanazukai used to write Japanese during the Nara period. ...

See also

In Japanese, counter words or counters (josūshi 助数詞) are used along with numbers to count things, actions, and events. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese numerals Information (792 words)
The Japanese numerals in writing are entirely based on the Chinese numerals and the grouping of large numbers follow the Chinese tradition of grouping by 10000.
Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Japanese, one is based on Sino-Japanese (on'yomi) readings of the Chinese characters and the other is based on the Japanese kun'yomi readings.
The numbers 4 and 9 are considered unlucky in Japanese: 4, pronounced shi, is a homophone for "death"; 9, when pronounced ku, is a homophone for "suffering." The number 13 is sometimes considered unlucky, though this is a carryover from Western tradition.
Japanese numerals - definition of Japanese numerals in Encyclopedia (446 words)
Note that, in Japanese, when long numbers are written out in kanji, zeros are omitted for all powers of ten, unlike Chinese, which requires the use of 零 wherever a zero appears, e.g.
Japanese also has numerals for decimal fractions, though they are no longer in general use except for batting and fielding averages of baseball players, winning percentages for sports teams, and in some idiomatic phrases (such as 五分五分の勝負 "fifty-fifty chance"), and when representing a rate or discount.
Finally, Japanese has a separate set of kanji for numerals in legal documents, to prevent an unscrupulous person from adding a stroke or two, turning a one into a two or a three.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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