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Encyclopedia > Japanese militarists

Japanese militarism (日本軍國主義) refers to militarism, the philosophical belief that military personnel (army or navy) should exercise full power in a nation. In Militarist doctrine, the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation. This article is on the rise of militarism in Japan in the early part of the 20th century, and its impact on World War II. Militarism expounds that the foundation of a societys security is its military capacity, and claims that the development and maintenance of the military to ensure that capacity is the most important goal for that society. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest...

Contents


Liberal Twenties

During the Taishō period, Japan enjoyed a short period of democratic rule (the so-called Taisho democracy). Even though the military already had great independence from political influence, due to the Prussian model that formed the Meiji Constitution, several diplomatic attempts were made to encourage peace: The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... 上諭 - The Emperors words 上諭 - The Emperors words 御名御璽 - Imperial Signature and Seal 本文 - text The Constitution of the Empire of Japan(大日本帝國憲法), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 1889 until 1947. ...

  • 1922, Japan signed the Disarmament Pact in Washington Conference.
  • 1927, Japan joined the Kellogg-Briand Pact to renounce war.
  • 1930, Japan signed the London Naval Treaty and accepted an inferior capital ship ratio.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, after the city where it was signed on August 27, 1928, is an international treaty providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy. ... The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which aimed to regulate submarine warfare and limited military shipbuilding. ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ...

Factors that supported militarism

The samurai legacy: Even though Edo period Japan enjoyed 250 years of peace, it was ruled by a warrior-bureaucrat elite, that held up bushido, the way of the warrior. For other uses, please see Samurai (disambiguation) Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1600 to 1867. ... Bushido (Japanese: 武士道; bushidō, way of the warrior), is a way of life, somewhat analogous to the European concept of chivalry. ...


The Meiji Constitution: Set up in 1889, it granted the military right of direct access to the emperor, following the Prussian example. 上諭 - The Emperors words 上諭 - The Emperors words 御名御璽 - Imperial Signature and Seal 本文 - text The Constitution of the Empire of Japan(大日本帝國憲法), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 1889 until 1947. ...


Weakness of Party Government: The government of Taisho Japan faced mass protests, assassinations and coups d'etat and corruption.


Discontent of the Military: Military leaders were dissatisfied with Japan's achievements on the diplomatic field. There was a strong feeling of humiliation by western powers.


Strong Leftist Movement: Strong left-wing and right-wing groups battled each other and weakened the government


Economic Depression: Japan suffered population explosion in the 1920s. Its newly globalized economy was hit by the Great Depression in 1929 The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to approximately 1939. ...


Totalitarian examples in Europe: Fascism in Italy which rose in 1922, and Nazism in Germany which rose in 1933 set examples for the Japanese militarists.


The Rise of Militarism

Ultranationalism was characteristic of right-wing politicians and conservative military men since the inception of the Meiji Restoration, contributing greatly to the prowar politics of the 1870s. Disenchanted former samurai had established patriotic societies and intelligence-gathering organizations, such as the Black Ocean Society (gen'yosha 玄洋社, founded in 1881) and its later offshoot, the Black Dragon Society (Kokuryukai, also Amur River Society, founded in 1901). These groups became active in domestic and foreign politics, helped foment prowar sentiments, and supported ultranationalist causes through the end of World War II. After Japan's victories over China and Russia, the ultranationalists concentrated on domestic issues and perceived domestic threats, such as socialism and communism. The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ... For other uses, please see Samurai (disambiguation) Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... The Genyōsha (玄洋社) (or Dark Ocean Society) is a Japanese criminal society formed in 1881 by Toyama Mitsuru. ... Kokuryu-kai (Amur River Society), also know as the Black Dragon Society, was a prominent underground ultra-nationalist group in Japan. ...


1920s

After World War I and the intellectual ferment of the period, nationalist societies became numerous but had a minority voice during the era of two-party democratic politics. Diverse and angry groups called for nationalization of all wealth above a fixed minimal amount and for armed overseas expansion. The emperor was highly revered by these groups, and when Hirohito was enthroned in 1927, initiating the Showa period (Bright Harmony, 1926-89), there were calls for a "Showa Restoration" and a revival of Shinto. Emperor-centered neo-Shintoism, or State Shinto, which had long been developing, came to fruition in the 1930s and 1940s. It glorified the emperor and traditional Japanese virtues to the exclusion of Western influences, which were perceived as greedy, individualistic, bourgeois, and assertive. The ideals of the Japanese family-state and self-sacrifice in service of the nation were given a missionary interpretation and were thought by their ultranationalist proponents to be applicable to the modern world. Clockwise from top: Trenches in frontline, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks and a Sopwith Camel biplane. ... Hirohito (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989), the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigned from 1926 to 1989. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... A torii at Itsukushima Shrine Shinto (神道 Shintō) (sometimes called Shintoism) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A torii at Itsukushima Shrine Shinto (神道 Shintō) (sometimes called Shintoism) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


1930s

The 1930s were a decade of fear in Japan, characterized by the resurgence of right-wing patriotism, the weakening of democratic forces, domestic terrorist violence (including an assassination attempt on the emperor in 1932), and stepped-up military aggression abroad. A prelude to this state of affairs was Tanaka Giichi's term as prime minister from 1927 to 1929. Twice he sent troops to China to obstruct Chiang Kai-shek's unification campaign. In June 1928, adventurist officers of the Guandong Army, the Imperial Japanese Army unit stationed in Manchuria, embarked an unauthorized initiatives to protect Japanese interests, including the assassination of a former ally, Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin. The perpetrators hoped the Chinese would be prompted to take military action, forcing the Guandong Army to retaliate. The Japanese high command and the Chinese, however, both refused to mobilize. The incident turned out to be a striking example of unchecked terrorism. Even though press censorship kept the Japanese public from knowing about these events, they led to the downfall of Tanaka and set the stage for a similar plot, the Manchurian Incident, in 1931. Tanaka Giichi (田中 義一 Tanaka Giichi February 5, 1866–November 20, 1949) was a Japanese politician and the 26th Prime Minister of Japan from April 20, 1927 to July 2, 1929. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: ) is name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... One aspect of the Manchurian Incident (January 1931) was an engagement of the Imperial Japanese Army with Chinese forces. ...


A secret society founded by army officers seeking to establish a military dictatorship—the Sakurakai (Cherry Society, the cherry blossom being emblematic of self-sacrifice)—plotted to attack the Diet and political party headquarters, assassinate the prime minister, and declare martial law under a "Showa Restoration" government led by the army minister. Although the army canceled its coup plans (to have been carried out in March 1931), no reprisals were taken and terrorist activity was again tacitly condoned. The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the English political nomenclature of the head of government of Japan. ...


The Manchurian Incident of September 1931 did not fail, and it set the stage for the eventual military takeover of the Japanese government. Guandong Army conspirators blew up a few meters of South Manchurian Railway Company track near Mukden (now Shenyang), blamed it on Chinese saboteurs, and used the event as an excuse to seize Mukden. One month later, in Tokyo, military figures plotted the October Incident, which was aimed at setting up a national socialist state. The plot failed, but again the news was suppressed and the military perpetrators were not punished. Japanese forces attacked Shanghai in January 1932 on the pretext of Chinese resistance in Manchuria. Finding stiff Chinese resistance in Shanghai, the Japanese waged a three-month undeclared war there before a truce was reached in March 1932. Several days later, Manchukuo was established. Manchukuo was a Japanese puppet state headed by the last Chinese emperor, Puyi, as chief executive and later emperor. The civilian government in Tokyo was powerless to prevent these military happenings. Instead of being condemned, the Guandong Army's actions enjoyed popular support back home. International reactions were extremely negative, however. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations, and the United States became increasingly hostile. The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 満鉄); Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ... Major districts of Shenyang. ... Location within China Major districts of Shenyang. ... Puyi (Chinese:溥儀; Pronounced Poo-yee) (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ...


The Japanese system of party government finally met its demise with the May 15th Incident in 1932, when a group of junior naval officers and army cadets assassinated Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi (1855-1932). Although the assassins were put on trial and sentenced to fifteen years' imprisonment, they were seen popularly as having acted out of patriotism. Inukai's successors, military men chosen by Saionji Kinmochi, the last surviving genrō, recognized Manchukuo and generally approved the army's actions in securing Manchuria as an industrial base, an area for Japanese emigration, and a staging ground for war with the Soviet Union. Various army factions contended for power amid increasing suppression of dissent and more assassinations. In the February 26th Incident of 1936, about 1,500 troops went on a rampage of assassination against the current and former prime ministers and other cabinet members, and even Saionji and members of the imperial court. The revolt was put down by other military units, and its leaders were executed after secret trials. Despite public dismay over these events and the discredit they brought to numerous military figures, Japan's civilian leadership capitulated to the army's demands in the hope of ending domestic violence. Increases were seen in defense budgets, naval construction (Japan announced it would no longer accede to the London Naval Treaty), and patriotic indoctrination as Japan moved toward a wartime footing. The May 15 incident (五・一五事件 Go-ichigo jiken) of 15 May 1932, was the assassination of then-Prime Minister of Japan Inukai Tsuyoshi. ... Inukai Tsuyoshi Inukai Tsuyoshi (犬養 毅, April 20, 1855–May 15, 1932) was a Japanese politician and the 29th Prime Minister of Japan from December 13, 1931 to May 15, 1932. ... Kinmochi Saionji Saionji Kinmochi (西園寺 公望 Saionji Kinmochi October 23, 1849–November 24, 1940) was a Japanese politician and the 12th (January 7, 1906–July 14, 1908) and 14th (August 30, 1911–December 21, 1912) Prime Minister of Japan. ... The Genrō (元老) were retired elder Japanese statesmen, who served as informal advisors to the emperor, during the Meiji and Taisho periods in Japanese history. ... Manchukuo (1932 to 1945) (Simplified: 满洲国; Traditional: 滿洲國; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a former country in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia under the leadership of the Emperor Pu Yi, who had also been the last emperor of Qing Dynasty. ... In any debate, sometimes the more powerful opponent will try to silence the other rather than trying to defeat their arguments. ... The February 26 Incident (二・二六事件 Ni-niroku jiken) was an uprising against the Japanese government that took place in 1936. ... The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which aimed to regulate submarine warfare and limited military shipbuilding. ...


In November 1936, the Anti-Comintern Pact, an agreement to exchange information and collaborate in preventing communist activities, was signed by Japan and Germany (Italy joined a year later). War was launched against China after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of July 7, 1937, in which an allegedly unplanned clash took place near Beiping (as Beijing was then called) between Chinese and Japanese troops and quickly escalated into full-scale warfare. The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45) ensued, and relations with the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union deteriorated. The increased military activities in China—and the Japanese idea of establishing "Mengukuo" in Inner Mongolia and the Mongolian People's Republic—soon led to a major clash over rival Mongolia-Manchukuo border claims. When Japanese troops invaded eastern Mongolia, a ground and air battle with a joint Soviet-Mongolian army took place between May and September 1939 at the Battle of Halhin Gol. The Japanese were severely defeated, sustaining as many as 80,000 casualties, and thereafter Japan concentrated its war efforts on its southward drive in China and Southeast Asia, a strategy that helped propel Japan ever closer to war with the United States and Britain and their allies. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25th, 1936. ... The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變) was a battle between Japans Imperial Army and Chinas National Revolutionary Army, marking the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). ... â–¶ (help· info) (Chinese: 北京; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Tojo Hideki, Matsui Iwane, Minami Jiro, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Neiji Okamura. ... flag Mengjiang, (蒙疆 in pinyin: MÄ›ngjiāng; in Wade-Giles: Meng-chiang; Postal Pinyin: Mengkiang), Meng Chiang, also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was a puppet state in northern China (consisted of Chahar and Suiyuan provinces) controlled by Japan. ... The Battle of Halhin Gol, sometimes spelled Khalkhin Gol or Khalkin Gol and alternately known as the Nomonhan Incident (after a nearby village) in Japan, was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939), or Japanese-Soviet War. ...


1940s

Under the prime ministership of Konoe Fumimaro (1891-1945)—the last head of the famous Fujiwara house—the government was streamlined and given absolute power over the nation's assets. In 1940, the 2,600th anniversary of the founding of Japan, according to tradition, Konoe's cabinet called for the establishment of a "Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere," a concept building on Konoe's 1938 call for a "New Order in Greater East Asia," encompassing Japan, Manchukuo, China, and Southeast Asia. The Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere was to integrate Asia politically and economically—under Japanese leadership—against Western domination and was developed in recognition of the changing geopolitical situation emerging in 1940. (In 1942 the Greater East Asia Ministry was established, and in 1943 the Greater East Asia Conference was held in Tokyo.) Also in 1940, political parties were ordered to dissolve, and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, comprising members of all former parties, was established to transmit government orders throughout society. In September 1940, Japan joined the Axis alliance with Germany and Italy when it signed the Tripartite Pact, a military agreement to redivide the world that was directed primarily against the United States. Fumimaro Konoe (近衛 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Fujiwara (藤原) can refer to: The Fujiwara clan and its members Kamatari Fujiwara Keiji Fujiwara Fujiwara-no-Sai, character of Hikaru no Go Takumi Tak Fujiwara, character of Initial D Zakuro Fujiwara, character of Tokyo Mew Mew (Known as Renee Roberts in the Mew Mew Power English anime) This is... The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (大東亜共栄圏 dai-tōa-kyōeiken) was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of Asian nations free of influence from Western nations. ... The Ministry of Greater East Asia, originally called the Ministry for Colonization, was organized in 1929 to oversee the territories Japan would acquire in their expansionist efforts. ... The Taisei Yokusankai (Imperial Rule Assistance Association, or Imperial Aid Association) was created in 1940 by Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoye. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ...


Japanese-American rivalry

There had been a long-standing and deep-seated antagonism between Japan and the United States since the first decade of the twentieth century. Each perceived the other as a military threat, and trade rivalry was carried on in earnest. The Japanese greatly resented the racial discrimination perpetuated by United States immigration laws, and the Americans became increasingly wary of Japan's interference in the self-determination of other peoples. Japan's military expansionism and quest for national self-sufficiency eventually led the United States in 1940 to embargo war supplies, abrogate a long-standing commercial treaty, and put greater restrictions on the export of critical commodities. These American tactics, rather than forcing Japan to a standstill, made Japan more desperate. After signing the Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact in April 1941, and while still actively making war plans against the United States, Japan participated in diplomatic negotiations with Washington aimed at achieving a peaceful settlement. Washington was concerned about Japan's role in the Tripartite Pact and demanded the withdrawal of Japanese troops from China and Southeast Asia. Japan countered that it would not use force unless "a country not yet involved in the European war" (that is, the United States) attacked Germany or Italy. Further, Japan demanded that the United States and Britain not interfere with a Japanese settlement in China (a pro-Japanese puppet government, the so called Reformed Government of the Republic of China, had been set up in Nanjing in 1940). Because certain Japanese military leaders were working at cross-purposes with officials seeking a peaceful settlement (including Konoe, other civilians, and some military figures), talks were deadlocked. On October 15, 1941, army minister Tojo Hideki (1884-1948) declared the negotiations ended. Konoe resigned and was replaced by Tojo. After the final United States rejection of Japan's terms of negotiation, on December 1, 1941, the Imperial Conference (an ad hoc meeting convened—and then only rarely—in the presence of the emperor) ratified the decision to embark on a war of "self-defense and self-preservation" and to attack the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor (see Attack on Pearl Harbor). This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking), is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (è¿‘è¡ž{è¡› in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Hideki Tojo Hideki Tojo (東條 英機 Tōjō Hideki) (December 30, 1884–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese general and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Combatants United States of America Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN) Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines, 441...


End of World War II

After the Surrender of Japan, Japan was put under allied occupation. General Tojo and other leaders were put on trial in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. The Surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... // Surrender Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender Japan surrendered to the Allies on August 14, 1945, when Emperor Hirohito accepted the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (also referred to as the IMTFE, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, or the Tokyo Trial) was held to try the leaders of Japan for three types of crimes - Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes), and Class C (crimes against...


Films and novels on Japanese militarism

Empire of the Sun is a 1984 novel by J. G. Ballard. ... Man Behind The Sun (also called Black Sun 731 and Men Behind The Sun) is a 1987 film by T.F. Mous, about Unit 731. ... Movie poster for Casshern Casshern (キャシャーン) is a 2004 tokusatsu science fiction movie written and directed by Kazuaki Kiriya. ...

Anime and Manga

Sakigake!! Otokojuku (魁!!男塾) by Miyashita Akira (宮下あきら) is a Japanese manga later made into an anime series. ...

See also

Japanese war crimes Zen at War Japanese nationalism Imperial Way Faction Empire of Japan Nanking Massacre Unit 731 Japanese Neo-Nazism The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ... Zen at War is a book written by Brian Daizen Victoria, published in 1998. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Flag of Imperial Japan The Empire of Japan (: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforced establishment of prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi-ken) in July... The Nanking Massacre (Simplified Chinese: 南京大屠杀; Traditional Chinese: 南京大屠殺, pinyin: Nánjīng Dàtúshā; Japanese: 南京大虐殺, Nankin Daigyakusatsu), also known as the Rape of Nanking and sometimes in Japan as the Nanking Incident (南京事件, Nankin Jiken), refers to the widespread atrocities committed by the Imperial Japanese Army in and around Nanking (now... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a secret military medical unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II era. ...


External links

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese militarism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2042 words)
In Militarist doctrine, the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation.
The ideals of the Japanese family-state and self-sacrifice in service of the nation were given a missionary interpretation and were thought by their ultranationalist proponents to be applicable to the modern world.
The Japanese were severely defeated, sustaining as many as 80,000 casualties, and thereafter Japan concentrated its war efforts on its southward drive in China and Southeast Asia, a strategy that helped propel Japan ever closer to war with the United States and Britain and their allies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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