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Encyclopedia > Japanese era name

The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name (年号 nengō?, lit. year name) and the year number within the era. For example, the year 2008 is Heisei 20. For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. ...


As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of nengō, also known as "gengō" (元号?), was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers. This article is about the geographical region. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Below is a list of Vietnamese monarchs. ...


Sometimes an era name is expressed with the first letter of the romanized name. For example, S55 means Shōwa 55 (i.e. 1980 A.D.). At 64 years, Shōwa is the longest era to date. The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ...

Contents

Overview

The system on which the Japanese nengō are based originated in China in 140 BCE, and was adopted by Japan in 645 CE, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku. Emperor Kōtoku (孝徳天皇 Kōtoku Tennō) (596? - November 24, 654)[1] was the 36th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


The first nengō to be assigned was "Taika" (大化?), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (大化の改新?). Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive nengō was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Mommu (697-707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.[1] The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ...


Historical nengō

Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change. A new nengō was usually proclaimed within a year or two after the ascension of a new emperor. A new nengō was also often designated on the first, fifth and 58th years of the sexagenary cycle, because they were inauspicious years in Onmyōdō. These three years are respectively known as kakurei (革令?), kakuun (革運?), and kakumei (革命?), and collectively known as sankaku (三革?). Era names were also changed due to other felicitous events or natural disasters. The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... The Chinese sexagenary cycle (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (天干; tiāngān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (地支; dìzhÄ«). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering days and years, not only in China... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In historical practice, the first day of a nengō (元年 gannen?) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.[2]


Era names indicate the various reasons for their adoption. For instance, the nengō Wadō (和銅?), during the Nara period was declared due to the discovery of copper deposits in Chichibu. Most nengō are comprised of two kanji, except for a short time during the Nara period when four-kanji names were sometimes adopted to follow the Chinese trend. Tenpyō Kanpō (天平感宝?), Tenpyō Shōhō (天平勝宝?), Tenpyō Hōji (天平宝字?) and Tenpyō Jingo (天平神護?) are some famous nengō names that use four characters. Since the Heian period, Confucian thoughts and ideas have been reflected in era names, such as Daidō (大同?), Kōnin (弘仁?) and Tenchō (天長?).[citation needed] Although there currently exist a total of 247 Japanese era names, only 72 kanji have been used in composing them. Out of these 72 kanji, 30 of them have been used only once, while the rest have been used repeatedly in different combinations. Categories: Cities in Saitama Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


Nengō in modern Japan

Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, during the third year of the Keiō (慶応?) era. On Oct. 23, 1868, the era name was changed to "Meiji" (明治?), and a "one reign, one era name" (一世一元 issei-ichigen?) system was adopted, wherein era names would change only upon imperial succession. This system is similar to the now-defunct Chinese system used since the days of the Ming Dynasty. The Japanese nengō system differs from Chinese practice, in that in the Chinese system the era name was not updated until the year following the emperor's death. Emperor Mutsuhito Mutsuhito or Mitsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally wise ruling heaven emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... There is also a Keio University in Tokyo. ... There is also a Keio University in Tokyo. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


In modern practice, the first year of a nengō (元年 gannen?) starts immediately upon the emperor's ascension to the throne and ends on December 31st. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


For example, the Meiji era lasted until July 30th, 1912, when the emperor died and the Taishō (大正?) era was proclaimed. 1912 is therefore known as both "Meiji 45" and "Taishō 1" (大正元年 Taishō gannen?), although Meiji technically ended on Jul. 30th with Mutsuhito's death. ... ...


This practice, implemented successfully since the days of Meiji but never formalized, became law in 1979 with the passage of the Era Name Law (元号法 gengō-hō?). Thus, since 1868, there have only been four era names assigned: Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa and Heisei, each corresponding with the rule of only one emperor. Upon death, the emperor is thereafter referred to by the era of his reign. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as "Emperor Meiji" (明治天皇 Meiji Tennō?).


NB: It is protocol in Japan that the reigning emperor should be referred to as Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, "His Majesty the Emperor") or Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇, "current emperor"). To call the current emperor by the current era name, i.e. "Heisei", even in English, is a faux pas, as this is—and will be—his posthumous name. Use of the emperor's given name (i.e., "Akihito") is rare in Japanese. Faux Pas redirects here. ...


Conversion table from Gregorian calendar years to nengō

To convert a Japanese year to a Western or Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the nengō (the nengō = the era name, see list below). When found, subtract 1, and add the number of the Japanese year. For example, the 23rd year of the Showa Era (Showa 23) would be 1948: For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

ILLUSTRATION: 19261 = 1925 ..., and then 1925 + 23 = 1948 ... or Showa 23.
CONVERSION TABLE: Gregorian calendar years / nengō
Year Kanji Romanization Meaning Notes
Asuka period (538-710)
645 大化 Taika "Great Reform"[3] Emperor Kōtoku, 645-654.[4] Also known as "Great Development"[5]
650 白雉 Hakuchi "White Pheasant"[6]
654 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 654-686: See "Non-Nengō periods" section below
686 朱鳥 Shuchō "vermillion bird" also Suchō, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Temmu, 672-686.[7]
686 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 686-701: See "Non-Nengō periods" section below
701 大宝 Taihō "Great Law"[3] also Daihō; Emperor Mommu, 697-707.[8] Also known as "Great Treasure"[9]
704 慶雲 Keiun "jubilant cloud" also Kyōun; Empress Gemmei, 707-715.[10]
708 和銅 Wadō "Japanese Copper"[11]
Nara period (710-794)
715 霊亀 Reiki "ethereal tortoise" Empress Genshō, 715-724.[12]
717 養老 Yōrō "caring for the aged"
724 神亀 Jinki "divine tortoise" also Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724-749.[13]
729 天平 Tenpyō "heavenly peace" also Tenbyō or Tenhei
749 天平感宝 Tenpyō-kanpō "Gratitude for Treasure"[14] also Tenbyō-kanpō
749 天平勝宝 Tenpyō-shōhō "Heavenly Peace and Victorious Buddhism"[15] also Tenbyō-shōbō or Tenpei-shōhō; Empress Kōken, 749-758.[16]
757 天平宝字 Tenpyō-hōji "Lucky Inscription"[17] also Tenbyō-hōji or Tenpei-hōji; Emperor Junnin, 758-764;[18] Empress Shōtoku, 764-770.[19]
765 天平神護 Tenpyō-jingo "heavenly peace and divine protection" also Tenbyō-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 神護景雲 Jingo-keiun "divine protection and cloudy view"
770 宝亀 Hōki "treasure turtle" Emperor Kōnin, 770-781.[20]
781 天応 Ten'ō "heavenly answer" Emperor Kammu, 781-806.[21]
782 延暦 Enryaku "prolonged calendar"
Heian period (794-1192)
806 大同 Daidō "great similarity" Emperor Heizei, 806-809;[22] Emperor Saga, 809-823.[23]
810 弘仁 Kōnin "broad virtue" Emperor Junna, 823-833.[24]
824 天長 Tenchō "heavenly length" Emperor Ninmyō, 833-850.[25]
834 承和 Jōwa "Flourishing Treasure"[26] also Shōwa or Sōwa
848 嘉祥 Kashō "Good Augury"[27] also Kajō; Emperor Montoku, 850-858.[28]
851 仁寿 Ninju "virtuous long life"
854 斉衡 Saikō "adjusted equilibrium"
857 天安 Ten'an "heavenly quiet" also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858-876.[29]
859 貞観 Jōgan "righteous appearance" Emperor Yōzei, 876-884.[30]
877 元慶 Gangyō "former jubilation" also Gankyō or Genkei; Emperor Kōkō, 884-887.[31]
885 仁和 Ninna "virtuous peace" also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887-897.[32]
889 寛平 Kanpyō "tolerant balance" also Kanpei or Kanbyō or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887-930.[33]
898 昌泰 Shōtai "prosperous calm"
901 延喜 Engi "prolonged rejoice"
923 延長 Enchō "prolonged chief" Emperor Suzaku, 930-946.[34]
931 承平 Jōhei "receive balance" also Shōhei
938 天慶 Tengyō "heavenly jubilation" also Tenkei or Tenkyō; Emperor Murakami, 946-967.[35]
947 天暦 Tenryaku "heavenly almanac" also Tenreki
957 天徳 Tentoku "heavenly benevolence"
961 応和 Ōwa "answered peace"
964 康保 Kōhō "guaranteed ease" Emperor Reizei, 967-969.[36]
968 安和 Anna "calm peace" also Anwa; Emperor En'yū, 969-984.[37]
970 天禄 Tenroku "heavenly fief"
973 天延 Ten'en "prolonged heaven"
976 貞元 Jōgen "righteous origins" also Teigen
978 天元 Tengen "heavenly origins"
983 永観 Eikan "eternal view" also Yōkan; Emperor Kazan, 984-986.[38]
985 寛和 Kanna "tolerant peace" also Kanwa; Emperor Ichijō, 986-1011.[39]
987 永延 Eien "prolonged eternity" also Yōen
988 永祚 Eiso "eternal imperial throne" also Yōso
990 正暦 Shōryaku "true almanac" also Jōryaku or Shōreki
995 長徳 Chōtoku "chief benevolence"
999 長保 Chōhō "chief guarantee"
1004 寛弘 Kankō ...[citation needed] Emperor Sanjō, 1011-1016.[40]
1012 長和 Chōwa ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Ichijō, 1016-1036.[41]
1017 寛仁 Kannin ...[citation needed]
1021 治安 Jian ...[citation needed] also Chian
1024 万寿 Manju ...[citation needed]
1028 長元 Chōgen ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036-1045.[42]
1037 長暦 Chōryaku ...[citation needed] also Chōreki
1040 長久 Chōkyū ...[citation needed]
1044 寛徳 Kantoku ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045-1068.[43]
1046 永承 Eishō ...[citation needed] also Eijō or Yōjō
1053 天喜 Tengi ...[citation needed] also Tenki
1058 康平 Kōhei ...[citation needed]
1065 治暦 Jiryaku ...[citation needed] also Chiryaku
1069 延久 Enkyū ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Sanjō, 1068-1073.[44]
1074 承保 Jōhō ...[citation needed] also Shōhō or Shōho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073-1086.[45]
1077 承暦 Jōryaku ...[citation needed] also Shōryaku or Shōreki
1081 永保 Eihō ...[citation needed] also Yōhō
1084 応徳 Ōtoku ...[citation needed]
1087 寛治 Kanji ...[citation needed] Emperor Horikawa, 1087-1107.[46]
1094 嘉保 Kahō ...[citation needed]
1096 永長 Eichō ...[citation needed] also Yōchō
1097 承徳 Jōtoku ...[citation needed] also Shōtoku
1099 康和 Kōwa ...[citation needed]
1104 長治 Chōji ...[citation needed]
1106 嘉承 Kajō ...[citation needed] also Kashō or Kasō; Emperor Toba, 1107-1123.[47]
1108 天仁 Tennin ...[citation needed]
1110 天永 Ten'ei ...[citation needed] also Ten'yō
1113 永久 Eikyū ...[citation needed] also Yōkyū
1118 元永 Gen'ei ...[citation needed]
1120 保安 Hōan ...[citation needed] Emperor Sutoku, 1123-1142.[48]
1124 天治 Tenji ...[citation needed] also Tenchi
1126 大治 Daiji ...[citation needed] also Taiji
1131 天承 Tenshō ...[citation needed] also Tenjō
1132 長承 Chōshō ...[citation needed] also Chōjō
1135 保延 Hōen ...[citation needed]
1141 永治 Eiji ...[citation needed]
1142 康治 Kōji ...[citation needed] Emperor Konoe, 1142-1155.[49]
1144 天養 Ten'yō ...[citation needed] also Tennyō
1145 久安 Kyūan ...[citation needed]
1151 仁平 Ninpei ...[citation needed] also Ninpyō or Ninbyō or Ninhyō or Ninhei
1154 久寿 Kyūju ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155-1158.[50]
1156 保元 Hōgen ...[citation needed] also Hogen; Emperor Nijō, 1158-1165.[51]
1159 平治 Heiji ...[citation needed] also Byōji
1160 永暦 Eiryaku ...[citation needed] also Yōryaku
1161 応保 Ōhō ...[citation needed]
1163 長寛 Chōkan ...[citation needed] also Chōgan
1165 永万 Eiman ...[citation needed] also Yōman; Emperor Rokujō, 1165-1168.[52]
1166 仁安 Nin'an ...[citation needed] also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168-1180.[53]
1169 嘉応 Kaō ...[citation needed]
1171 承安 Jōan ...[citation needed] also Shōan
1175 安元 Angen ...[citation needed]
1177 治承 Jishō ...[citation needed] also Jijō or Chishō; Emperor Antoku, 1180-1185.[54]
1181 養和 Yōwa ...[citation needed]
1182 寿永 Juei ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Toba, 1183-1198.[55]
1184 元暦 Genryaku ...[citation needed]
1185 文治 Bunji ...[citation needed] also Monchi
1190 建久 Kenkyū ...[citation needed] Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198-1210.[56]
Kamakura period (1192-1333)
1199 正治 Shōji ...[citation needed]
1201 建仁 Kennin ...[citation needed]
1204 元久 Genkyū ...[citation needed]
1206 建永 Ken'ei ...[citation needed] also Ken'yō
1207 承元 Jōgen ...[citation needed] also Shōgen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210-1221.[57]
1211 建暦 Kenryaku ...[citation needed]
1213 建保 Kenpō ...[citation needed] also Kenhō
1219 承久 Jōkyū ...[citation needed] also Shōkyū; Emperor Chūkyō, 1221;.[58] Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221-1232.[59]
1222 貞応 Jōō "righteous answer" also Teiō
1224 元仁 Gennin ...[citation needed]
1225 嘉禄 Karoku ...[citation needed]
1227 安貞 Antei ...[citation needed] also Anjō
1229 寛喜 Kangi ...[citation needed] also Kanki
1232 貞永 Jōei ...[citation needed] also Teiei; Emperor Shijō, 1232-1242.[60]
1233 天福 Tenpuku ...[citation needed] also Tenfuku
1234 文暦 Bunryaku ...[citation needed] also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 嘉禎 Katei ...[citation needed]
1238 暦仁 Ryakunin ...[citation needed] also Rekinin
1239 延応 En'ō ...[citation needed] also Ennō
1240 仁治 Ninji ...[citation needed] also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242-1246.[61]
1243 寛元 Kangen ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246-1260.[62]
1247 宝治 Hōji ...[citation needed]
1249 建長 Kenchō ...[citation needed]
1256 康元 Kōgen ...[citation needed] Emperor Kameyama, 1260-1274.[63]
1257 正嘉 Shōka ...[citation needed]
1259 正元 Shōgen ...[citation needed]
1260 文応 Bun'ō ...[citation needed] also Bunnō
1261 弘長 Kōchō ...[citation needed]
1264 文永 Bun'ei ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Uda, 1274-1287.[64]
1275 建治 Kenji ...[citation needed]
1278 弘安 Kōan ...[citation needed] Emperor Fushimi, 1287-1298.[65]
1288 正応 Shōō ...[citation needed]
1293 永仁 Einin ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298-1301.[66]
1299 正安 Shōan ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Nijō, 1301-1308.[67]
1302 乾元 Kengen ...[citation needed]
1303 嘉元 Kagen ...[citation needed]
1306 徳治 Tokuji ...[citation needed]
1308 延慶 Enkyō ...[citation needed] also Engyō or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308-1318.[68]
1311 応長 Ōchō ...[citation needed]
1312 正和 Shōwa ...[citation needed]
1317 文保 Bunpō ...[citation needed] also Bunhō; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318-1339.[69]
1319 元応 Gen'ō ...[citation needed] also Gennō
1321 元亨 Genkō ...[citation needed]
1324 正中 Shōchū ...[citation needed]
1326 嘉暦 Karyaku ...[citation needed]
1329 元徳 Gentoku ...[citation needed]
1331 元弘 Genkō ...[citation needed]
1334 建武 Kenmu ...[citation needed] also Kenbu
Nanboku-chō period (1334-1392)
*Nanboku-chō Southern Court
1336 延元 Engen ...[citation needed]
1340 興国 Kōkoku ...[citation needed]
1346 正平 Shōhei ...[citation needed]
1370 建徳 Kentoku ...[citation needed]
1372 文中 Bunchū ...[citation needed]
1375 天授 Tenju ...[citation needed]
1381 弘和 Kōwa ...[citation needed]
1384 元中 Genchū ...[citation needed] Genchū 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō reunification
*Nanboku-chō Northern Court
1332 正慶 Shōkei ...[citation needed] also Shōkyō
1333 Northern court not in existence between 1333 and 1336; no era names apply from 1333 to 1338.
1338 暦応 Ryakuō ...[citation needed] also Rekiō
1342 康永 Kōei ...[citation needed]
1345 貞和 Jōwa ...[citation needed] also Teiwa
1350 観応 Kannō ...[citation needed] also Kan'ō
1352 文和 Bunna ...[citation needed] also Bunwa
1356 延文 Enbun ...[citation needed]
1361 康安 Kōan ...[citation needed]
1362 貞治 Jōji ...[citation needed] also Teiji
1368 応安 Ōan ...[citation needed]
1375 永和 Eiwa ...[citation needed]
1379 康暦 Kōryaku ...[citation needed]
1381 永徳 Eitoku ...[citation needed]
1384 至徳 Shitoku ...[citation needed]
1387 嘉慶 Kakei ...[citation needed] also Kakyō
1389 康応 Kōō ...[citation needed]
1390 明徳 Meitoku ...[citation needed] Meitoku 3 replaces Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō reunification
Muromachi period (1392-1573)
1394 応永 Ōei ...[citation needed] Emperor Shōkō, 1412-1428. [70]
1428 正長 Shōchō ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428-1464.[71]
1429 永享 Eikyō ...[citation needed] also Eikō
1441 嘉吉 Kakitsu ...[citation needed] also Kakichi
1444 文安 Bun'an ...[citation needed] also Bunnan
1449 宝徳 Hōtoku ...[citation needed]
1452 享徳 Kyōtoku ...[citation needed]
1455 康正 Kōshō ...[citation needed]
1457 長禄 Chōroku ...[citation needed]
1460 寛正 Kanshō ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464-1500.[72]
1466 文正 Bunshō ...[citation needed] also Monshō
1467 応仁 Ōnin ...[citation needed]
1469 文明 Bunmei ...[citation needed]
1487 長享 Chōkyō ...[citation needed]
1489 延徳 Entoku ...[citation needed]
1492 明応 Meiō ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500-1526.[73]
1501 文亀 Bunki ...[citation needed]
1504 永正 Eishō ...[citation needed]
1521 大永 Daiei ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Nara, 1526-1557.[74]
1528 享禄 Kyōroku "heaven's favor"
1532 天文 Tenbun ...[citation needed] also Tenmon
1555 弘治 Kōji ...[citation needed] Emperor Ōgimachi, 1557-1586.[75]
1558 永禄 Eiroku ...[citation needed]
1570 元亀 Genki ...[citation needed]
1573 天正 Tenshō ...[citation needed] Emperor Go-Yōzei, 1586-1611.[76]
1592 文禄 Bunroku ...[citation needed]
1596 慶長 Keichō ...[citation needed] also Kyōchō; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611-1629.[77]
Edo period (1603-1867)
1615 元和 Genna "Commencement of Concord"[9] also Genwa
1624 寛永 Kan'ei ...[citation needed] Empress Meishō, 1629-1643;[78] Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643-1654.[79]
1644 正保 Shōhō ...[citation needed]
1648 慶安 Keian "Peaceful Gladness"[80] also Kyōan
1652 承応 Jōō "receiving answers" also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655-1663.[81]
1655 明暦 Meireki ...[citation needed] also Myōryaku or Meiryaku
1658 万治 Manji ...[citation needed]
1661 寛文 Kanbun "generous art" Emperor Reigen, 1663-1687.[82]
1673 延宝 Enpō "prolonged wealth" also Enhō
1681 天和 Tenna "heavenly Imperial peace" also Tenwa
1684 貞享 Jōkyō ...[citation needed] Emperor Higashiyama, 1687-1709.[83]
1688 元禄 Genroku "original happiness"
1704 宝永 Hōei "prosperous eternity" Emperor Nakamikado, 1709-1735.[84]
1711 正徳 Shōtoku "righteous virtue"
1716 享保 Kyōhō "Receiving, Holding"[85] Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735-1747.[86]
1736 元文 Genbun "original civility"
1741 寛保 Kanpō "keeping lenient and generous" also Kanhō
1744 延享 Enkyō "becoming prolonged" Emperor Momozono, 1747-1762.[87]
1748 寛延 Kan'en "prolonging lenience"
1751 宝暦 Hōreki "valuable calendar" or "valuable almanac" also Hōryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762-1771.[88]
1764 明和 Meiwa "bright harmony" Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771-1779.[89]
1772 安永 An'ei "peaceful eternity" Emperor Kōkaku, 1780-1817.[90]
1781 天明 Tenmei "dawn"[citation needed]
1789 寛政 Kansei "tolerant" or "broad-minded government"}
1801 享和 Kyōwa ...[citation needed]
1804 文化 Bunka "culture" or "civilization" Emperor Ninkō, 1817-1846.[91]
1818 文政 Bunsei ...[citation needed]
1830 天保 Tenpō "heavenly Imperial protection" also Tenhō
1844 弘化 Kōka "becoming wide or vast" Emperor Kōmei, 1846-1867.
1848 嘉永 Kaei "Celebration of Eternity"[92] "eternal felicity"[93]
1854 安政 Ansei "quiet peaceful government" "tranquil government"[93]
1860 万延 Man'en ...[citation needed]
1861 文久 Bunkyū "literate story"
1864 元治 Genji ...[citation needed]
1865 慶応 Keiō "Joyous Concord"[94]
Modern Japan (1868-present)
1868 明治 Meiji "Enlightened Rule"[95] Emperor Meiji, 1868-1912. Also known as "Englightened Government" or "Brilliant Rule"[94]
1912 大正 Taishō "great righteousness" Emperor Taishō, 1912-1926.
1926 昭和 Shōwa "Brilliant Harmony"[95] Emperor Shōwa, 1926-1989.
1989 平成 Heisei "Achieving Peace"[95] Akihito, 1989-present [the reigning emperor].

Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The plus (+) and minus (−) signs are used universally to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. ... This article is about the year 1. ... The equal sign, equals sign, or = is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are used universally to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. ... Year 23 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The equal sign, equals sign, or = is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... The Asuka period ), was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Kogyoku of Japan Emperor Kotoku ascends to the throne of Japan Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Births Empress Jito of Japan Categories: 645 ... Taika (Japanese: 大化) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Kōtoku (孝徳天皇 Kōtoku Tennō) (596? - November 24, 654)[1] was the 36th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... Hakuchi (Japanese: 白雉) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events King Reccaswinth issues Visigothic law code. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... Shuchō (Japanese: 朱鳥), alternatively read as Suchō or Akamitori, was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... Events September 30 - John VI succeeds Sergius I as Pope. ... Taihō (Japanese: 大宝) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Mommu (文武天皇 Mommu Tennō) (683-707) was the 42nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Justinian II re-takes the throne of the Byzantine Empire Cenred succeeds to the throne of Mercia after his uncle Aethelred abdicates to become abbot of Bardney Births Deaths Adamnan, abbot of Iona (b. ... Empress Gemmei (also Empress Genmyō; 元明天皇 Genmei Tennō) (661 – December 7, 721) was the 43rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the fourth woman to hold such a position. ... Events The Japanese court moved from Heian to Nara. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... Events August 11 - Germanus is translated from the bishopric of Cyzicus to the Patriarch of Constantinople Umayyad caliph al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik End of the reign of Empress Gemmei of Japan, she is succeeded by Empress Gensho. ... Empress Genshō (元正天皇 Genshō Tennō) (680 – April 21, 748) was the 44th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... March 21 - Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Gensho of Japan Emperor Shomu succeeds to the throne of Japan. ... Emperor Shōmu (聖武天皇 Shōmu Tennō) (701 - May 2, 756[]) was the 45th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... This article is about the year 729. ... Events June - Aistulf succeeds his brother Ratchis as king of the Lombards End of the reign of Emperor Shomu of Japan Empress Koken ascends to the throne of Japan Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah becomes caliph Births Deaths Saint John of Damascus (or Damascene), theologian Ratchis, king of the Lombards... Events June - Aistulf succeeds his brother Ratchis as king of the Lombards End of the reign of Emperor Shomu of Japan Empress Koken ascends to the throne of Japan Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah becomes caliph Births Deaths Saint John of Damascus (or Damascene), theologian Ratchis, king of the Lombards... Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇 Kōken Tennō) also Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku Tennō) (718 – August 28, 770[1]) was both the 46th and 48th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events March 9 - A major earthquake strikes Palestine and Syria Offa becomes king of Mercia. ... Emperor Junnin (淳仁天皇 Junnin Tennō) (733-765) was the 47th imperial ruler of Japan from 758 to 764, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇 Kōken Tennō) also Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku Tennō) (718 – August 28, 770[1]) was both the 46th and 48th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Papal privileges are restored in Beneventino and Tuscany and partly in Spoleto. ... A period of anarchy begins in Bulgaria. ... Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. ... Emperor Kōnin ) (November 18, 709[1] – January 11, 782[2]) was the 49th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... July 31 — The oldest recorded eruption of Mt. ... Emperor Kanmu Emperor Kanmu ) (737–806) was the 50th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Alcuin becomes teacher to Charlemagne and his court. ... Enryaku ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Events April 12 - Nicephorus elected patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Tarasius. ... Emperor Heizei (平城天皇 Heizei Tennō , Heijō Tennō) (774-824) was the 51st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇, Saga tennō) (786–842) was the 52nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Emperor Junna (淳和天皇 Junna Tennō) (786-840) was the 53rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ... Emperor Nimmyō ) (810– March 21, 850) was the 54th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events First Viking raid of Dorestad. ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... Emperor Montoku (文徳天皇 Montoku Tennō) (827-858) was the 55th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Vikings plunder London Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet in Meersen Oldest known mention of the Andaman Islands Garcia Iñiguez succeeds his father Iñigo Arista as king of Navarra Births Deaths March 7 - Nominoe, Duke of Brittany Categories: 851 ... Events Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet at Attigny. ... Events Viking raid of Dorestad. ... ... Events Battle of Abelda: Asturias beats the Muslims. ... Emperor Yōzei (from the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Emperor Yōzei (陽成天皇 Yōzei-tennō) (869-949) was the 57th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Danes take Exeter Indravarman II succeeds Jayavarman III as ruler of the Khmer Empire. ... Emperor Kōkō (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Emperor Kōkō (光孝天皇 Kōkō-tennō) (830-887) was the 58th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Ninna (仁和) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 885-889 on the Western calendar. ... Emperor Uda (宇多天皇 Uda Tennō) (May 5, 867- July 19, 931) was the 59th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events End of Strathclyde as a fully independent kingdom. ... Emperor Daigo (醍醐天皇 Daigo Tennō) (January 18, 885– October 23, 930) was the 60th Imperial Ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Accession of Pope John IX Accession of King Kasyapa IV of Sri Lanka Magyar army headed by Álmos besieges Kiev Magyar tribes found state of Szekesfahervar in Hungary Bologna joins Italian Kingdom End of Yodit era in Ethiopia Foundation of Bhaktapur in Nepal Births Deaths Category: ... Shōtai (昌泰) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 898-901 on the Western calendar. ... Events Mesoamerican ballgame court dedicated at Uxmal Kingdom of Taebong established in Korean peninsula Fuzhou city was expanded with construction of a new city wall (Luo City). Births Deaths February 18 - Thabit ibn Qurra, Arab astronomer and mathematician Categories: 901 ... Engi (延喜) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 901-923 on the Western calendar. ... Events June 15 - Battle of Soissons: King Robert I of France is killed, King Charles the Simple is arrested by the supporters of Duke Rudolph of Burgundy. ... Enchō (Japanese: 延長) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Suzaku (朱雀天皇 Suzaku-tennō) (923-952) was the 61st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Ramiro II of Leon becomes king of León Eric Bloodaxe becomes second king of Norway Births Deaths Emperor Uda of Japan Harald I of Norway Categories: 931 ... Jōhei (Japanese: 承平, also romanized as Shōhei) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events Lioa Dynasty took over Peking naming it as their South Palace [Nanjing] Births Hugh Capet, King of France (d. ... Tengyō (天慶) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 938-947 on the Western calendar. ... Emperor Murakami (村上天皇 Murakami Tennō) (June 2, 926 – May 25, 967) was the 62nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Births Deaths Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, Toltec ruler Categories: 947 ... Tenryaku (天暦) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 947-957 on the Western calendar. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 957 ... Tentoku (天徳) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 957-961 on the Western calendar. ... Events Byzantine Empire recaptures Crete from Muslim control Ani made the capital of Armenia by the Bagratid dynasty Haakon I of Norway squashed the rebelling forces of Eric Bloodaxes sons but was killed in the Battle of Fitje. ... Events Nicephorus II begins campaign to recapture Cilicia. ... Emperor Reizei (冷泉天皇; 12 June 950 - 21 November 1011) was the 63rd emperor of Japan (967 - 969). ... Events Births Emperor Kazan of Japan Ethelred II of England Romanus Argyrus, later Romanus III of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Anna (安和) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 968-970 on the Western calendar. ... Emperor EnyÅ« (円融天皇 EnyÅ«-tennō) (959-991) was the 64th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... Tenroku (天禄) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 970-973 on the Western calendar. ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Events Badìa Fiorentina, an abbey in Italy, is founded by Willa, Margravine of Tuscany. ... Tengen (天元) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 978–983 on the Western calendar. ... Events Hugh Capet, a distant relative of the last Carolingian king of the Franks, is crowned King of France, beginning the Capetian dynasty and, arguably, modern French history. ... Eikan (永観) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 983-985 on the Western calendar. ... Emperor Kazan (花山天皇 Kazan Tennō) (968-1008) was the 65th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct – see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi-Amr... Kanna (寛和) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 985-987 on the Western calendar. ... Emperor Ichijō (一条天皇 Ichijō-tennō) (980-1011) was the 66th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... Eien (永延) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 987-988 on the Western calendar. ... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ... Events Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. ... Events (Erik Segersäll) is succeeded by (Olof Skötkonung), the first baptized ruler of Sweden. ... Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... Emperor Sanjō (三条天皇 Sanjō-tennō) (February 5, 976 - June 5, 1017) was the 67th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Mael Morda starts a rebellion against Brian Boru in Ireland, which would eventually end in 1014 at the Battle of Clontarf. ... Emperor Go-Ichijō (後一条天皇 Go-Ichijō-tennō) (October 12, 1008 – May 15, 1036) was the 68th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ... Kannin (寛仁) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 1017-1021 on the Western calendar. ... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ... Jian (治安) is the name of a Japanese era equivalent to the years 1021-1024 on the Western calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Manju (Japanese: 万寿) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events November 12 - Dying Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire marries his daughter Zoe of Byzantium to his chosen heir Romanus Argyrus. ... Emperor Go-Suzaku (後朱雀天皇 Go-Suzaku Tennō) (December 14, 1009 – February 7, 1045) was the 69th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... Events King Anawrahta seizes the throne of Pagan, Myanmar Births Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as The Cid (d. ... Emperor Go-Reizei (後冷泉天皇 Go-Reizei Tennō) (August 28, 1025 – May 22, 1068) was the 70th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // Events First contact between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks. ... Events June 18 - Battle of Civitate - 3000 horsemen of Norman Count Humphrey rout the troops of Pope Leo IX Good harvests in Europe Malcolm Canmore invades Scotland. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... Kōhei (Japanese: 康平) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events December 28 - Westminster Abbey is consecrated. ... Events Harrying of the North- King William of England (William the Conqueror) reacts to rebellions made by his people against him. ... Emperor Go-Sanjō ) (September 3, 1034 – June 15, 1073) was the 71st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Emperor Shirakawa (白河天皇 Shirakawa Tennō) (July 7, 1053 – July 24, 1129) was the 72nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Emperor Horikawa (堀河天皇 Horikawa Tennō) (August 8, 1079 – August 9, 1107) was the 73rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ... Emperor Toba (鳥羽天皇 Toba Tennō) (February 24, 1103 – July 20, 1156) was the 74th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... Events December 4 - First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon. ... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Zupan Deaths... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... Emperor Sutoku (崇徳天皇 Sutoku Tennō) (7 July 1119 – 14 September 1164) was the 75th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... Events Rutherglen becomes one of the first Royal Burghs in Scotland. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Events Diarmaid Mac Murrough has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned and the abbess raped. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... Eiji (Japanese: 永治) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Emperor Konoe (近衛天皇 Konoe Tennō) (June 16, 1139 – August 22, 1155) was the 76th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... Events Pope Lucius II is succeeded by Pope Eugene III Nur ad-Din ascends to power in Syria Construction begins on Notre-Dame dChartres in Chartres, France Korean historian Kim Pusik compiled the historical text Samguk Sagi. ... Events Ghazni is burned by the princes of Ghur Geoffrey of Anjou dies, and succeeded by his son Henry, aged 18. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇 Go-Shirakawa Tennō) (October 18, 1127 – April 26, 1192) was the 77th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Emperor Nijō (二条天皇 Nijō Tennō) (July 31, 1143 – September 5, 1165) was the 78th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... // Events Owain Gwynedd is recognized as ruler of Wales. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... Emperor Rokujō (六条天皇 Rokujō Tennō) (December 28, 1164 – August 23, 1176) was the 79th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // Events Marko III succeeds Yoannis V as patriarch of Alexandria. ... Emperor Takakura (高倉天皇 Takakura Tennō) (September 23, 1161 – January 30, 1181) was the 80th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Events Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (Rory OConner), last High King of Ireland, submits to Henry II as vassal of Ireland with the Treaty of Windsor Ly Cao Ton becomes ruler of Vietnam William of Tyre becomes archbishop of Tyre Massacre of Abergavenny ends with several noblemen dead at the hands... Angen (安元) is the name of a Japanese era lasting from 1175 to 1177. ... Events November 25 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. ... Emperor Antoku (安徳天皇 Antoku Tennō) (December 22, 1178 – April 25, 1185) was the 81st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... Juei (寿永) was a Japanese era name after Yōwa and before Genryaku and spanned from 1182 to 1184. ... Emperor Go-Toba ) (August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... Genryaku (元暦) was a Japanese era name after Juei and before Bunji and spanned from 1184 to 1185. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Emperor Tsuchimikado ) (January 3, 1196 – November 6, 1231) was the 83rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... // The town of Riga was chartered as a city. ... Kennin (建仁) was a Japanese era name after Shōji and before GenkyÅ« and spanned from 1201 to 1204. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Events Stephen Langton consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury June 17 by Pope Innocent III Births September 8 - King Sancho II of Portugal October 1 - King Henry III of England (d. ... Emperor Juntoku ) (October 22, 1197 – October 7, 1242) was the 84th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... Kenryaku (建暦) was a Japanese era name after Jōgen and before Kenpo and spanned from 1211 to 1213. ... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... Kempo (建保) was a Japanese era name after Kenryaku and before Jokyu and spanned from 1213 to 1219. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... Emperor ChÅ«kyō ) (October 30, 1218 – June 18, 1234) was the 85th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Go-Horikawa ) (March 22, 1212 – August 31, 1234) was the 86th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... This article is about the Japanese era name Jōō occurring during the Kamakura period. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... Gennin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // The Teutonic Order is expelled from Transylvania. ... Karoku - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Antei (安貞) was a Japanese era name after Karoku and before Kanki and spanned from 1227 to 1229. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... // Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily (approximate date... Emperor Shijō ) (March 17, 1231 – February 10, 1242) was the 87th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Elburg gets its city-rights. ... Tenpuku - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the year 1234. ... Bunryaku - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Katei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Ryakunin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // Events Births June 17 - King Edward I of England (died 1307) December 17 - Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (died 1256) Peter III of Aragon (died 1285) John II, Duke of Brittany (died 1305) Ippen, Japanese monk (died 1289) Deaths March 3 - Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (born 1187) March... Enō ), also read as Ennō, was a Japanese era after Ryakunin and before Ninji that spanned from 1239 to 1240. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Ninji - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Emperor Go-Saga (後嵯峨天皇 Go-Saga-tennō) (April 1, 1220 – March 17, 1272) was the 88th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // Events Innocent IV was elected pope. ... Kangen (寛元) was a Japanese era name after Ninji and before Hoji and spanned from 1243 to 1247. ... Emperor Go-Fukakusa ) (June 28, 1243 – August 17, 1304) was the 89th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Shams ad-Din disappears resulting in Jalal Uddin Rumi writing 30,000 verses of poetry about his disappearance. ... Events University, the first College at Oxford founded Births Emperor Kameyama of Japan Pope John XXII Frederick I, Margrave of Baden Deaths July 6 - Alexander II of Scotland (b. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Emperor Kameyama ) (July 9, 1249 – October 4, 1305) was the 90th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons War in England. ... Emperor Go-Uda (後宇多天皇 Go-Uda Tennō) (December 17, 1267 – July 16, 1324) was the 91st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ... Kenji (建治) was a Japanese era name after Bunei and before Kōan and spanned from 1275 to 1278. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Emperor Fushimi (伏見天皇 Fushimi Tennō) (May 10, 1265 – October 8, 1317) was the 92nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events February 22 - Nicholas IV becomes Pope. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... Einin (永仁) was a Japanese era name after Shoo and before Shoan and spanned from 1293 to 1299. ... Emperor Go-Fushimi (後伏見天皇 Go-Fushimi Tennō) (April 5, 1288 – May 17, 1336) was the 93rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Emperor Go-Nijō (後二条天皇 Go-Nijō-tennō) (March 9, 1285 – September 10, 1308) was the 94th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... Kengen (乾元) was a Japanese era name after Shoan and before Kagen and spanned from 1302 to 1303. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Kagen (嘉元) was a Japanese era name after Kengen and before Tokuji and spanned from 1303 to 1306. ... Events March 25 - Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland June 19 - Forces of Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruces Scottish rebels at the Battle of Methven Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France and confiscates their property In London, a city ordinance degrees that heating with... Tokuji (徳治) was a Japanese era name after Kagen and before Enkei and spanned from 1306 to 1308. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Emperor Hanazono (花園天皇 Hanazono Tennō) (August 14, 1297 - December 2, 1348) was the 95th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ... Shōwa (正和) was a Japanese era after ÅŒchō and before Bumpō, lasting from 1312 to 1317. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... Woodblock print triptych by Gekko Ogata. ... Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ... Genō (元応) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... For the later Japanese historical era of the same name , see Genkō (second) . Genkō (元亨) was a Japanese era after Genō and before ShōchÅ«, lasting from 1321 to 1324. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... ShōchÅ« (正中) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Karyaku (嘉暦 ) was a Japanese era after Karyaku and before Kemmu, lasting from 1329 to 1331. ... Events Antipope Nicholas V is excommunicated by Pope John XXII. Aimone of Savoy becomes Count of Savoy. ... Gentoku (元徳) was a Japanese era after Karyaku and before Genkō, lasting from 1329 to 1331. ... Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer (born 1273) Categories: 1331... For the earlier Japanese historical era of the same name , see Genkō (first) . Genkō (元弘) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events Births January 4 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (died 1383) January 13 - King Henry II of Castile (died 1379) May 25 - Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders (died 1398) August 30 - King Peter I of Castile (died 1369) James I of Cyprus (died... Kenmu (建武) was a Japanese era of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Genkō and before Kōwa, lasting from 1334 to 1336 in the south, and until 1338 in the North. ... The Nanboku-chō period , South and North courts period, also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period), spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Engen (延元) was a Japanese era of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kemmu and before Kōkoku, lasting from 1336 to 1340. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Shōhei ) was a Japanese era of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after BunchÅ« and before Kōwa, lasting from 1346 to 1370. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Kentoku (建徳) was a Japanese era of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Shōhei and before Bunchū, lasting from 1370 to 1372. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Tenju (天授) was a Japanese era of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Bunchū and before Kōwa, lasting from 1375 to 1381. ... Year 1381 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1384 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Meitoku (明徳) was a Japanese era after (and overlapping with) Genchū in the south and Kōō in the north and before Shōchō, spanning from 1390 to 1394 (only from 1392 in the south). ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... Events November 7 - Lucerne joins the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. ... Shōkei (証恵; 1496-1574) was a relative to Honganji Kennyo, and the administrator of the Ganshou Temple (願証寺). In the battle between Shōkei and Oda Nobunaga, Shōkei even sent out Nobunagas brother Oda Nobuoki to take his own life. ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... Events Ashikaga Takauji granted title of Shogun by the emperor of Japan. ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of RaÅ¡ka Stefan DuÅ¡an is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a... Founding of the University of Pavia, Italy. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Jōji (貞治) was a Japanese era of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kōan and before ÅŒan and lasting from 1362 to 1368. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... ÅŒan (応安) was a Japanese era of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Jōji and before Eiwa and lasting from 1368 to 1375. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... The Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association (EIWA) is an NCAA Division I collegiate wrestling conference. ... Year 1379 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1381 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Eitoku (永徳) was a Japanese era of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts lasting from 1381 to 1384. ... Year 1384 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Shitoku (至徳) was a Japanese era of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts lasting from 1384 to 1387. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Kakei (嘉慶) was a Japanese era of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts lasting from 1387 to 1389. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Kōō (康応) was a Japanese era of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts lasting from 1389 to 1390. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Meitoku (明徳) was a Japanese era after (and overlapping with) Genchū in the south and Kōō in the north and before Shōchō, spanning from 1390 to 1394 (only from 1392 in the south). ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... ÅŒei (応永) was a Japanese era name after Meitoku and before Shōchō and spanned from 1394 to 1428. ... Emperor Shōkō (称光天皇 Shōkō-tennō) (May 12, 1401 - August 30, 1428) was the 101st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... Emperor Go-Hanazono ) (July 10, 1419 – January 18, 1471) was the 102nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... This page is about the year 1441. ... Kakitsu (嘉吉) was a Japanese era name after Eikyo and before Bunnan and spanned from 1441 to 1444. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Bunan ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Hōtoku (宝徳) was a Japanese era name after Bunnan and before Kyotoku and spanned from 1449 to 1452. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Kyōtoku (Japanese: 享徳) was a Japanese era name (後花園天皇) after Hotoku and before Kosho. ... ... no changes . ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Kanshō (Japanese: 寛正) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado ) (July 3, 1442 – October 21, 1500) was the 103rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... ÅŒnin ) was a Japanese era name after Bunsho and before Bunmei. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Bunmei (文明) was a Japanese era name after Onin and before Chokyo and spanned from 1469 to 1487. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... Entoku (延徳) was a Japanese era name after Chokyo and before Meio and spanned from 1489 to 1492. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Meiō ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... Emperor Go-Kashiwabara (後柏原天皇 Go-Kashiwabara Tennō) (November 19, 1464 - May 19, 1526) was the 104th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bunki (文亀) was a Japanese era after Meiō and before Eishō and spanned from 1501 to 1504. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eishō (Japanese: 永正) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Daiei (大永) was a Japanese era name after Eishō and before Kyōroku and spanned from 1521 to 1528. ... Emperor Go-Nara (後奈良天皇 Go-Nara Tennō) (January 26, 1497 - September 27, 1557) was the 105th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... Kyōroku (Japanese: 享禄) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Temmon or Tembun (天文) was a Japanese Era after Kyōroku and before Kōji and spanned from 1532 to 1555. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Emperor ÅŒgimachi (正親町天皇 ÅŒgimachi-tennō) (June 18, 1517 - February 6, 1593) was the 106th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Eiroku (永禄) was a Japanese era name after Kōji and before Genki and spanned from 1558 to 1570. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Genki (元亀) was a Japanese era name after Eiroku and before Tenshō and spanned from 1570 to 1573. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Tenshō ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... Emperor Go-Yōzei (後陽成天皇 Go-Yōzei-tennō) (December 31, 1572 - September 25, 1617) was the 107th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bunroku (文禄) was a Japanese Era after Tenshō and before Keichō and spanned from December 8?, 1592 to October 27?, 1596. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Keichō (慶長) was a Japanese era after Bunroku and before Genna and spanned from 1596 to 1615. ... Emperor Go-Mizunoo (後水尾天皇 Go-Mizunoo-tennō) (June 29, 1596–September 11, 1680) was the 108th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... For the crime family, see Genna (crime family). ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... Kanei (寛永) was a Japanese era after Genna and before Shōhō and spanned from 1624 to 1643. ... Empress Meishō (明正天皇 Meishō Tennō) (January 9, 1624–December 4, 1696) was the 109th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 22, 1629 to November 14, 1643. ... Emperor Go-Kōmyō (後光明天皇 Go-Kōmyō Tennō) (April 20, 1633 - October 30, 1654) was the 110th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... For the aircraft carrier, see Japanese aircraft carrier Shōhō. Shōhō (正保) was a Japanese era after Kanei and before Keian and spanned from 1644 to 1648. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Keian (慶安) was a Japanese era name after Shoho and before Joo and spanned from 1648 to 1652. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... This article is about the Japanese era name Jōō occurring during the Edo period. ... Emperor Go-Sai (後西天皇 Go-Sai-tennō), also called Emperor Go-Saiin (後西院天皇 Go-Saiin-tennō) (January 1, 1638 – March 22, 1685) was the 111th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Meireki (明暦) was a Japanese era name after Jōō and before Manji and spanned from 1655 to 1658. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Manji (万治) was a Japanese era name after Meireki and before Kambun and spanned from 1658 to 1661. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kanbun (寛文) was a Japanese era after Manji and before Enpō and spanned from 1661 to 1673. ... Emperor Reigen (霊元天皇 Reigen Tennō) (July 9, 1654 - September 24, 1732) was the 112th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Empō (延宝) was a Japanese era after Kambun and before Tenna and spanned from 1673 to 1681. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Tenna or Tenwa (天和) was a Japanese era after Empō and before Jōkyō and spanned from 1681 to 1684. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Jōkyō (貞享) was a Japanese era after Tenna and before Genroku and spanned from 1684 to 1688. ... Emperor Higashiyama (東山天皇 Higashiyama Tennō) (October 21, 1675 - January 16, 1710) was the 113th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Genroku ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Hōei (Japanese:宝永) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Nakamikado (中御門天皇 Nakamikado Tennō) (January 14, 1702 - May 10, 1737) was the 114th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Kyōhō (享保) was a Japanese era after Shōtoku and before Gembun and spanned from 1716 to 1736. ... Emperor Sakuramachi (桜町天皇) (February 8, 1720 - May 28, 1750) was the 115th imperial ruler of Japan. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Gembun (元文) was a Japanese era after Kyōhō and before Kampō and spanned from 1736 to 1741. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... For the earlier Japanese historical era of the same name , see Enkyō (Kamakura period) . Enkyō (Japanese: ) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Momozono (桃園天皇 Momozono Tennō) (April 14, 1741 - August 31, 1762) was the 116th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kanen ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Hōreki (Japanese: ) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Empress Go-Sakuramachi (後桜町天皇 Go-Sakuramachi Tennō) (September 23, 1740 – December 24, 1813) was the 117th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Meiwa (明和) was a Japanese era after Hōreki and before Anei and spanned from 1764 to 1772. ... Emperor Go-Momozono (後桃園天皇) (August 5, 1758 - December 16, 1779) was the 118th imperial ruler of Japan. ... Year 1772 (MDCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anei (安永) was a Japanese era after Meiwa and before Tenmei and spanned from 1772 to 1781. ... Emperor Kōkaku (光格天皇 Kōkaku Tennō) (September 23, 1771 – December 11, 1840) was the 119th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Tenmei (天明) was a Japanese era after Anei and before Kansei and spanned from 1781 to 1789. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kansei (寛政) was a Japanese era after Tenmei and before Kyōwa and spanned from February, 1789 to March, 1801. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Kyōwa ) was a Japanese era name , lit. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bunka (Japanese: 文化) was a Japanese era after Kyōwa and before Bunsei. ... Emperor Ninkō (仁孝天皇 Ninkō-tennō) (March 16, 1800 – February 21, 1846) was the 120th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bunsei (Japanese: 文政) was a Japanese era after Bunka and before Tenpō. This period spanned the years from April 22, 1818 through December 10, 1830. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Tenpō (Japanese: 天保) was a Japanese era after Bunsei and before Kōka. ... Jan. ... Kōka (弘化) was a Japanese era after Tempō and before Kaei and spanned from December 2 (?), 1844 to February 28 (?), 1848. ... Emperor Kōmei of Japan Emperor Kōmei ) (July 22, 1831 - January 30, 1867) was the 121st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kaei (嘉永) was a Japanese era after Kōka and before Ansei and spanned from February 28 (?), 1848 to November 27 (?), 1854. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Ansei (安政) was a Japanese era after Kaei and before Manen and spanned from November 27 (?), 1854 to March 18 (?), 1860. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Manen (万延) was a Japanese era after Ansei and before BunkyÅ« and spanned from March 18 (?), 1860 to February 19 (?), 1861. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... BunkyÅ« (文久) was a Japanese era after Manen and before Genji and spanned from February 19 (?), 1861 to March 27, 1864. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the Japanese era named Genji. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... There is also a Keio University in Tokyo. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. ... For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ...

Non-nengō periods

The nengō system that was introduced by Emperor Kōtoku was abandoned after his death; no nengō were designated between 654 and 686. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Temmu in 686, but was again abandoned upon his death approximately two months later. In 701, Emperor Mommu once again reinstated the nengō system, and it has continued uninterrupted through today. Emperor Kōtoku (孝徳天皇 Kōtoku Tennō) (596? - November 24, 654)[1] was the 36th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ... Emperor Mommu (文武天皇 Mommu Tennō) (683-707) was the 42nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Although use of the Gregorian calendar for historical dates has become increasingly common in Japan, the traditional Japanese system demands that dates be written in reference to nengō. The apparent problem introduced by the lack of nengō for the two periods above is resolved by referencing years of imperial reign. This is the same approach used when referencing periods that predate the introduction of the nengō system. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


Although in modern Japan posthumous imperial names correspond with the eras of their reign, this is a relatively recent concept, introduced in practice during the Meiji period and instituted by law in 1979. Therefore, the posthumous names of the emperors and empresses who reigned prior to 1868 may not be taken as era names by themselves. For example, the year 572 -- the year in which Emperor Bidatsu assumed the Chrysanthemum Throne — is properly written as "敏達天皇元年" (Bidatsu-Tennō Gannen, lit. "the first year of Emperor Bidatsu"), and not "敏達元年" (Bidatsu Gannen, lit. "the first year of Bidatsu"), although it may be abbreviated as such.[1] By incorporating both proper era names and posthumous imperial names in this manner, it is possible to extend the nengō system to cover all dates from 660 through today.[2] The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Emperor Bidatsu (敏達天皇 Bidatsu Tennō) (538- September 14, 585) was the 30th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Imperial Seal of Japan. ...


The following is an example of such an extension of the nengō system to include the post-Taika years not covered by a proper era name:

  • Reign of Emperor Jimmu, 660-581 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suizei, 581-548 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Annei, 548-510 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Itoku, 510-475 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōshō, 475-392 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōan, 392-290 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōrei, 290-214 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōgen, 214-157 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kaika, 157-97 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Sujin, 97-29 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suinin, 29-71
  • Reign of Emperor Keikō, 71-131
  • Reign of Emperor Seimu, 131-192
  • Reign of Emperor Chūai, 192-201
  • Regency of Empress Jingū, 201-270
  • Reign of Emperor Ōjin, 270-313
  • Reign of Emperor Nintoku, 313-400
  • Reign of Emperor Richū, 400-406
  • Reign of Emperor Hanzei, 406-412
  • Reign of Emperor Ingyō, 412-454
  • Reign of Emperor Ankō, 454-457
  • Reign of Emperor Yūryaku, 457-480
  • Reign of Emperor Seinei, 480-485
  • Reign of Emperor Kenzō, 485-488
  • Reign of Emperor Ninken, 488-499
  • Reign of Emperor Buretsu, 499-507
  • Reign of Emperor Keitai, 507-534
  • Reign of Emperor Ankan, 534-536
  • Reign of Emperor Senka, 536-540
  • Reign of Emperor Kinmei, 540-572
  • Reign of Emperor Bidatsu, 572-586
  • Reign of Emperor Yōmei, 586-588
  • Reign of Emperor Sushun, 588-593
  • Reign of Emperor Suiko, 593-629
  • Reign of Emperor Jomei, 629-645
  • Taika era, 645-650
  • Hakuchi era, 650–654
  • Discontinuation of the nengō system, 654-686
    • Reign of Empress Saimei, 655-662
    • Reign of Emperor Tenji, 662-672
    • Reign of Emperor Kōbun, 672-673
    • Reign of Emperor Temmu, 673-686
  • Shuchō era, 686
  • Discontinuation of the nengō system, 686-701
    • Reign of Empress Jitō, 686-697
    • Reign of Emperor Mommu, 697-701
  • Taihō era, 701-704

Taika (Japanese: 大化) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Hakuchi (Japanese: 白雉) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Empress Saimeis reign or the Saimei (Japanese: 斉明) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Tenjis reign or the Tenji (Japanese: 天智) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Kōbuns reign or the Kōbun (Japanese: 弘文) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Temmus reign or the Temmu (Japanese: 天武) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Shuchō (Japanese: 朱鳥), alternatively read as Suchō or Akamitori, was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Jitōs reign or the Jitō (Japanese: 持統) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The years of Emperor Mommus reign or the Mommu (Japanese: 文武) period should not be misunderstood as a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Taihō (Japanese: 大宝) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ...

Imperial year

Kōki (皇紀), or Imperial year, is an epoch used before WW2. Kōki 1 is the year when Emperor Jimmu founded Japan, that is 660 BC. This epoch system was adopted in 1872. In terms of nationalism, Kōki emphasizes the long history of Japan and imperial family because it is a larger number than Common Era (C.E.). Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BC, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BC,[citation needed] was the mythical founder... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... BCE redirects here. ...


Kōki 2600 (1940) was a special year. 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but canceled due to Second Sino-Japanese War. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Games of the XII Olympiad originally programmed to celebrated between September 21 to October 6, 1940 were cancelled due to World War II. Originally slated to be held in Tokyo, Japan, but the Games were given back to the IOC, because the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio...


After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, and stopped the use of Kōki by officials. Today, Kōki is rarely used. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Unofficial nengō system

In addition to the official nengō system, in which the era names are selected by the imperial court, one also observes—primarily in the ancient documents and epigraphs of shrines and temples—unofficial era names called shinengō (私年号?), also known as ginengō (偽年号?) or inengō (異年号?). Currently, there are over 40 confirmed shinengō, most of them dating from the middle ages. Shinengō used prior to the reestablishment of the nengō system in 701 are usually called itsunengō (逸年号?). A list of shinengō and more information can be seen in the Japanese wikipedia page ja:私年号. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Because official records of shinengō are lacking, the range of dates to which they apply is often unclear. For example, the well-known itsunengō Hakuhō (白鳳?) is normally said to refer to 650-654 CE; a poetic synonym for the Hakuchi era. However, alternate interpretations exist. For example, in the Nichūreki, Hakuhō refers to 661-683 CE, and in some middle-age temple documents, Hakuhō refers to 672-685 CE. Thus, shinengō may be used as an alternative way of dating periods for which there is no official era name. Hakuchi (Japanese: 白雉) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ...


Other well-known itsunengō and shinengō include Hōkō (法興?) (591-621+), Suzaku (朱雀?) (686), Fukutoku (福徳?) (1489-1492), Miroku (弥勒?) (1506-1507 CE or 1507-1508) and Meiroku (命禄?) (1540-1543).


The most recent shinengō is Seiro (征露?) (1904-1905), named for the Russo-Japanese war. Belligerents Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...


Kyūshū nengō

Edo period scholar Tsurumine Shikenobu proposed that Kyūshū nengō (九州年号?), said to have been used in ancient Kumaso, should also be considered a form of shinengō. This claim is not generally recognized by the academic community. Lists of the proposed Kyūshū nengō can be seen in the Japanese wikipedia pages ja:鶴峯戊申 and ja:九州王朝説. The Kumaso (熊襲) were a peoples of ancient Japan, believed to have lived in the south of Kyushu until at least the Nara period. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p.32.
  2. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 321. [Example: Hōreki (1751-1761), meaning "Valuable Calendar, is proclaimed retroactively by Emperor Momozono in 1754.]
  3. ^ a b Beasley, William. (1999). The Japanese Experience: A Short History of Japan, p. 24.
  4. ^ Brown, pp. 266-267; Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 132-133; Titsingh, pp. 47-50.Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 47]-50.
  5. ^ Lane-Poole, Stanley. (1894). The Life of Sir Harry Parkes, p. 461.
  6. ^ Titsingh, p. 49.
  7. ^ Brown, pp. 268-269; Varley, pp. 135-136; Titsingh, pp. 58-59.
  8. ^ Brown, pp. 270-271; Varley, pp. 137-140; Titsingh, pp. 60-63.
  9. ^ a b Munro, Neil. (1904). Coins of Japan, p. ix.
  10. ^ Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63-65.
  11. ^ Titsingh, p. 63.
  12. ^ Brown, pp. 271-272; Varley, pp. 140-141; Titsingh, pp. 65-67.
  13. ^ Brown, pp. 272-273; Varley, pp. 141-143; Titsingh, pp. 67-73.
  14. ^ Keene, Donald. (1999). Seeds in the Heart: Japanese Literature from Earliest Times to the Late Sixteenth Century, p. 153.
  15. ^ Bowman, John. (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, p. 127
  16. ^ Brown, pp. 274-275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73-75.
  17. ^ David, Percival. (1932). The Shōsō-in, p. 32.
  18. ^ Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143-144; Titsingh, pp. 75-78.
  19. ^ Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144-147; Titsingh, pp. 78-81.
  20. ^ Brown, p. 276-277; Varley, pp. 147-148; Titsingh, pp. 81-85.
  21. ^ Brown, pp. 277-279; Varley, pp. 148-150; Titsingh, pp. 86-95.
  22. ^ Brown, pp. 279-280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96-97.
  23. ^ Brown, pp. 280-282; Varley, pp. 151-164; Titsingh, pp. 97-102.
  24. ^ Brown, p. 282-283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103-106.
  25. ^ Brown, pp. 283-284; Varley, pp. 164-165; Titsingh, pp. 106-112.
  26. ^ Munro, p. 63.
  27. ^ Titsingh, p. 111.
  28. ^ Brown, pp. 285-286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112-115.
  29. ^ Brown, pp. 286-288; Varley, pp. 166-170; Titsingh, pp. 115-121.
  30. ^ Brown, pp. 288-289; Varley, pp. 170-171; Titsingh, pp. 121-124.
  31. ^ Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171-175; Titsingh, pp. 124-125.
  32. ^ Brown, p. 289-290; Varley, pp. 175-179; Titsingh, pp. 125-129.
  33. ^ Brown, pp. 290-293; Varley, pp. 179-181; Titsingh, pp. 129-134.
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 294-295; Varley, pp. 181-183; Titsingh, pp. 134-138.
  35. ^ Brown, pp. 295-298; Varley, pp. 183-190; Titsingh, pp. 139-142.
  36. ^ Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190-191; Titsingh, pp. 142-143.
  37. ^ Brown, pp. 299-300; Varley, pp. 191-192; Titsingh, pp. 144-148.
  38. ^ Brown, pp. 300-302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148-149.
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 302-307; Varley, pp. 192-195; Titsingh, pp. 150-154.
  40. ^ Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154-155.
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 307-310; Varley, pp. 195-196; Titsingh, pp. 156-160.
  42. ^ Brown, pp. 310-311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160-162.
  43. ^ Brown, pp. 311-314; Varley, pp. 197-198; Titsingh, pp. 162-166.
  44. ^ Brown, pp. 314-315; Varley, pp. 198-199; Titsingh, pp. 166-168.
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 315-317; Varley, pp. 199-202; Titsingh, pp. 169-171.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 317-320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172-178.
  47. ^ Brown, pp. 320-322; Varley, pp. 203-204; Titsingh, pp. 178-181.
  48. ^ Brown, pp. 322-324; Varley, pp. 204-205; Titsingh, pp. 181-185.
  49. ^ Brown, pp. 324-326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186-188.
  50. ^ Brown, p. 326-327; Varley, pp. 205-208; Titsingh, pp. 188-190.
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 327-329; Varley, pp. 208-212; Titsingh, pp. 191-194.
  52. ^ Brown, pp. 329-330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194-195.
  53. ^ Brown, pp. 329-330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194-195.
  54. ^ Brown, pp. 333-334; Varley, pp. 214-215; Titsingh, pp. 200-207.
  55. ^ Brown, pp. 334-339; Varley, pp. 215-220; Titsingh, pp. 207-221.
  56. ^ Brown, pp. 339-341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221-230.
  57. ^ Brown, pp. 341-343, Varley, pp. 221-223; Titsingh, pp 230-238.
  58. ^ Brown, pp. 343-344; Varley, pp. 223-226; Titsingh, pp. 236-238.
  59. ^ Brown, pp. 344-349; Varley, pp. 226-227; Titsingh, pp. 238-241.
  60. ^ Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242-245.
  61. ^ Varley, pp. 228-231; Titsingh, pp. 245-247.
  62. ^ Varley, pp. 231-232; Titsingh, pp. 248-253.
  63. ^ Varley, pp. 232-233; Titsingh, pp. 253-261.
  64. ^ Varley, pp. 233-237; Titsingh, pp. 262-269.
  65. ^ Varley, pp. 237-238; Titsingh, pp. 269-274.
  66. ^ Varley, pp. 238-239; Titsingh, pp. 274-275.
  67. ^ Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275-278.
  68. ^ Varley, pp. 239-241; Titsingh, pp. 278-281.
  69. ^ Varley, pp. 241-269; Titsingh, pp. 281-286, and Titsingh, p. 290-294.
  70. ^ Titsingh, pp. 327-331.
  71. ^ Titsingh, pp. 331-351.
  72. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352-364.
  73. ^ Titsingh, pp. 364-372.
  74. ^ Titsingh, pp. 372-382.
  75. ^ Titsingh, pp. 382-402.
  76. ^ Titsingh, pp. 402-409.
  77. ^ Titsingh, pp. 410-411.
  78. ^ Titsingh, pp. 411-412.
  79. ^ Titsingh, pp. 412-413.
  80. ^ Munro, p. 216.
  81. ^ Titsingh, p. 413.
  82. ^ Titsingh, pp. 414-415.
  83. ^ Titsingh, pp. 415-416.
  84. ^ Titsingh, pp. 416-417.
  85. ^ Munro, p. 217.
  86. ^ Titsingh, pp. 417-418.
  87. ^ Titsingh, pp. 418-419.
  88. ^ Titsingh, p. 419.
  89. ^ Titsingh, pp. 419-420.
  90. ^ Titsingh, pp. 420-421.
  91. ^ Titsingh, p. 421.
  92. ^ Keene, Donald. (1999). "Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era; Poetry, Drama, Criticsm, p. 393.
  93. ^ a b Satow, Ernest Mason. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari, p. 11.
  94. ^ a b Lane-Poole, p. 97.
  95. ^ a b c Dean, Meryll. (2002). Japanese Legal System, p. 55.

References

  • Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). [ Jien, 1221], Gukanshō (The Future and the Past, a translation and study of the Gukanshō, an interpretative history of Japan written in 1219). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0
  • Daijirin, 2nd edition
  • Daijisen, 1st edition
  • Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652], Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.--Click for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)
  • Kōjien, 5th edition
  • Varley, H. Paul , ed. (1980). [ Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359], Jinnō Shōtōki ("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley). New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4
  • 二中歴1 第一~第四(尊経閣善本影印集成) ISBN 4-8406-2314-7
  • 二中歴2 第五~第十(尊経閣善本影印集成) ISBN 4-8406-2315-5
  • 二中歴3 第十一~第十三(尊経閣善本影印集成) ISBN 4-8406-2316-3
  • 所功, (1977). 日本の年号 揺れ動く<元号>問題の原点. 雄山閣.
  • 井上清, (1989). 元号制批判 やめよう元号を. 明石書店. ISBN 4-7503-0236-8

Jien (Japanese: 慈円) was a Japanese poet, historian, and Buddhist monk. ... Gukanshō ) is a historical and literary work about the history of Japan. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... The Daijirin Great forest of words) is a comprehensive single-volume Japanese dictionary edited by Akira Matsumura Matsumura Akira, 1916-2001), and first published by Sanseido Books Sanseidō Shoten) in 1988. ... The Daijisen Great fountain/source of words) is a general-purpose Japanese dictionary published by Shogakukan in 1995 and 1998. ... Isaac Titsingh (born 10 January 1745 in Amsterdam, died 2 February 1812 in Paris) [1]. Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. ... Hayashi Gahō (林鵞峰) (1618 – 1688) was a Japanese Neo-Confucian scholar, teacher and administrator in the system of higher education maintained by the Tokugawa bakufu during the Edo period. ... Nihon odai ichiran , Table of the rulers of Japan) is a 17th century chronicle of the serial reigns of Japanese emperors with brief notes about some of the noteworthy events or other happenings during each period. ... Julius Heinrich Klaproth (1783-1835), German Orientalist and traveller, was born in Berlin in October of 1783, the son of the chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. ... Article 90a of the bylaws of the Royal Asiatic Society. ... The Kojien (Japanese: 広辞苑, kōjien) is a Japanese dictionary. ... Kitabatake Chikafusa (北畠親房)(d. ... Jinnō Shōtōki (神皇正統記: Chronicles of the Authentic Lineages of the Divine Emperors) is a Japanese historical book written by Kitabatake Chikafusa (北畠親房), a court noble in the Nanboku-chō period, for the purpose of proving the legitimacy of Southern Court of Japan to which he belonged. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...

See also

A graphical timeline is available here:
Timeline of Japanese era names

Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... Koinobori, flags decorated like koi, are popular decorations around Childrens Day This mural on the wall of a Tokyo subway station celebrates Hazuki, the eighth month. ... Jikkan Jūnishi (十干十二支), also called eto (干支), is the sexagenary cycle of the Japanese calendar, which is calculated by combining jikkan (the ten stems) and jūnishi (the twelve branches). ... The Chinese sexagenary cycle (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (天干; tiāngān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (地支; dìzhī). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering days and years, not only in China... H.E. redirects here. ...

External links

  • Japanese resources:
    • allcalendars.net -- convert Gregorian calendar years to Japanese nengō
    • japan-guide.com -- another converter relating Gregorian calendar years to Japanese nengō and vice versa
    • http://www.meijijingu.or.jp/intro/qa/13.htm
    • http://www2.plala.or.jp/kamkamkam/gimon6/gimon66/297.htm
    • http://www.koubunken.co.jp/Pense/2000/02.html
    • -- comparative timeline of Chinese, Japanese and Korean historical events
  • German resources:
    • nengo_calc-- an easy-to-use online nengō conversion website is maintained as part of the Japanese studies program at the German University of Tübingen
Amino acid dating is a technique used to estimate age in a wide variety of situations. ... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... The New Chronology of Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko is an attempt to rewrite world chronology, based on his conclusion that world chronology as we know it today is fundamentally flawed. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... A Synchronoptic view is a graphic display of a number of entities as they proceed through time. ... For other uses, see Timeline (disambiguation). ... For the political notion, see Year Zero (political notion). ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Floruit (or fl. ...

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