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Encyclopedia > Japanese Paleolithic

History of Japan ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century A.D., but abundant archaeological evidence demonstrates that people were living on the islands, which were actually adjoined to the mainland until about 13,000 years ago, as early as the upper paleolithic...

Glossary Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BCE to 300 BCE. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BCE glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Yayoi (弥生時代) is an era in Japan from 300... This article is about a period in Japanese history. ... The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ... The Asuka period ) is the period in Japanese history occurring from AD 538–710. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 794. ... The Heian period (Japanese: 平安時代, Heian-jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. ... The Kamakura period (Japanese: 鎌倉時代, Kamakura-jidai; 1185–1333) is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance of the Kamakura Shogunate; officially established in 1192 by the first Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo re-established Imperial control. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, was a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1867. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji period (Japanese: 明治時代, Meiji-jidai) denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan entered World War I in 1914, seizing the opportunity of Germanys distraction with the European War and wanting to expand its sphere of influence in China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied by Allied Powers. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... It has been suggested that Updated Japan News be merged into this article or section. ... The history of Japans economy is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late nineteenth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The military history of Japan is characterized by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The Japanese Paleolithic (日本の旧石器時代 Nihon no kyū-sekki-jidai?) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. The 35,000 BCE date is most generally accepted: any date of human presence before 30,000-35,000 BCE is controversial, with artifacts supporting a pre-35,000 BCE human presence on the archipelago still being of questionable authencitiy [1]. Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years An ice age is a period of long-term downturn in the temperature of Earths climate, resulting in an expansion of the continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers (glaciation... The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese history from about 10,000 BCE to 300 BCE. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BCE glaciation had connected the islands with the mainland. ...

Contents


Paleolithic environment

The Japanese islands were probably connected to the Asian continent on several occasions in the past, especially during the coldest periods of the Ice Age, when the level of the sea would recede considerably, by around 100-120 meters. This point is not totally clear of controversy however since the Korea strait between Japan and Korea, as well as the Tsugaru strait between the Japanese main island of Honshu and Hokkaido are around 140 meters deep. It seems the straits sometimes cleared, and sometimes did not clear, during the various Ice Age peaks. Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... Tsugaru Strait (津軽海峡 Tsugaru Kaikyō) is a channel between Honshu and Hokkaido in northern Japan connecting the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean. ... todo mal de [ [ Shikoku ] ] a través del [ [ mar interior ] ], y noreste de [ [ Kyushu ] ] a través del [ [ estrecho de Kanmon ] ]. Es la séptima isla más grande, y la segunda isla populosa en el mundo después de [ [ Java (isla)|Java ] ] (véase [ [ lista de las islas de la población ] ]). < style=float del div... For the dog breed, see Hokkaido (dog). ...


Earliest Japanese tools

The earliest Japanese stone tools, chipped stone hand axes and cleavers, were found at the site of Kami-Takamori in Miyagi Prefecture, and dated to c. 500,000 BCE, but were later found to have been planted forgeries. Most of the early Japanese Paleolithic finds however start after 35,000 BCE, making this date the most generally accepted for the first occupation of Japan [2]. Miyagi Prefecture (宮城県; Miyagi-ken) is located in the Tōhoku Region on Honshu island, Japan. ...


Ground tools and polished tools

The earliest polished stone tools in the world. Stone axes, Hinatabayashi, B site, Shinanomachi, Nagano. Pre-Jomon (Paleolithic) period, 30,000 BCE. Tokyo National Museum.
The earliest polished stone tools in the world. Stone axes, Hinatabayashi, B site, Shinanomachi, Nagano. Pre-Jomon (Paleolithic) period, 30,000 BCE. Tokyo National Museum.

The Japanese Paleolithic is also highly original in that it incorporates the earliest known ground stone tools and polished stone tools in the world, dated to around 30,000 BCE, a technology typically associated with the beginning of the Neolithic, around 10,000 BCE, in the rest of the world. It is not known why such tools were created so early in Japan, although the period is associated with a warmer climate worldwide (30,000-20,000 before present), and the islands may have particularly benefited from it. Polished stone axes. ... Polished stone axes. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... In archaeology, ground stone is a category of stone tool formed by the grinding of a coarse-grained tool stone, either purposefully or incidentally. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ...


Because of this originality, the Japanese Paleolithic period in Japan does not exactly match the traditional definition of Paleolithic based on stone technology (chipped stone tools). Japanese Paleolithic tool implements thus display Mesolithic and Neolithic traits as early as 30,000 BCE. In archaeology, chipped stone refers to a method of manufacturing stone tools through lithic reduction, wherein lithic flakes are struck off a mass of tool stone with a percussor. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age) is the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ...


Paleo-anthropology

The Paleolithic populations of Japan, as well as the later Jomon populations, appear to relate to an ancient Paleo-Asian group which occupied large parts of Asia before the expansion of the populations characteristic of today's people of China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam. Korea (Korean: (조선 or 한국, see below) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ...

The aboriginal Ainu are probably the direct descendants of Japanese Paleolithic and Jomon people.
The aboriginal Ainu are probably the direct descendants of Japanese Paleolithic and Jomon people.

Skeletal characteristics point to many similarities with other aboriginal people of the Asian continent. Dental structures belong to the Sundadont group, mainly distributed in ancient populations of South-East Asia (whether current populations belong to the Sinodont group). Skull features tend to be stronger, with comparatively recessed eyes. Download high resolution version (893x529, 264 KB)Ainu group. ... Download high resolution version (893x529, 264 KB)Ainu group. ... The Ainu (pronounced , eye-noo, アイヌ / aynu) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaido, the northern part of Honshu in Northern Japan, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese history from about 10,000 BCE to 300 BCE. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BCE glaciation had connected the islands with the mainland. ... Anthropologist Christy Turner identified what he termed the Mongoloid dental complex for East Asia, consisting of two patterns: Sinodonty and Sundadonty. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Anthropologist Christy Turner identified what he termed the Mongoloid dental complex for East Asia, consisting of two patterns: Sinodonty and Sundadonty. ...


The aboriginal populations of the Ainu, today mostly circumscribed to the northern island of Hokkaido, appear to be the descendants of these Paleolithic populations, and display features that have, in the past, been interpreted as Caucasoid, but today tend to be considered more generally as part of that early Paleolithic human stock. The Ainu (pronounced , eye-noo, アイヌ / aynu) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaido, the northern part of Honshu in Northern Japan, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... For the dog breed, see Hokkaido (dog). ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ...


Genetic analysis on today's populations is not clear cut and tends to indicate a fair amount of genetic intermixing between the original populations of Japan and later populations arrivals (Cavalli-Sforza). It is estimated that 10 to 20% of the genetic capital of the Japanese population today derives from aboriginal Paleolithic-Jomon ancestry, the remainder coming from later population contributions from the continent, especially during the Yayoi period. This article is about a Japanese historical era. ...


Japanese archeology of the Paleolithic period

The study of the Paleolithic period in Japan was not begun until quite recently: the first paleolithic site was discovered right after the end of the Second World War. Due to the previous assumption that humans did not live in Japan before the Jōmon period, excavations usually stopped at the beginning of the Jōmon stratum (12,000 BCE), and were not carried on further. However, since that first paleolithic find, around 5,000 paleolithic sites have been discovered, some of them at existing Jōmon archeological sites. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BCE to 300 BCE. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BCE glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ...


The study of the Japanese Paleolithic period is characterized by a high level of stratigraphic information due to the volcanic nature of the archipelago: large eruptions tend to cover the islands with levels of ash, which are easily datable and can be found throughout the country as a reference. A very important such layer is the AT (Aira-Tanzawa) pumice, which covered all Japan around 21,000-22,000 years ago.


Japanese archaeology of the Paleolithic has been mired by scandal. It was a subject relatively few Japanese archaeological students were interested in. Until the Japanese Paleolithic Hoax, the Japanese archaeological community believed humans were present on the archipelago as long as 700,000 BCE based on findings by Fujimura Shinichi. However, the Mainichi Shinbun newspaper planted a camera at an archaeological site and captured video of Fujimura planting artifacts at the Kamitakamori site in 2000. 90% of Paleolithic work in Japan was attributed to Fujimura, and the discovery of the hoax thus put serious doubt on the chronology of ancient man in Japan The Japanese Paleolithic Hoax ) consisted of a number of lower and middle paleolithic finds in Japan discovered by amateur archaeologist Fujimura Shinichi, which were later all discovered to have been faked. ... Fujimura Shinichi (b. ... The Mainichi Shimbun (毎日新聞, lit. ...

  1. redirect Template:Fact. The Japanese Archaeological Association spent two years exhaustively reexamining sites and artifacts attributed to Fujimura and concluded that of the 186 sites, 33 excavated sites, and all discoveries attributed to Fujimura, none could stand peer review. Since the discovery of the hoax, only a few sites can tentatively date human activity in Japan to 40-50,000 BCE, and the first widely accepted date of human presence on the archipelago can be reliably dated to 35,000 BCE [3]

History of Japan | Jomon > The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century A.D., but abundant archaeological evidence demonstrates that people were living on the islands, which were actually adjoined to the mainland until about 13,000 years ago, as early as the upper paleolithic... The Jomon period (Japanese: 縄文時代 Jōmon-jidai) is the time in Japanese history from about 10,000 BCE to 300 BCE. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BCE glaciation had connected the islands with the mainland. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [[1]]
  2. ^ [[2]]
  3. ^ [[3]]

References

  • Prehistoric Japan, New perspectives on insular East Asia, Keiji Imamura, University of Hawai Press, Honolulu, ISBN 0824818539
  • The History and Geography of Human Genes, Cavalli-Sforza, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691087504
  • Ainu:Spirit of a Northern People, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, ISBN 0967342902

  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese Paleolithic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (981 words)
The Japanese Paleolithic is also highly original in that it incorporates the earliest known ground stone tools and polished stone tools in the world, dated to around 30,000 BCE, a technology typically associated with the beginning of the Neolithic, around 10,000 BCE, in the rest of the world.
It is estimated that 10 to 20% of the genetic capital of the Japanese population today derives from aboriginal Paleolithic-Jomon ancestry, the remainder coming from later population contributions from the continent, especially during the Yayoi period.
The study of the Japanese Paleolithic period is characterized by a high level of stratigraphic information due to the volcanic nature of the archipelago: large eruptions tend to cover the islands with levels of ash, which are easily datable and can be found throughout the country as a reference.
History of Japan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6356 words)
The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art and especially in poetry and literature.
A famous typhoon referred to as kamikaze, translating as divine wind in Japanese, is attributed to devastating the second Mongol invasion forces who invaded in the spring of 1281, although some scholars assert that the defensive measures the Japanese built on the island of Kyushu may have been adequate to repel the invaders.
Japanese intellectuals of the late-Meiji period espoused the concept of a "line of advantage," an idea that would help to justify Japanese foreign policy at the turn of the century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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