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Encyclopedia > Japanese garden
This view from the Symbolic Mountain Lookout in Cowra, NSW shows many of the typical elements of a Japanese garden
This view from the Symbolic Mountain Lookout in Cowra, NSW shows many of the typical elements of a Japanese garden
Stone lantern amid plants. The shape of the roof will trap and hold a picturesque cap of snow.
Karesansui garden at Tōfuku-ji in Kyoto
Karesansui garden at Tōfuku-ji in Kyoto
This garden has an abundance of plants, including seasonal flowers.
This garden has an abundance of plants, including seasonal flowers.

Japanese gardens (Kanji 日本庭園, nihon teien), i.e. gardens in traditional Japanese style, can be found at private homes, in neighborhood or city parks, at Buddhist temples or Shinto shrines, and at historical landmarks such as old castles. Many of the Japanese gardens most famous in the West, and within Japan as well, are dry gardens or rock gardens, karesansui. The tradition of the Tea masters has produced highly refined Japanese gardens of quite another style, evoking rural simplicity. Japanese gardens have also been imitated in Western gardening. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View from lookout hill of Japanese Gardens, Cowra, NSW, Australia and across plains to hills in distance, 22 September, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View from lookout hill of Japanese Gardens, Cowra, NSW, Australia and across plains to hills in distance, 22 September, 2006. ... Cowra is a town in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia in Cowra Shire. ... Japanese garden with lantern I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Japanese garden with lantern I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Karesansui Japanese garden Zen garden Tofukuji Buddhist temple Kyoto Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Karesansui Japanese garden Zen garden Tofukuji Buddhist temple Kyoto Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Erinji Japanese garden Yamanashi prefecture Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Erinji Japanese garden Yamanashi prefecture Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... A Jinja (Japanese: 神社) is a Shinto shrine including its surrounding natural area but it is more common to refer to buildings as a jinja. ... Taj Mahal Big Ben Saint Basils Cathedral For other senses of this word, see landmark (disambiguation). ... Pierrefonds Castle, France Castle has a history of scholarly debate surrounding its exact meaning. ... A Karesansui 枯山水, or Japanese rock garden, is an enclosed shallow sandbox containing sand, gravel, rocks, and occasionally grass or other natural elements. ... A tea ceremony is a ritualised form of making tea. ...


Typical Japanese gardens contain several of these elements, real or symbolic:

  • Water
  • An island
  • A bridge to the island
  • A lantern, typically of stone
  • A teahouse or pavilion

Japanese gardens might fall into one of these styles:

  • Pond gardens, for viewing from a boat.
  • Sitting gardens, for viewing from inside a building or on a veranda.
  • Tea gardens, for viewing from a path which leads to a tea ceremony hut.
  • Strolling gardens, for viewing from a path which circumnavigates the garden.

The karesansui (or karesenzui, kosansui, kosensui 枯山水: "dry landscape") style originate from zen temples. These have no water and few plants, but typically evoke a feeling of water using pebbles and meticulously raked gravel or sand. Rocks chosen for their intriguing shapes and patterns, mosses, and low shrubs typify the karesansui style. The garden at Ryōan-ji, a temple in Kyoto, is particularly renowned. Zen is a school of Buddhism in Japan that claims to transmit the spirit or essence of Buddhism, which consists in experiencing the enlightenment (bodhi) achieved by Gautama the Buddha. ... Gravel being unloaded from a barge Gravel is rock that is of a certain grain size range. ... Ryōan-ji dry garden San-mon gate to the temple Ryōan-ji (jp: 竜安寺 or 龍安寺), The Temple of the Peaceful Dragon is a Zen temple located in northwest Kyoto, Japan. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ...


Other gardens also use similar rocks for decoration. Some of these come from distant parts of Japan. In addition, bamboos and related plants, evergreens including Japanese black pine, and such deciduous trees as maples grow above a carpet of ferns and mosses. Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... Niwaki is the Japanese word for ‘garden trees’. The technique of niwaki is more about what you do to a tree than the tree itself. ... Binomial name Pinus thunbergii The Japanese Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii) is a pine native to coastal areas of Japan (Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, but not Hokkaido) and South Korea. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. ...


Shakkei (借景), "borrowed scenery," is a technique used to integrate the garden with mountains, buildings, or other objects outside its boundaries. A middleground element, often carefully maintained plantings, blocks unwanted elements and frames the desired view. This middleground integrates the "borrowed" view into the garden's design. The viewer is encouraged to see all three areas - foreground, middleground, and background - as a single garden.

Contents

The Use of Stones, Water, and Plantings in Japanese gardens

Stone lanterns in Monte Palace Tropical Garden on Madeira
Stone lanterns in Monte Palace Tropical Garden on Madeira

Though often thought of as tranquil sanctuaries that allow individuals to escape from the stresses of daily life, Japanese gardens are designed for a variety of purposes. Most gardens invite quiet contemplation, but may have also been intended for recreation, the display of rare plant specimens, or the exhibition of unusual rocks. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1772 × 1904 pixel, file size: 803 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Japanese garden Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1772 × 1904 pixel, file size: 803 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Japanese garden Metadata...


Kaiyu-shiki or Strolling Gardens require the observer to walk through the garden to fully appreciate it. A premeditated path takes observers through each unique area of a Japanese garden. Uneven surfaces are placed in specific spaces to prompt people to look down at particular points. When the observer looks up, they will see an eye-catching ornamentation--this type of design is known as the Japanese landscape principle of "hide and reveal" -- which is intended to enlighten and revive the spirit of the observer.


Japanese legend attests that stones are actual beings with spirits that need to be treated with reverence. Stones are used to construct the garden's paths, bridges, and walkways. Stones also represent mountains where actual mountains are not viewable or present. They are always placed in odd numbers and a majority of the groupings reflect triangular shapes.

Japanese Garden in Cowra, NSW showing the use of stone, water and plants
Japanese Garden in Cowra, NSW showing the use of stone, water and plants

A water source in a Japanese garden should appear to be part of the natural surroundings; this is why one will not find fountains in traditional gardens. Man-made streams are built with curves and irregularities to create a serene and natural appearance. Lanterns are often placed beside some of the most prominent water basins (either a pond or a stream) in a garden representing the female and the male elements of water and fire. In Japanese tradition this is known as yin and yang. In some gardens one will find a dry pond or stream. Dry ponds and streams have as much impact as do the ones filled with water. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cowra, New South... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cowra, New South... Cowra is a town in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia in Cowra Shire. ...


Green plants are the third element of Japanese gardens. Japanese traditions prefer minimal color so the use of flowers is generally parsimonious. Plants with colorful blooms are mostly used near a garden's entrance. Many plants in imitated Japanese gardens of the West are indigenous to Japan, though some sacrifices must be made to account for the differentiating climates. Some plants, such as sugar maple and firebush, give the garden a palet of color on a seasonal basis.


Noteworthy Japanese gardens

In Japan

A spacious Japanese garden: Hosokawa Gyobu Tei, near Kumamoto Castle
A spacious Japanese garden: Hosokawa Gyobu Tei, near Kumamoto Castle
An egret rests on a stone lantern in the upper lake of the Japanese Garden in Cowra, NSW, Australia
An egret rests on a stone lantern in the upper lake of the Japanese Garden in Cowra, NSW, Australia
A kaiyu-shiki or strolling garden

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the government of Japan designates the most notable of the nation's scenic beauty as Special Places of Scenic Beauty, under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. As of March 1, 2007, 29 sites are listed, more than a half of which are Japanese gardens, as below; Download high resolution version (932x640, 71 KB)Hosokawa Gyobu Tei, Japanese garden near Kumamoto Castle, Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (932x640, 71 KB)Hosokawa Gyobu Tei, Japanese garden near Kumamoto Castle, Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Kumamoto Castle Kumamoto Castle (熊本城; -jō) is a castle in Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan that has been opened to the public for tours. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 1200 pixel, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Stone lantern with egret and spring blossoms in lake at the Japanese Gardens, Cowra, NSW, Australia, 22 September, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 1200 pixel, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Stone lantern with egret and spring blossoms in lake at the Japanese Gardens, Cowra, NSW, Australia, 22 September, 2006. ... Cowra is a town in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia in Cowra Shire. ... Japanese garden designed for strolling I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Japanese garden designed for strolling I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Office building Office building The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ), also known as MEXT, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ...

(Bold faces specify World Heritage sites.) Tohoku region, Japan The Tōhoku region (東北地方; Tōhoku-chihō) is a geographical area of Japan. ... Hiraizumi (平泉町; -chou) is a town located in Nishiiwai District, Iwate, Japan. ... Kanto region, Japan The Kanto region (関東地方 Kantō-chihō) is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island in Japan. ... Akamon Gate at the University of Tokyo. ... Lake of Koishikawa Korakuen Garden Koishikawa Korakuen Garden of Tokyo is in Bunkyo Ward adjacent to Tokyo Dome City. ... Akamon Gate at the University of Tokyo. ... A public park of Tokyo located at the mouth of the Sumida River]] in Chuo Ward. ... Location of Chuo-ku in Tokyo. ... Chubu region, Japan Mount Fuji is the ChÅ«bu regions most famous landmark. ... Flower-viewing Bridge, December. ... Kanazawa (金沢市; -shi) is the capital city of Ishikawa Prefecture in Japan. ... Ichijōdani Karamon The Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins ) are historic ruins located in the Kidonouchi section of Fukui, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. ... , Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Kansai region, Japan The Kansai region ) of Japan, also known as the Kinki region ), lies in the Southern-Central region of Japans main island, HonshÅ«. The region includes the prefectures of Nara, Wakayama, Mie, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyōgo, and Shiga. ... Ginkakuji Ginkakuji with stone garden Ginkaku-ji ), the Temple of the Silver Pavilion, is a Buddhist temple in the Higashiyama District of Kyoto, Japan. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Nijō Castle ) is located in Kyoto, Japan. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Kinkaku-ji from across the water Kinkaku-ji Golden Pavilion Temple) is the informal name of Rokuon-ji (鹿苑寺, Deer Garden Temple) in Kyoto, Japan, the Pavilion being the main attraction of the temple grounds. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Ryōan-ji dry garden San-mon gate to the temple Ryōan-ji (jp: 竜安寺 or 龍安寺), The Temple of the Peaceful Dragon is a Zen temple located in northwest Kyoto, Japan. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Autumn foliage on the grounds of TenryÅ«-ji TenryÅ«-ji )—more formally known as TenryÅ« Shiseizen-ji )—is the head temple of the TenryÅ« sect of Rinzai Zen Buddhism, located in Susukinobaba-chō, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Honden, or main hall, of Higashi Hongan-ji, Kyoto Hongan-ji ) is the name of a number of Buddhist temples across Japans history. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... The five-story pagoda is a national treasure of Japan. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. ... This is the current Japanese collaboration! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Daitokuji redirects here. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Daitokuji redirects here. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Categories: Stub | Buddhist temples ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Kizugawa ) is a city in southern Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. ... Heijō Kyō(平城京)also known as Nara no Miyako,was the capital city of the Nara period in Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... Chugoku region, Japan The ChÅ«goku region (中国地方 ChÅ«goku-chihō) is the westernmost region of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. ... Korakuen Garden is one of three the most beautiful Japanese gardens (園芸), alongside with Kenroku-en and Kairaku-en. ... Okayama airport Okayama (岡山市; -shi) is the capital city of Okayama Prefecture in the ChÅ«goku region of Japan. ... This article is about the island. ... A view from a hill in Ritsurin Park Ritsurin Park ) (æ —æž— means chestnut grove) is one of the most famous and most beautiful historical parks in Japan. ... Takamatsu (高松市; -shi lit. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands. ... Shuri Castle (Okinawan: sui ugusiku, Japanese: 首里城 Shurijō) is a gusuku (RyÅ«kyÅ«an castle) in Shuri, Okinawa. ... Naha (Japanese: ; -shi) is the capital city of Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. ...


In other countries

Argentina

Australia

Cowra is a town in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia in Cowra Shire. ... Cowra is a town in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia in Cowra Shire. ... Entrance to Himeji Gardens Lake in Himeji Gardens The Himeji Gardens was a gift from sister city Himeji, Japan in 1982. ... The Brisbane Botanic Gardens is located in Toowong, Queensland at the foot of Brisbanes tallest mountain, Mount Coot-tha, 7 km from the city of Brisbane, and covers 52 hectares. ...

Canada

Nitobe Memorial Garden during July. ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a city in south-western British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km...

England

Dartington Hall Estate Gardens Dartington Hall, near Totnes, Devon, England, is a medieval hall built between 1388 and 1400 for John Holand, Earl of Huntingdon, half-brother to Richard II. After John was beheaded, the Crown owned the estate until it was acquired in 1559 by Sir Arthur Champernowne, Vice... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... Harewood House as of 2005, seen from the garden Harewood House from A Complete History of the County of York by Thomas Allen (1828–30), showing the house before Barry altered the facades and added an extra storey to the pavilions. ... Leeds is a major city in West Yorkshire, England. ... Holland Park is a district and a public park in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in west central London in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... We dont have an article called Tatton Park Start this article Search for Tatton Park in. ... The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Black-and-white timbered buildings on Nantwich High Street Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester)[1] is a... The School of Oriental and African Studies (commonly abbreviated to SOAS) is a College of the University of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Ireland

WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2002) 163,944 Website: www. ...

Scotland

Lauriston Castle as it appeared in 1775, before the 1827 addition by William Burn. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

United States of America

The Anderson Japanese Gardens (14 acres) are Japanese gardens located at 318 Spring Creek Road, Rockford, Illinois. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chicago Botanic Garden (385 acres) is a botanical garden located at 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, Illinois. ... Incorporated Village in 1869. ... A Japanese-style wooden arch bridge at the Fort Worth Japanese Garden The Fort Worth Japanese Garden is a 7. ... A Japanese-style wooden arch bridge at the Fort Worth Botanic Garden The Fort Worth Botanic Garden (109 acres) is a botanical garden located at 3220 Botanic Garden Boulevard, Fort Worth, Texas. ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Tarrant and Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City  298. ... The Earl Burns Miller Japanese Garden (1. ... California State University, Long Beach (also known as Long Beach State, Cal State Long Beach, CSULB or LBSU) is the largest campus of the California State University system located in Long Beach, California, at the southern coastal tip of Los Angeles County. ... Hakone Gardens is a traditional Japanese garden located in Saratoga, California. ... Saratoga (IPA: ) is a city in Santa Clara County, California, USA. It is located on the west side of the Santa Clara Valley, in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Huntington Library The Huntington Library is an educational and research institution established by Henry Huntington in San Marino, California, USA. In addition to the library, there is an art collection and botanical gardens. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... A decorative moon bridge in the Tea Garden, long a particular favorite of youth accompanying their parents. ... Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park. ... Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... Delray Beach is a city in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 60,020. ... The Portland Japanese Garden is a traditional Japanese garden, 5. ... Nickname: Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter Area  - City  145. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... The Roji-en Japanese Gardens (16 acres), also known as the George D. and Harriet W. Cornell Gardens, are Japanese gardens and botanical gardens located at 4000 Morikami Park Road, Delray Beach, Florida. ... The Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens is a center for Japanese arts and culture located in Delray Beach, Florida. ... Delray Beach is a city in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 60,020. ... The San Antonio Japanese Tea Gardens (also known as the Sunken Gardens) is a registered Texas historical landmark in San Antonio, Texas. ... Nickname: Alamo City; River City Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... The Seattle Japanese Garden is a 3. ... 1911 Lynn Street Aqueduct The parks northern entrance Same location, closer up Washington Park is a public park in Seattle, Washington, most of which is taken up by the Washington Park Arboretum. ... Kubota Garden is a 20 acre (81,000 m²) Japanese garden in the Rainier Beach neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Government  - Mayor Greg Nickels (NP) Area  - City  142. ... Seiwa-en is a Japanese strolling garden located in the Missouri Botanical Garden. ... Seiwa-en One of the Various Gardens at the Missouri Botanical Garden The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located in St. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Japanese garden
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gardens of Japan

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Upper pond The Japanese Friendship Garden is a walled section of Kelley Park in San Jose, California, USA. Dedicated in October 1965, it is patterned after Japans world famous Korakuen Park in Okayama (one of San Joses sister cities). ... Japanese Tea Garden in Golden Gate Park A tea garden was a place to drink tea and stroll around lawns, ponds and view statues. ... Reflecting pool at Epcot Centers China Pavilion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Niwaki is the Japanese word for ‘garden trees’. The technique of niwaki is more about what you do to a tree than the tree itself. ... Binomial name Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) Koi (鯉(こい), Rōmaji: koi, pronounced IPA: ) are ornamental domesticated varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, originated from China and widely spread in Japan. ...

External links


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