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Encyclopedia > Japanese art
Art history
Eastern art history
Japanese art history
General

Japanese Art Main Page
Categories
Architecture - Calligraphy
Lacquer - Painting - Pottery
Prints - Sculpture - Swords This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Eastern art history, devoted to the arts of the Far East includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. ... Japanese architecture ) has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. ... The History of Japanese calligraphy () has been heavily influenced by Chinese calligraphy. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Japanese painting ) is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety on genre and styles. ... A page from an 18th century printed book by Nishikawa Sukenobu depicting Hina Matsuri (Dolls Festival) events. ... Japanese sculpture derived from Shinto funerary and Buddhist religious arts. ...

Historical Periods

Jōmon and Yayoi periods
Yamato period
Heian period
Kamakura period
Muromachi period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
Edo period
Meiji period
20th century
Contemporary Japanese art Japanese prehistoric art is a wide-ranging category, spanning the Jōmon (c. ...

Japanese Artists

Artists (chronological)
Artists - Calligraphers
Geisha - Painters
Sculptors - Architects
Photographers - Printmakers // This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

Schools, Styles and Movements

Schools category
Buddhist art
Kanō - Kyoto - Nanga
Rinpa - Tosa - Ukiyo-e Footprint of the Buddha. ... Kanō school (狩野派 Kanō-ha) is a school of professional artists in Japan. ... Monkeys by Mori Sosen The Kyoto school (京都派 -ha) was a collection of several styles and schools of Japanese painting of the late Edo period. ... Fish in Spring by Ike no Taiga. ... Spring Landscape, unknown Rimpa school painter, 18th century, six-screen ink and gold on paper. ... Introduction Bamboo in the Four Seasons, Muromachi period (1392–1573) Attributed to Tosa Mitsunobu (1434–1535) Pair of six-panel folding screens; color, ink, and gold on paper; 174. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of...

The Art World

Art museums

Anime and Manga

Anime - Manga - Animators
Illustrators - Manga artists

Japan WikiProject
Origami Portal

Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. It also has a long history, ranging from the beginnings of human habitation in Japan, sometime in the 10th millennium BC, to the present. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1304 KB) For camera information and shooting conditions see the EXIF info fields, contained in the file. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1304 KB) For camera information and shooting conditions see the EXIF info fields, contained in the file. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ä’mítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: CaÉ£lasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... Media:Example. ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin Kotokuin (高徳院) is a Buddhist temple of the Pure Land sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Kamakuras location in Japan Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 746 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2080 × 1672 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Historically, Japan has been subject to sudden invasions of new and alien ideas followed by long periods of minimal contact with the outside world. Over time the Japanese developed the ability to absorb, imitate, and finally assimilate those elements of foreign culture that complemented their aesthetic preferences. The earliest complex art in Japan was produced in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. in connection with Buddhism. In the 9th century, as the Japanese began to turn away from China and develop indigenous forms of expression, the secular arts became increasingly important; until the late 15th century, both religious and secular arts flourished. After the Ōnin War (1467-1477), Japan entered a period of political, social, and economic disruption that lasted for over a century. In the state that emerged under the leadership of the Tokugawa shogunate,organized religion played a much less important role in people's lives, and the arts that survived were primarily secular. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Marker at location of outbreak of ÅŒnin War The ÅŒnin War (応仁の乱 ÅŒnin no Ran) was a civil war from 1467 to 1477 during the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ...


Painting is the preferred artistic expression in Japan, practiced by amateur and professional alike. Until modern times, the Japanese wrote with a brush rather than a pen, and their familiarity with brush techniques has made them particularly sensitive to the values and aesthetics of painting. With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints called ukiyo-e became a major artform and its techniques were fine tuned to produce colorful prints of everything from daily news to schoolbooks. The Japanese, in this period, found sculpture a much less sympathetic medium for artistic expression; most Japanese sculpture is associated with religion, and the medium's use declined with the lessening importance of traditional Buddhism. For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brush (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... Sculptor redirects here. ...


Japanese ceramics are among the finest in the world and include the earliest known artifacts of their culture. In architecture, Japanese preferences for natural materials and an interaction of interior and exterior space are clearly expressed. Japanese pottery, one of its oldest art forms, dates back to the Neolithic period (ca. ... Japanese architecture ) has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. ...


Today, Japan rivals most other modern nations in its contributions to modern art, fashion and architecture, with creations of a truly modern, global, and multi-cultural (or acultural) bent.

Contents

History of Japanese Art

Jōmon art

Statuette with Snow Glasses, Jōmon Era
Statuette with Snow Glasses, Jōmon Era

The first settlers of Japan, the Jōmon people (c 11000?–c 300 BC), named for the cord markings that decorated the surfaces of their clay vessels, were nomadic hunter-gatherers who later practiced organized farming and built cities with population of hundreds if not thousands. They built simple houses of wood and thatch set into shallow earthen pits to provide warmth from the soil. They crafted lavishly decorated pottery storage vessels, clay figurines called dogu, and crystal jewels. Download high resolution version (429x607, 161 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (429x607, 161 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period ) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Dogu (土偶, DogÅ«) (1000-400 BC), goggle-eyed type figurine. ...


Yayoi art

The next wave of immigrants was the Yayoi people, named for the district in Tokyo where remnants of their settlements first were found. These people, arriving in Japan about 350 BC, brought their knowledge of wetland rice cultivation, the manufacture of copper weapons and bronze bells (dōtaku), and wheel-thrown, kiln-fired ceramics. This article is about a Japanese historical era. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... A Yayoi period Dōtaku, 3rd century CE. Dōtaku ) are Japanese bells smelted from relatively thin bronze and richly decorated. ...


Kofun art

The third stage in Japanese prehistory, the Kofun, or Tumulus, period (c AD 250–552), represents a modification of Yayoi culture, attributable either to internal development or external force. In this period, diverse groups of people formed political alliances and coalesced into a nation. Typical artifacts are bronze mirrors, symbols of political alliances, and clay sculptures called haniwa which were erected outside tombs. Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... This article is about a Japanese historical era. ... Kofun Haniwa soldier. ...


Asuka and Nara art

Pagoda and Kondo at Horyu-ji, 8th century
Pagoda and Kondo at Horyu-ji, 8th century

During the Asuka and Nara periods, so named because the seat of Japanese government was located in the Asuka Valley from 552 to 710 and in the city of Nara until 784, the first significant invasion by Asian continental culture took place in Japan. Download high resolution version (512x905, 268 KB)Bodhisattva, Asuka period, 7th century. ... Download high resolution version (512x905, 268 KB)Bodhisattva, Asuka period, 7th century. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3200x1800, 1560 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): HōryÅ«-ji Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3200x1800, 1560 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): HōryÅ«-ji Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Horyu-ji. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... Events July - Battle of Taginae: The Byzantine general Narses defeats and kills Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... Events August 31 - Paul IV abdicates as Patriarch of Constantinople December 25 - Tarasius elected Patriarch of Constantinople The Japanese capital moved away from Nara. ...


The transmission of Buddhism provided the initial impetus for contacts between China, Korea and Japan. The Japanese recognized the facets of Chinese culture that could profitably be incorporated into their own: a system for converting ideas and sounds into writing; historiography; complex theories of government, such as an effective bureaucracy; and, most important for the arts, new technologies, new building techniques, more advanced methods of casting in bronze, and new techniques and media for painting. This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ...


Throughout the 7th and 8th centuries, however, the major focus in contacts between Japan and the Asian continent was the development of Buddhism. Not all scholars agree on the significant dates and the appropriate names to apply to various time periods between 552, the official date of the introduction of Buddhism into Japan, and 784, when the Japanese capital was transferred from Nara. The most common designations are the Suiko period, 552645; the Hakuho period, 645710, and the Tenpyō period, 710784. Events July - Battle of Taginae: The Byzantine general Narses defeats and kills Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. ... Events August 31 - Paul IV abdicates as Patriarch of Constantinople December 25 - Tarasius elected Patriarch of Constantinople The Japanese capital moved away from Nara. ... Events July - Battle of Taginae: The Byzantine general Narses defeats and kills Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Kogyoku of Japan Emperor Kotoku ascends to the throne of Japan Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Births Empress Jito of Japan Categories: 645 ... Events End of the reign of Empress Kogyoku of Japan Emperor Kotoku ascends to the throne of Japan Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Births Empress Jito of Japan Categories: 645 ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... Events August 31 - Paul IV abdicates as Patriarch of Constantinople December 25 - Tarasius elected Patriarch of Constantinople The Japanese capital moved away from Nara. ...


The earliest Japanese sculptures of the Buddha are dated to the 6th and 7th century. They ultimately derive from the 1st-3rd century CE Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, characterized by flowing dress patterns and realistic rendering, on which Chinese and Korean artistic traits were superimposed.[1] They illustrate the terminal point of the Silk Road transmission of Art during the first few centuries of our era. Other examples can be found in the development of the iconography of the Japanese Fujin Wind God,[2] the Nio guardians,[3] and the near-Classical floral patterns in temple decorations.[4] Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Chinese jade and steatite plaques, in the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes. ... The Japanese wind god Fujin, 17th century. ... The Niō (仁王, lit. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


The earliest Buddhist structures still extant in Japan, and the oldest wooden buildings in the Far East are found at the Hōryū-ji to the southwest of Nara. First built in the early 7th century as the private temple of Crown Prince Shotoku, it consists of 41 independent buildings. The most important ones, the main worship hall, or Kondo (Golden Hall), and Goju-no-to (Five-story Pagoda), stand in the center of an open area surrounded by a roofed cloister. The Kondo, in the style of Chinese worship halls, is a two-story structure of post-and-beam construction, capped by an irimoya, or hipped-gabled roof of ceramic tiles. The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Horyu-ji. ... Sculpture of Prince Shotoku in Asuka Dera, Asuka, Nara Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 574-622) was a regent and a politician of the Imperial Court in Japan. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ...


Inside the Kondo, on a large rectangular platform, are some of the most important sculptures of the period. The central image is a Shaka Trinity (623), the historical Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas, sculpture cast in bronze by the sculptor Tori Busshi (flourished early 7th century) in homage to the recently deceased Prince Shotoku. At the four corners of the platform are the Guardian Kings of the Four Directions, carved in wood around 650. Also housed at Hōryū-ji is the Tamamushi Shrine, a wooden replica of a Kondo, which is set on a high wooden base that is decorated with figural paintings executed in a medium of mineral pigments mixed with lacquer. Events Clotaire II, king of the Franks, makes his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia Samo, reputedly a Frankish merchant, governs in Moravia, Slovakia and Lower Austria. ... Media:Example. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The Shaka image of Asukadera, 606 CE Tori Busshi was a Japanese sculptor. ... It has been suggested that Four Guardian Gods be merged into this article or section. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... Horyu-ji. ...


Temple building in the 8th century was focused around the Tōdai-ji in Nara. Constructed as the headquarters for a network of temples in each of the provinces, the Tōdaiji is the most ambitious religious complex erected in the early centuries of Buddhist worship in Japan. Appropriately, the 16.2-m (53-ft) Buddha (completed 752) enshrined in the main Buddha hall, or Daibutsuden, is a Rushana Buddha, the figure that represents the essence of Buddhahood, just as the Tōdaiji represented the center for Imperially sponsored Buddhism and its dissemination throughout Japan. Only a few fragments of the original statue survive, and the present hall and central Buddha are reconstructions from the Edo period. Tōdai-ji (東大寺) (meaning the Eastern Great Temple),[1] is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. ... Events Pope Stephen II, pope for 3 days in March. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


Clustered around the Daibutsuden on a gently sloping hillside are a number of secondary halls: the Hokkedo (Lotus Sutra Hall), with its principal image, the Fukukenjaku Kannon (the most popular bodhisattva), crafted of dry lacquer (cloth dipped in lacquer and shaped over a wooden armature); the Kaidanin (Ordination Hall) with its magnificent clay statues of the Four Guardian Kings; and the storehouse, called the Shosoin. This last structure is of great importance as an art-historical cache, because in it are stored the utensils that were used in the temple's dedication ceremony in 752, the eye-opening ritual for the Rushana image, as well as government documents and many secular objects owned by the Imperial family. Kuan Yin (Pinyin: Guanyin; also written Kwan Yin or in other variants which hyphenate or remove the space between the two words) is the bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists. ... It has been suggested that Four Guardian Gods be merged into this article or section. ... The Shōsōin (正倉院) is a structure at Tōdai-ji in Nara, Japan. ...


Heian art

Byodoin Phoenix Hall
Byodoin Phoenix Hall
PanelPictorial scroll of the Tale of Genji, 1130
PanelPictorial scroll of the Tale of Genji, 1130
Nageire-dou, Tottori ,11th century
Nageire-dou, Tottori ,11th century
Bandainagon Ekotoba, Tokiwa Mitsunaga, 12th century
Bandainagon Ekotoba, Tokiwa Mitsunaga, 12th century

In 794 the capital of Japan was officially transferred to Heian-kyo (present-day Kyoto), where it remained until 1868. The term Heian period refers to the years between 794 and 1185, when the Kamakura shogunate was established at the end of the Genpei War. The period is further divided into the early Heian and the late Heian, or Fujiwara era, the pivotal date being 894, the year imperial embassies to China were officially discontinued. Download high resolution version (2592x1728, 807 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2592x1728, 807 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (940x528, 105 KB) Summary A scene(AZUMA YA: East Wing) of Illustrated scroll of Tale of Genji (witten by MURASAKI SHIKIBU(11th cent. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (940x528, 105 KB) Summary A scene(AZUMA YA: East Wing) of Illustrated scroll of Tale of Genji (witten by MURASAKI SHIKIBU(11th cent. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (2391 × 1677 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (2391 × 1677 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 187 pixelsFull resolution (2080 × 487 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 187 pixelsFull resolution (2080 × 487 pixels, file size: 1. ... Events Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Events Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) was a clan of regents who had sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... Births Deaths Events Northumbrians and East Angles swear allegiance to Alfred the Great. ... Imperial embassies to China were missions to China for importing the technologies and culture of China to Japan. ...


Early Heian art: In reaction to the growing wealth and power of organized Buddhism in Nara, the priest Kūkai (best known by his posthumous title Kōbō Daishi, 774-835) journeyed to China to study Shingon, a form of Vajrayana Buddhism, which he introduced into Japan in 806. At the core of Shingon worship are mandalas, diagrams of the spiritual universe, which then began to influence temple design. Japanese Buddhist architecture also adopted the stupa, originally an Indian architectural form, in its Chinese-style pagoda. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Painting of KÅ«kai (774-835). ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ... Events Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power (approximate date) The celebration of All Saints is made an obligation throughout the Frankish Empire and fixed on November 1. ... Shingon (眞言, 真言 true words, also kongōjō 金剛乘, 金剛乗 pinyin jÄ«ngāngchéng diamond vehicle), is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and is the other branch of Vajrayana Buddhism besides Tibetan Buddhism. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Events April 12 - Nicephorus elected patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Tarasius. ... For the film, see Mandala (film). ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the long history of the entire South Asian subcontinent. ...


The temples erected for this new sect were built in the mountains, far away from the Court and the laity in the capital. The irregular topography of these sites forced Japanese architects to rethink the problems of temple construction, and in so doing to choose more indigenous elements of design. Cypress-bark roofs replaced those of ceramic tile, wood planks were used instead of earthen floors, and a separate worship area for the laity was added in front of the main sanctuary.


The temple that best reflects the spirit of early Heian Shingon temples is the Muro-ji (early 9th century), set deep in a stand of cypress trees on a mountain southeast of Nara. The wooden image (also early 9th c.) of Shakyamuni, the "historic" Buddha, enshrined in a secondary building at the Muro-ji, is typical of the early Heian sculpture, with its ponderous body, covered by thick drapery folds carved in the hompa-shiki (rolling-wave) style, and its austere, withdrawn facial expression. Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...


Fujiwara art: In the Fujiwara period, Pure Land Buddhism, which offered easy salvation through belief in Amida (the Buddha of the Western Paradise), became popular. This period is named after the Fujiwara family, then the most powerful in the country, who ruled as regents for the Emperor, becoming, in effect, civil dictators. Concurrently, the Kyoto nobility developed a society devoted to elegant aesthetic pursuits. So secure and beautiful was their world that they could not conceive of Paradise as being much different. They created a new form of Buddha hall, the Amida hall, which blends the secular with the religious, and houses one or more Buddha images within a structure resembling the mansions of the nobility. The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) was a clan of regents who had sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ēmítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: Caɣlasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... The Fujiwara family (藤原氏 Fujiwara-uji) was a powerful family of regents in Japan who had a sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... In Japan, the Sesshō (摂政) was a title given to a regent who was named to assist an emperor when the emperor was still a child, before the coming of age, or female. ...


The Ho-o-do (Phoenix Hall, completed 1053) of the Byodoin, a temple in Uji to the southeast of Kyoto, is the exemplar of Fujiwara Amida halls. It consists of a main rectangular structure flanked by two L-shaped wing corridors and a tail corridor, set at the edge of a large artificial pond. Inside, a single golden image of Amida (c. 1053) is installed on a high platform. The Amida sculpture was executed by Jocho, who used a new canon of proportions and a new technique (yosegi), in which multiple pieces of wood are carved out like shells and joined from the inside. Applied to the walls of the hall are small relief carvings of celestials, the host believed to have accompanied Amida when he descended from the Western Paradise to gather the souls of believers at the moment of death and transport them in lotus blossoms to Paradise. Raigo paintings on the wooden doors of the Ho-o-do, depicting the Descent of the Amida Buddha, are an early example of Yamato-e, Japanese-style painting, and contain representations of the scenery around Kyoto. Built in 998 in the Heian period, Byōdōin (平等院) is a temple in the city of Uji in Kyoto prefecture in Japan. ... Uji (Japanese: 宇治市; -shi) is a city on the southern outskirts of the city of Kyoto, on the Keihan line or the JR Nara Line towards Osaka. ... Events June 18 - Battle of Civitate - 3000 horsemen of Norman Count Humphrey rout the troops of Pope Leo IX Good harvests in Europe Malcolm Canmore invades Scotland. ... Jōchō (d. ... A closed yosegi An opened yosegi (note the numerous plates which have slided to allow the opening) Yosegi are traditional Japanese wooden boxes. ... A raigō ) (welcoming approach) is an appearance of Amida Buddha on a purple cloud at the time of ones death. ... Yamato-e (大和絵) is a style of Japanese painting inspired by Zen Buddhism and developed in the late Heian period. ...


E-maki: In the last century of the Heian period, the horizontal, illustrated narrative handscroll, the e-maki, came to the fore. Dating from about 1130, the illustrated 'Tale of Genji' represents one of the high points of Japanese painting. Written about the year 1000 by Murasaki Shikibu, a lady-in-waiting to the Empress Akiko, the novel deals with the life and loves of Prince Genji and the world of the Heian court after his death. The 12th-century artists of the e-maki version devised a system of pictorial conventions that convey visually the emotional content of each scene. In the second half of the century, a different, livelier style of continuous narrative illustration became popular. The Ban Dainagon Ekotoba (late 12th century), a scroll that deals with an intrigue at court, emphasizes figures in active motion depicted in rapidly executed brush strokes and thin but vibrant colors. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Genji Monogatari (源氏物語), frequently translated as The Tale of Genji, is a classic work of Japanese literature attributed to the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the early 11th century, around the peak of the Heian period. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部 Murasaki Shikibu, c. ... Akiko is the name of a black and white American comic book series written and drawn by Mark Crilley and published by Sirius Entertainment. ... Ban Dainagon Ekotoba (伴大納言絵詞), or The Tale of Great Minister Ban, is an emakimono (handscroll painting) depicting the events of the ÅŒtemmon Conspiracy, an event of Japans early Heian period. ...


E-maki also serve as some of the earliest and greatest examples of the otoko-e (Men's pictures) and onna-e (Women's pictures) styles of painting. There are many fine differences in the two styles, appealing to the aesthetic preferences of the genders. But perhaps most easily noticeable are the differences in subject matter. Onna-e, epitomized by the Tale of Genji handscroll, typically deals with court life, particularly the court ladies, and with romantic themes. Otoko-e, on the other hand, often recorded historical events, particularly battles. The Siege of the Sanjō Palace (1160), depicted in the painting "Night Attack on the Sanjō Palace" is a famous example of this style. Combatants Minamoto Clan, with Fujiwara no Nobuyori Taira Clan, with Fujiwara no Michinori Commanders Minamoto no Yoshitomo Taira no Kiyomori Strength 500? Unknown The Siege of the Sanjō Palace was the primary battle of the 1159 Heiji Rebellion. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ...


Kamakura art

Portrait of Minamoto no Yoritomo, 12th century
Portrait of Minamoto no Yoritomo, 12th century
Nio Gurdian at the Todai-ji, Unkei, 1203
Nio Gurdian at the Todai-ji, Unkei, 1203

In 1180 a war broke out between the two most powerful warrior clans, the Taira and the Minamoto; five years later the Minamoto emerged victorious and established a de facto seat of government at the seaside village of Kamakura, where it remained until 1333. With the shift of power from the nobility to the warrior class, the arts had to satisfy a new audience: men devoted to the skills of warfare, priests committed to making Buddhism available to illiterate commoners, and conservatives, the nobility and some members of the priesthood who regretted the declining power of the court. Thus, realism, a popularizing trend, and a classical revival characterize the art of the Kamakura period. Image File history File links Minamoto_no_Yoritomo. ... Image File history File links Minamoto_no_Yoritomo. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 413 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1051 × 1525 pixels, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Agyō, one of the two Niō guardians at the Nandai-mon in front of the Todai ji in Nara. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 413 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1051 × 1525 pixels, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Agyō, one of the two Niō guardians at the Nandai-mon in front of the Todai ji in Nara. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shōsō-in (Tōdai-ji). ... Unkei (1151-1223?) was a Japanese sculptor, a member of the Kei school that flourished in the Kamakura period. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... Minamoto (源) was an honorary surname bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period to their sons and grandsons after accepting them as royal subjects. ... Kamakuras location in Japan Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ...


Sculpture: The Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic style of sculpture. The two Niō guardian images (1203) in the Great South Gate of the Tōdai-ji in Nara illustrate Unkei's dynamic suprarealistic style. The images, about 8 m (about 26 ft) tall, were carved of multiple blocks in a period of about three months, a feat indicative of a developed studio system of artisans working under the direction of a master sculptor. Unkei's polychromed wood sculptures (1208, Kōfuku-ji, Nara) of two Indian sages, Muchaku and Seshin, the legendary founders of the Hosso sect, are among the most accomplished realistic works of the period; as rendered by Unkei, they are remarkably individualized and believable images. Unkei (1151-1223?) was a Japanese sculptor, a member of the Kei school that flourished in the Kamakura period. ... The Niō (仁王, lit. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... Tōdai-ji (東大寺) (meaning the Eastern Great Temple),[1] is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. ... January 31 - Inferior Swedish forces defeats the invading danes in Battle of Lena. ... For the temple in Nagasaki Prefecture, see [[Kōfuku-ji (Nagasaki)]]. Grounds of Kofukuji The golden buddha inside the temple Kōfuku-ji ) is a Buddhist temple in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. ... Dharma-character school (Chinese: 法相宗 pinyin fa xiang zong) is the pejorative name for a stream of thought that represented the Indian Yogācāra system of thought in East Asia. ...


Calligraphy and painting: The Kegon Engi Emaki, the illustrated history of the founding of the Kegon sect, is an excellent example of the popularizing trend in Kamakura painting. The Kegon sect, one of the most important in the Nara period, fell on hard times during the ascendancy of the Pure Land sects. After the Genpei War (1180-1185), Priest Myōe of Kōzan-ji temple sought to revive the sect and also to provide a refuge for women widowed by the war. The wives of samurai had been discouraged from learning more than a syllabary system for transcribing sounds and ideas (see kana), and most were incapable of reading texts that employed Chinese ideographs (kanji). Thus, the Kegon Engi Emaki combines passages of text, written with a maximum of easily readable syllables, and illustrations that have the dialogue between characters written next to the speakers, a technique comparable to contemporary comic strips. The plot of the e-maki, the lives of the two Korean priests who founded the Kegon sect, is swiftly paced and filled with fantastic feats such as a journey to the palace of the Ocean King, and a poignant love story. Kegon ([kegõɴ], or in some dialects, [keŋõɴ]) is the name of the Japanese transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism, via the Korean Hwaeom tradition. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... The Genpei or Gempei War (源平合戦、寿永・治承の乱) (1180-1185) was a war of ancient Japan, fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Myōe Kōben (明恵) (1173-1232) was a Japanese Buddhist monk active during the Kamakura period. ... The path to Kōzan-ji Kōzan-ji ), or Togao-san Kōzan-ji ), is an Omuro Buddhist temple located in Ume-ga-hata Toganoo-chō, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


A work in a more conservative vein is the illustrated version of Murasaki Shikibu's diary. E-maki versions of her novel continued to be produced, but the nobility, attuned to the new interest in realism yet nostalgic for past days of wealth and power, revived and illustrated the diary in order to recapture the splendor of the author's times. One of the most beautiful passages illustrates the episode in which Murasaki Shikibu is playfully held prisoner in her room by two young courtiers, while, just outside, moonlight gleams on the mossy banks of a rivulet in the imperial garden. The Murasaki Shikibu Diary (紫式部日記 Murasaki Shikibu Nikki) is a record of the daily life of Lady Murasaki, the author of the Tale of Genji. ...


Muromachi art

Ginkaku-ji, Kyoto, 1489
Ginkaku-ji, Kyoto, 1489

During the Muromachi period (1338-1573), also called the Ashikaga period, a profound change took place in Japanese culture. The Ashikaga clan took control of the shogunate and moved its headquarters back to Kyoto, to the Muromachi district of the city. With the return of government to the capital, the popularizing trends of the Kamakura period came to an end, and cultural expression took on a more aristocratic, elitist character. Zen Buddhism, the Ch'an sect traditionally thought to have been founded in China in the 6th century CE, was introduced for a second time into Japan and took root. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 588 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1530 pixels, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This building is the Kannon-den (or Ginkaku) at Ginkakuji (Jisho-ji), a Buddhist temple in Kyoto, Japan. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 588 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1530 pixels, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This building is the Kannon-den (or Ginkaku) at Ginkakuji (Jisho-ji), a Buddhist temple in Kyoto, Japan. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... Events Ashikaga Takauji granted title of Shogun by the emperor of Japan. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Ashikaga clan (Japanese: 足利氏, Ashikaga-shi) was a famous Japanese clan who established the Muromachi shogunate and begame the Shogunate during the Muromachi era. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ...


Painting: Because of secular ventures and trading missions to China organized by Zen temples, many Chinese paintings and objects of art were imported into Japan and profoundly influenced Japanese artists working for Zen temples and the shogunate. Not only did these imports change the subject matter of painting, but they also modified the use of color; the bright colors of Yamato-e yielded to the monochromes of painting in the Chinese manner, where paintings generally only have black and white or different tones of a single color. Autumn Landscape (Shukei-sansui). ...


Typical of early Muromachi painting is the depiction by the priest-painter Kao (active early 15th century) of the legendary monk Kensu (Hsien-tzu in Chinese) at the moment he achieved enlightenment. This type of painting was executed with quick brush strokes and a minimum of detail. 'Catching a Catfish with a Gourd' (early 15th century, Taizo-in, Myoshin-ji, Kyoto), by the priest-painter Josetsu (active c. 1400), marks a turning point in Muromachi painting. Executed originally for a low-standing screen, it has been remounted as a hanging scroll with inscriptions by contemporary figures above, one of which refers to the painting as being in the "new style." In the foreground a man is depicted on the bank of a stream holding a small gourd and looking at a large slithery catfish. Mist fills the middle ground, and the background mountains appear to be far in the distance. It is generally assumed that the "new style" of the painting, executed about 1413, refers to a more Chinese sense of deep space within the picture plane. Kao (active early 15th century) was a Japanese priest-painter whose work is considered typical of early Muromachi painting. ... Taizo-in at Myoshin-ji Myōshin-ji is a temple complex in Kyoto, Japan. ... Taiko Josetsu was one of the first suiboku style zen buddhist Japanese painters in the Muromachi Period (15th century). ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ...


The foremost artists of the Muromachi period are the priest-painters Shubun and Sesshu. Shubun, a monk at the Kyoto temple of Shokoku-ji, created in the painting 'Reading in a Bamboo Grove' (1446) a realistic landscape with deep recession into space. Sesshu, unlike most artists of the period, was able to journey to China and study Chinese painting at its source. 'The Long Handscroll' is one of Sesshu's most accomplished works, depicting a continuing landscape through the four seasons. Shubun, Reading in a Bamboo Grove, dated 1446. ... Shukei-sansui (Autumn Landscape), by Sesshu Toyo Sesshu Toyo (雪舟 等楊), 1420-1506, is one of the most prominent masters of suiboku (ink painting), and a Zen Buddhist priest. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ...


Azuchi-Momoyama art

Cypress Tree Byobu, Kano Eitoku, 1590
Main article: Art of the Momoyama period

In the Momoyama period (1573-1603), a succession of military leaders, such as Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, attempted to bring peace and political stability to Japan after an era of almost 100 years of warfare. Oda, a minor chieftain, acquired power sufficient to take de facto control of the government in 1568 and, five years later, to oust the last Ashikaga shogun. Hideyoshi took command after Oda's death, but his plans to establish hereditary rule were foiled by Ieyasu, who established the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 286 pixelsFull resolution (1234 × 441 pixels, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 286 pixelsFull resolution (1234 × 441 pixels, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Kano Eitoku (狩野 永徳 Kanō Eitoku, 1543-1590) was a Japanese painter and founder of the Kano school of Japanese-style painting during the Azuchi-Momoyama period of Japanese history. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Painting: The most important school of painting in the Momoyama period was that of the Kanō school, and the greatest innovation of the period was the formula, developed by Kano Eitoku, for the creation of monumental landscapes on the sliding doors enclosing a room. The decoration of the main room facing the garden of the Juko-in, a subtemple of Daitoku-ji (a Zen temple in Kyoto), is perhaps the best extant example of Eitoku's work. A massive ume tree and twin pines are depicted on pairs of sliding screens in diagonally opposite corners, their trunks repeating the verticals of the corner posts and their branches extending to left and right, unifying the adjoining panels. Eitoku's screen, 'Chinese Lions', also in Kyoto, reveals the bold, brightly colored style of painting preferred by the samurai. The Kanō school ) is one of the most famous schools of Japanese painting. ... Kano Eitoku (狩野 永徳 Kanō Eitoku, 1543-1590) was a Japanese painter and founder of the Kano school of Japanese-style painting during the Azuchi-Momoyama period of Japanese history. ... Daitokuji redirects here. ... Binomial name Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc. ...

The Siege of Osaka Castle, 17th century.
The Siege of Osaka Castle, 17th century.

Hasegawa Tohaku, a contemporary of Eitoku, developed a somewhat different and more decorative style for large-scale screen paintings. In his 'Maple Screen', now in the temple of Chishaku-in, Kyoto, he placed the trunk of the tree in the center and extended the limbs nearly to the edge of the composition, creating a flatter, less architectonic work than Eitoku, but a visually gorgeous painting. His sixfold screen, 'Pine Wood', is a masterly rendering in monochrome ink of a grove of trees enveloped in mist. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 357 pixelsFull resolution (12583 × 5608 pixel, file size: 19. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 357 pixelsFull resolution (12583 × 5608 pixel, file size: 19. ... Osaka Castle Osaka Castle (大坂城・大阪城; ÅŒsaka-jō) is a castle in Chuo-ku, Osaka, Japan. ... Hasegawa Tōhaku (長谷川 等伯 Hasegawa Tōhaku, 1539-1610) was a Japanese painter and founder of the Hasegawa school of Japanese-style painting during the Azuchi-Momoyama period of Japanese history. ... Autumn Landscape (Shukei-sansui). ...


Art of the Edo period

Otani Oniji II, Toshusai Sharaku, 1794
Otani Oniji II, Toshusai Sharaku, 1794
Sudden Shower at the Atake Bridge, Hiroshige, 1856
Sudden Shower at the Atake Bridge, Hiroshige, 1856

The Tokugawa shogunate of the Edo period gained undisputed control of the government in 1603 with a commitment to bring peace and economic and political stability to the country; in large measure it was successful. The shogunate survived until 1867, when it was forced to capitulate because of its failure to deal with pressure from Western nations to open the country to foreign trade. One of the dominant themes in the Edo period was the repressive policies of the shogunate and the attempts of artists to escape these strictures. The foremost of these was the closing of the country to foreigners and the accoutrements of their cultures, and the imposition of strict codes of behavior affecting every aspect of life, the clothes one wore, the person one married, and the activities one could or should not pursue. Download high resolution version (450x662, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (450x662, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Toshusai Sharaku (17?? - 1801?) (Japanese: 東洲斎写楽) was one of the great masters - and one of the great innovative and creative geniuses - of the Japanese woodblock print, in addition to being the greatest mystery in the world of ukiyo-e, and one of the great enigmas in... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the early years of the Edo period, however, the full impact of Tokugawa policies had not yet been felt, and some of Japan's finest expressions in architecture and painting were produced: Katsura Palace in Kyoto and the paintings of Tawaraya Sōtatsu, pioneer of the Rimpa school. Thunder god Tawaraya Sōtatsu (俵屋宗達; fl. ... Rimpa (琳派) is a decorative style of japanese painting. ...


Architecture: Katsura Detached Palace, built in imitation of Prince Genji's palace, contains a cluster of shoin buildings that combine elements of classic Japanese architecture with innovative restatements. The whole complex is surrounded by a beautiful garden with paths for walking. Katsura Imperial Villa or Katsura Detached Palace (桂離宮 Katsura rikyū) is a villa in Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan, separate from the Kyoto Imperial Palace. ... Ilustration of ch. ...


Painting: Sōtatsu evolved a superb decorative style by re-creating themes from classical literature, using brilliantly colored figures and motifs from the natural world set against gold-leaf backgrounds. One of his finest works is the pair of screens The Waves at Matsushima in the Freer Gallery in Washington, D.C. A century later, Korin reworked Sōtatsu's style and created visually gorgeous works uniquely his own. Perhaps his finest are the screen paintings of red and white ume blossoms. Categories: Stub ...


Sculpture The Buddhist monk Enkū carved 120,000 Buddhist images in a rough, individual style. EnkÅ« ) (1632–1695) was a Japanese Buddhist monk during the early Edo period. ...


Woodblock prints and Bunjinga: The school of art best known in the West is that of the ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints of the demimonde, the world of the kabuki theater and the brothel district. Ukiyo-e prints began to be produced in the late 17th century, but in 1764 Harunobu produced the first polychrome print. Print designers of the next generation, including Torii Kiyonaga and Utamaro, created elegant and sometimes insightful depictions of courtesans. In the West, erotic woodblock "prints" became popular because the material was not otherwise available. In that sense, such niche prints did more to promote Japanese art in the West than art studies. View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... This article is about the ukiyo-e artist; for the samurai named Kiyonaga, see Naito Kiyonaga and Koriki Kiyonaga. ... Kitagawa Utamaro, Flowers of Edo: Young Womans Narrative Chanting to the Shamisen, ca. ...


In the 19th century the dominant figure was Hiroshige, a creator of romantic and somewhat sentimental landscape prints. The odd angles and shapes through which Hiroshige often viewed landscape, and the work of Kiyonaga and Utamaro, with its emphasis on flat planes and strong linear outlines, had a profound impact on such Western artists as Edgar Degas and Vincent van Gogh. Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ... van Gogh redirects here. ...


Another school of painting contemporary with ukiyo-e was Bunjinga, a style based on paintings executed by Chinese scholar-painters. Just as ukiyo-e artists chose to depict figures from life outside the strictures of the Tokugawa shogunate, Bunjin artists turned to Chinese culture. The exemplars of this style are Ike no Taiga, Yosa Buson, Tanomura Chikuden, and Yamamoto Baiitsu. Fish in Spring by Ike no Taiga. ... Fish in Spring, Cleveland Museum of Art Ike no Taiga (池大雅)(1723–1776) was a Japanese painter and calligrapher born in Kyoto during the Edo period. ... Grave of Buson Yosa Buson, or Yosa no Buson (与謝蕪村, 1716 – December 25, 1784), was a Japanese poet and painter from the Edo period. ... Detail of Boating on the Inagawa river (1829). ...


Meiji art

In the years after 1867, when Emperor Meiji ascended the throne, Japan was once again invaded by new and alien forms of culture. The introduction of Western cultural values led to a dichotomy in Japanese art, as well as in nearly every other aspect of culture, between traditional values and attempts to duplicate and assimilate a variety of clashing new ideas. This split remained evident in the late twentieth century, although much synthesis had by then already occurred, and created an international cultural atmosphere and stimulated contemporary Japanese arts toward ever more innovative forms. Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ...


By the early 20th century, European art forms were well introduced and their marriage produced notable buildings like the Tokyo Train Station and the National Diet Building that still exist today. Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station Tokyo Station ) is a train station located in the Marunouchi business district of Tokyo, near the Imperial Palace grounds and the Ginza commercial district. ... Exterior view. ...


Manga were first drawn in the Meiji period, influenced greatly by English and French political cartoons. This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King is freed from his Conscription promise by Johnny Canuck. ...


Painting: The first response of the Japanese to Western art forms was open-hearted acceptance, and in 1876 the Technological Art School was opened, employing Italian instructors to teach Western methods. The second response was a pendulum swing in the opposite direction spearheaded by Okakura Kakuzo and the American Ernest Fenollosa, who encouraged Japanese artists to retain traditional themes and techniques while creating works more in keeping with contemporary taste. Out of these two poles of artistic theory developed Yōga (Western-style painting) and Nihonga (Japanese painting), categories that remain valid to the present day. Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Okakura Tenshin (岡倉 天心, February 14, 1863 - September 2, 1913) was a Japanese scholar who contributed the development of arts in Japan. ... Title page of Cathay, poems by Ezra Pound, 1915, based on translations by Ernest Fenollosa. ... Nihonga (日本画) is a Japanese school of watercolor painting which utilizes mineral pigments known as Iwa Enogu (岩絵の具). Japanese nihonga artists from the Meiji, Taisho, Showa and Heisei periods are listed below. ...


Postwar period

After World War II, many artists began working in art forms derived from the international scene, moving away from local artistic developments into the mainstream of world art. But traditional Japanese conceptions endured, particularly in the use of modular space in architecture, certain spacing intervals in music and dance, a propensity for certain color combinations and characteristic literary forms. The wide variety of art forms available to the Japanese reflect the vigorous state of the arts, widely supported by the Japanese people and promoted by the government. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


American art and architecture greatly influenced Japan. Though fear of earthquakes severely restricted the building of a skyscraper, technological advances let Japanese build larger and higher buildings with more artistic outlooks.


As Japan has always made little distinction between 'fine art' and 'decorative art', as the West is first beginning to do, it is important to note Japan's significant and unique contributions to the fields of art in entertainment, commercial uses, and graphic design. Cartoons imported from America led to anime that at first were derived exclusively from manga stories. Today, anime abounds, and many artists and studios have risen to great fame as artists; Hayao Miyazaki and the artists and animators of Studio Ghibli are generally regarded to be among the best the anime world has to offer. Japan also flourishes in the fields of graphic design, commercial art (e.g. billboards, magazine advertisements), and in video game graphics and concept art. “Animé” redirects here. ... Hayao Miyazaki ) (born January 5, 1941 in Tokyo, Japan) is the prominent director of many popular animated feature films. ... Studio Ghibli, Inc. ...


Modern art in Japan

Japanese modern art takes as many forms and expresses as many different ideas as modern art in general, worldwide. It ranges from advertisements, anime, video games, and architecture as already mentioned, to sculpture, painting, and drawing in all their myriad forms.


Many artists do continue to paint in the traditional manner, with black ink and color on paper or silk. Some of these depict traditional subject matter in the traditional styles, while others explore new and different motifs and styles, while using the traditional media. Still others eschew native media and styles, embracing Western oil paints or any number of other forms.


In sculpture, the same holds true; some artists stick to the traditional modes, some doing it with a modern flair, and some choose Western or brand new modes, styles, and media. Yo Akiyama is just one of countless modern Japanese sculptors. He works primarily in clay pottery and ceramics, creating works that are very simple and straightforward, looking like they were created out of the earth itself. Another sculptor, using iron and other modern materials, built a large modern art sculpture in the Israeli port city of Haifa, called Hanabi (Fireworks). Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ...


Takashi Murakami is arguably one of the most well-known Japanese modern artists in the Western world. Murakami and the other artists in his studio create pieces in a style, inspired by anime, which he has dubbed "superflat". His pieces take a multitude of forms, from painting to sculpture, some truly massive in size. But most if not all show very clearly this anime influence, utilizing bright colors and simplified details. Takashi Murakami, September 17, 2006. ... Superflat is a postmodern art movement influenced by manga and anime. ...


Performing arts

Kabuki Theater
Kabuki Theater

A remarkable number of the traditional forms of Japanese music, dance, and theater have survived in the contemporary world, enjoying some popularity through reidentification with Japanese cultural values. Traditional music and dance, which trace their origins to ancient religious use - Buddhist, Shintō, and folk - have been preserved in the dramatic performances of Noh, Kabuki, and bunraku theater. Ancient court music and dance forms deriving from continental sources were preserved through Imperial household musicians and temple and shrine troupes. Some of the oldest musical instruments in the world have been in continuous use in Japan from the Jōmon period, as shown by finds of stone and clay flutes and zithers having between two and four strings, to which Yayoi period metal bells and gongs were added to create early musical ensembles. By the early historical period (sixth to seventh centuries CE), there were a variety of large and small drums, gongs, chimes, flutes, and stringed instruments, such as the imported mandolin-like biwa and the flat six-stringed zither, which evolved into the thirteen-stringed koto. These instruments formed the orchestras for the seventh-century continentally derived ceremonial court music (gagaku), which, together with the accompanying bugaku (a type of court dance), are the most ancient of such forms still performed at the Imperial court, ancient temples, and shrines. Buddhism introduced the rhythmic chants, still used, that underpin Shigin, and that were joined with native ideas to underlay the development of vocal music, such as in Noh. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (924x582, 84 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (924x582, 84 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... The Buddha in Kamakura (1252). ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances, mostly of European origin, that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is dominated by an inherited... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Concert zither The zither is a musical string instrument, mainly used in folk music, most commonly in German-speaking Alpine Europe. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... A gong is one of a wide variety of metal percussion instruments. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... For other uses, see Biwa (disambiguation). ... Japanese 13-stringed koto The koto (箏 or 琴) is a traditional Japanese stringed musical instrument derived from Chinese zithers. ... Gagaku (雅楽, literally elegant enjoyment) is a type of Japanese classical music that has been performed at the Imperial court for several centuries. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Example gin with vocal annotation to the right of each character Shigin (詩吟) is a form of Japanese poetry, which is usually chanted, either individually or within a group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Aesthetic concepts

Calligraphy of Bodhidharma, “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”, Hakuin Ekaku, 17th century
Calligraphy of Bodhidharma, “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”, Hakuin Ekaku, 17th century
Main article: Japanese aesthetics

Japanese art is characterized by unique polarities. In the ceramics of the prehistoric periods, for example, exuberance was followed by disciplined and refined artistry. Another instance is provided by two 16th-century structures that are poles apart: the Katsura Detached Palace is an exercise in simplicity, with an emphasis on natural materials, rough and untrimmed, and an affinity for beauty achieved by accident; Nikkō Tōshō-gū is a rigidly symmetrical structure replete with brightly colored relief carvings covering every visible surface. Japanese art, valued not only for its simplicity but also for its colorful exuberance, has considerably influenced 19th-century Western painting and 20th century Western architecture. This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... Bodhidharma (or Tat Moh)(fl. ... Hakuin Ekaku (白隠 慧鶴 Hakuin Ekaku, 1686-1769) was undoubtedly one of the most influential figures in Japanese Zen Buddhism. ... Japanese aesthetics has no single, unified basis. ... Katsura Imperial Villa or Katsura Detached Palace (桂離宮 Katsura rikyū) is a villa in Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan, separate from the Kyoto Imperial Palace. ... Nikkō , literally sunlight) is a city located in the mountains of Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. ... Nikkō Tōshō-gÅ« (日光東照宮) is a Shinto shrine dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa line of shoguns in Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Japan's aesthetic conceptions, deriving from diverse cultural traditions, have been formative in the production of unique art forms. Over the centuries, a wide range of artistic motifs developed and were refined, becoming imbued with symbolic significance. Like a pearl, they acquired many layers of meaning and a high luster. Japanese aesthetics provide a key to understanding artistic works perceivably different from those coming from Western traditions. For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ...


Within the East Asian artistic tradition, China has been the acknowledged teacher and Japan the devoted student. Nevertheless, several Japanese arts developed their own style, which can be differentiated from various Chinese arts. The monumental, symmetrically balanced, rational approach of Chinese art forms became miniaturized, irregular, and subtly suggestive in Japanese hands. Miniature rock gardens, diminutive plants (bonsai), and ikebana (flower arrangements), in which the selected few represented a garden, were the favorite pursuits of refined aristocrats for a millennium, and they have remained a part of contemporary cultural life. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Bonsai (disambiguation). ... Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana arranged flower),[1] is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , the way of flowers) In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement emphasizes the linear aspects. ...


The diagonal, reflecting a natural flow, rather than the fixed triangle, became the favored structural device, whether in painting, architectural or garden design, dance steps, or musical notations. Odd numbers replace even numbers in the regularity of a Chinese master pattern, and a pull to one side allows a motif to turn the corner of a three-dimensional object, thus giving continuity and motion that is lacking in a static frontal design. Japanese painters used the devices of the cutoff, close-up, and fade-out by the twelfth century in yamato-e, or Japanese-style, scroll painting, perhaps one reason why modern filmmaking has been such a natural and successful art form in Japan. Suggestion is used rather than direct statement; oblique poetic hints and allusive and inconclusive melodies and thoughts have proved frustrating to the Westerner trying to penetrate the meanings of literature, music, painting, and even everyday language. Yamato-e (大和絵) is a style of Japanese painting inspired by Zen Buddhism and developed in the late Heian period. ...


The Japanese began defining such aesthetic ideas in a number of evocative phrases by at least the tenth or eleventh century. The courtly refinements of the aristocratic Heian period evolved into the elegant simplicity seen as the essence of good taste in the understated art that is called shibui. Two terms originating from Zen Buddhist meditative practices describe degrees of tranquility: one, the repose found in humble melancholy (wabi), the other, the serenity accompanying the enjoyment of subdued beauty (sabi). Zen thought also contributed a penchant for combining the unexpected or startling, used to jolt one's consciousness toward the goal of enlightenment. In art, this approach was expressed in combinations of such unlikely materials as lead inlaid in lacquer and in clashing poetic imagery. Unexpectedly humorous and sometimes grotesque images and motifs also stem from the Zen koan (conundrum). Although the arts have been mainly secular since the Tokugawa period, traditional aesthetics and training methods, stemming generally from religious sources, continue to underlie artistic productions. Shibui (渋い, adjective), or shibumi (渋み, noun), is a Japanese word which refers to a particular aesthetic of simple, subtle, and unobtrusive beauty. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... A Japanese tea house which reflects the Wabi-Sabi aesthetic Wabi-sabi (in Kanji: 侘寂) represents a comprehensive Japanese world view or aesthetic centred on the acceptance of transience. ... A Japanese tea house which reflects the Wabi-Sabi aesthetic Wabi-sabi (in Kanji: 侘寂) represents a comprehensive Japanese world view or aesthetic centred on the acceptance of transience. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Edo period (江戸時代) is a...


Artists

Traditionally, the artist was a vehicle for expression and was personally reticent, in keeping with the role of an artisan or entertainer of low social status. The calligrapher, a member of the Confucian literati class, or noble samurai class in Japan, had a higher status, while artists of great genius were often recognized in the Kamakura period by receiving a name from a feudal lord and thus rising socially. The performing arts, however, were generally held in less esteem, and the purported immorality of actresses of the early Kabuki theater caused the Tokugawa government to bar women from the stage; female roles in Kabuki and Noh thereafter were played by men. Shodō (書道 the way of writing) or Sho (書) is Japanese calligraphy. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ...


After World War II, artists typically gathered in arts associations, some of which were long-established professional societies while others reflected the latest arts movement. The Japan Artists League, for example, was responsible for the largest number of major exhibitions, including the prestigious annual Nitten (Japan Art Exhibition). The P.E.N. Club of Japan (P.E.N. stands for prose, essay, and narrative), a branch of an international writers' organization, was the largest of some thirty major authors' associations. Actors, dancers, musicians, and other performing artists boasted their own societies, including the Kabuki Society, organized in 1987 to maintain this art's traditional high standards, which were thought to be endangered by modern innovation. By the 1980s, however, avant-garde painters and sculptors had eschewed all groups and were "unattached" artists. Logo of International PEN International PEN, the worldwide association of writers, was founded in 1921 to promote friendship and intellectual co-operation among writers everywhere; to emphasise the role of literature in the development of mutual understanding and world culture; to fight for freedom of expression; and to act as...


Art schools

There are a number of specialized universities for the arts in Japan, led by the national universities. The most important is the Tokyo Arts University, one of the most difficult of all national universities to enter. Another seminal center is Tama Arts University in Tokyo, which produced many of Japan's late twentieth- century innovative young artists. Traditional training in the arts, derived from Chinese traditional methods, remains; experts teach from their homes or head schools working within a master-pupil relationship. A pupil does not experiment with a personal style until achieving the highest level of training, or graduating from an arts school, or becoming head of a school. Many young artists have criticized this system as stifling creativity and individuality. A new generation of the avant-garde has broken with this tradition, often receiving its training in the West. In the traditional arts, however, the master-pupil system preserves the secrets and skills of the past. Some master-pupil lineages can be traced to the Kamakura period, from which they continue to use a great master's style or theme. Japanese artists consider technical virtuosity as the sine qua non of their professions, a fact recognized by the rest of the world as one of the hallmarks of Japanese art. Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music (東京藝術大学), or Geidai (芸大), is one of the oldest and most prestigious fine art schools in Japan. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non was originally a Latin legal term for without which it could not be (but for). It refers to an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient. ...


The national government has actively supported the arts through the Agency for Cultural Affairs, set up in 1968 as a special body of the Ministry of Education. The agency's budget for FY 1989 rose to ¥37.8 billion after five years of budget cuts, but still represented much less than 1 percent of the general budget. The agency's Cultural Affairs Division disseminated information about the arts within Japan and internationally, and the Cultural Properties Protection Division protected the nation's cultural heritage. The Cultural Affairs Division is concerned with such areas as art and culture promotion, arts copyrights, and improvements in the national language. It also supports both national and local arts and cultural festivals, and it funds traveling cultural events in music, theater, dance, art exhibitions, and filmmaking. Special prizes are offered to encourage young artists and established practitioners, and some grants are given each year to enable them to train abroad. The agency funds national museums of modern art in Kyoto and Tokyo and the Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, which exhibit both Japanese and international shows. The agency also supports the Japan Academy of Arts, which honors eminent persons of arts and letters, appointing them to membership and offering ¥3.5 million in prize money. Awards are made in the presence of the Emperor, who personally bestows the highest accolade, the Cultural Medal. The Agency for Cultural Affairs ) is a special body of the Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT). ... Office building The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ), also known as MEXT, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ...


Private sponsorship and foundations

Arts patronage and promotion by the government are broadened to include a new cooperative effort with corporate Japan to provide funding beyond the tight budget of the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Many other public and private institutions participate, especially in the burgeoning field of awarding arts prizes. A growing number of large corporations join major newspapers in sponsoring exhibitions and performances and in giving yearly prizes. The most important of the many literary awards given are the venerable Naoki Prize and the Akutagawa Prize, the latter being the equivalent of the Pulitzer Prize in the United States. The Naoki Prize was created in 1935 in memory of Japanese novelist Naoki Sanjugo. ... The Akutagawa Prize (芥川龍之介賞 Akutagawa Ryūnosuke Shō) is Japans most prestigious literary award. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


In 1989 an effort to promote cross-cultural exchange led to the establishment of a Japanese "Nobel Prize" for the arts, the Premium Imperiale, by the Japan Art Association. This prize of US$100,000 was funded largely by the mass media conglomerate Fuji-Sankei and was awarded on a worldwide selection basis. The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... The Praemium Imperiale is a prize for artists that has been awarded since 1989 at the suggestion of the Emperor of Japan. ...


A number of foundations promoting the arts arose in the 1980s, including the Cultural Properties Foundation set up to preserve historic sites overseas, especially along the Silk Road in Inner Asia and at Dunhuang in China. Another international arrangement was made in 1988 with the United States Smithsonian Institution for cooperative exchange of high-technology studies of Asian artifacts. The government plays a major role by funding the Japan Foundation, which provides both institutional and individual grants, effects scholarly exchanges, awards annual prizes, supported publications and exhibitions, and sends traditional Japanese arts groups to perform abroad. The Arts Festival held for two months each fall for all the performing arts is sponsored by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Major cities also provides substantial support for the arts; a growing number of cities in the 1980s had built large centers for the performing arts and, stimulated by government funding, were offering prizes such as the Lafcadio Hearn Prize initiated by the city of Matsue. A number of new municipal museums were also providing about one-third more facilities in the 1980s than were previously available. In the late 1980s, Tokyo added more than twenty new cultural halls, notably, the large Cultural Village built by Tokyo Corporation and the reconstruction of Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. All these efforts reflect a rising popular enthusiasm for the arts. Japanese art buyers swept the Western art markets in the late 1980s, paying record highs for impressionist paintings and US$51.7 million alone for one blue period Picasso. The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... The term China proper is usually used to refer to the historical heartlands of China, and to make a contrast between these heartlands and frontier regions of Outer China (Inner Asia). ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The Japan Foundation (jap. ... Matsue (松江市 Matsue-shi) is the capital city of Shimane Prefecture in the Chugoku region of Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... This article is about the Globe Theatre of Shakespeare (commonly known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre). ... This article is about the art movement. ... Self-portrait with Cloak (1901) The Blue Period of Picasso, between 1901 and 1904, was when the style of Pablo Picassos paintings were heavily emotional, often in the form of blue colors. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "Needless to say, the influence of Greek art on Japanese Buddhist art, via the Buddhist art of Gandhara and India, was already partly known in, for example, the comparison of the wavy drapery of the Buddha images, in what was, originally, a typical Greek style" (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p19)
  2. ^ "The Japanese wind god images do not belong to a separate tradition apart from that of their Western counter-parts but share the same origins. (...) One of the characteristics of these Far Eastern wind god images is the wind bag held by this god with both hands, the origin of which can be traced back to the shawl or mantle worn by Boreas/ Oado." (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p21)
  3. ^ "The origin of the image of Vajrapani should be explained. This deity is the protector and guide of the Buddha Sakyamuni. His image was modelled after that of Hercules. (...) The Gandharan Vajrapani was transformed in Central Asia and China and afterwards transmitted to Japan, where it exerted stylistic influences on the wrestler-like statues of the Guardina Deities (Nio)." (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p23)
  4. ^ The transmission of the floral scroll pattern from West to East is presented in the regular exhibition of Ancient Japanese Art, at the Tokyo National Museum.

Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Japanese wind god Fujin, 17th century. ... There was one person and one god known as Boreas in Greek mythology. ... Mahachakra Vajrapani . Vajrapāṇi (from Sanskrit vajra, thunderbolt or diamond and pāṇi, lit. ... The Niō (仁王, lit. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ...

See also

  • National treasures of Japan
  • Important Cultural Properties
  • Japanese artists category

Jomon vessel with flame-like ornamentation, a national treasure of Japan. ... The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the years, from the countrys original Jomon culture to its contemporary hybrid culture, which combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. ... Footprint of the Buddha. ... Japanese architecture ) has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. ... The History of Japanese calligraphy () has been heavily influenced by Chinese calligraphy. ... Japanese lacquerware is a broad category of fine and decorative arts, as lacquer has been used in paintings, prints, and on a wide variety of objects from Buddha statues to bento boxes for food. ... Japanese painting ) is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety on genre and styles. ... Japanese pottery, one of its oldest art forms, dates back to the Neolithic period (ca. ... Japanese sculpture derived from Shinto funerary and Buddhist religious arts. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A page from an 18th century printed book by Nishikawa Sukenobu depicting Hina Matsuri (Dolls Festival) events. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... The Kyoto National Museum is one of the three formerly-imperially mandated art museums in Japan. ... The Nara National Museum (奈良国立博物館)is one of the pre-eminent national art museums in Japan. ... The entrance to the Freer Gallery. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ...

References

  • This article was originally based on material from WebMuseum Paris - Famous Artworks exhibition [1].
  • This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain. - Japan
  • "The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity" by John Boardman (Princeton University Press, 1994) ISBN 0-691-03680-2
  • "Alexander the Great: East-West Cultural contacts from Greece to Japan" (NHK and Tokyo National Museum, 2003)
  • "De l'Indus à l'Oxus, Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale", Osmund Bopearachchi, Christine Sachs, ISBN 2-9516679-2-2
  • "The Crossroads of Asia, Transformation in image and symbols", 1992, ISBN 0-9518399-1-8

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, by Osmund Bopearachchi, 1991. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Japanese art
  • Japanese Art Introduction. English Article by Sanaz Mohadesi
  • Tokyo National Museum: Photographs from Japan Collection. Comprehensive collection from all periods.
  • Introduction of Japanese Crafts
  • Ukiyo-e in the "A World History of Art"
  • Japan Cultural Profile - national cultural portal for Japan created by Visiting Arts/Japan Foundation
  • Knowing of Japanese Crafts
  • Ruth and Sherman Lee Institute for Japanese Art Collection, online collection of images from the Online Archive of California/University of California Merced

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese Art (595 words)
Japanese art is characterized by unique art forms such as Origami, the art of paper folding or the Japanese Tea Ceremony.
The early development of Japanese art was influenced by Zen Buddhism and the sophisticated Chinese culture.
The Japanese tea ceremony is basically a choreographic ritual of preparing, serving and drinking tea.
Japanese Art and Architecture - MSN Encarta (1120 words)
Japanese Art and Architecture, works of art produced in Japan from the beginnings of human habitation there, sometime in the 10th millennium bc, to the present.
In the 9th century, as the Japanese began to turn away from China and develop indigenous forms of expression, the secular arts became increasingly important; until the late 15th century, both religious and secular arts flourished.
Japanese ceramics are among the finest in the world and include the earliest known artifacts of their culture (see Pottery).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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