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Encyclopedia > Japanese Occupation of Indonesia
This article is part of
the History of Indonesia series
Pre-colonial Indonesia (before 1602)
Srivijaya (3rd century–1400)
Sailendra (8th Centry-832)
Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit Empire (1293–1500)
Sultanate of Demak (1475-1518)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s to 1700s)
Dutch East Indies (1602–1945)
Anglo-Dutch Java War (1810–1811)
Padri War (1821–1837)
Java War (1825–1830)
Aceh War (1873–1904)
National Revival (1899–1942)
World War II battles (1941–1942)
Japanese Occupation (1942–1945)
Independence (1945–1965)
Declaration of Independence (1945)
War of Independance (1945–1949)
Asian-African Conference (1955)
Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1962–1965)
New Order (1965–1998)
Overthrow of Sukarno (1965–1966)
Act of Free Choice (1969)
Reformasi (1998–present)
Revolution of 1998 (1996–1998)
2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004–present)
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The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. The nation-state known in modern times as Indonesia encompasses an archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the Equator. ... Image File history File links Historyofindonesia. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... At a point in time when Sri Vijaya had been the established leader in the Southeast Asian region for about 100 years, the Sailendra Kingdom of Java emerged. ... Mataram was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java between the 8th and 10th centuries CE. The centre of the kingdom was moved from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok. ... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... This article is about a historic kingdom on Java in what is now Indonesia. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... Anglo-Dutch Java War in 1810-1811 was a war between Great Britain and Netherlands fought entirely on Island of Java in colonial Indonesia The governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, Herman Willem Daendels (1762_1818), fortified the island of Java against possible British attack. ... The Padri War also called Minangkabau War is the name given to the skirmishes fought by Dutch troops from 1821 to 1837 in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830. ... The Aceh War (also Achinese War) took place from 1873-1904 between the Netherlands and the people of Aceh in Sumatra as the Dutch attempted to colonize this independent state on the northern-most tip of Sumatra. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ... The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ... The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially read at exactly 10. ... This is the current Indonesian Collaboration of the fortnight. ... The Asian-African Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by Egypt, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), India, and Pakistan. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... Act of Free Choice (Indonesian: Penentuan Pendapat Rakyat [PEPERA]) was the title of a 1969 referendum in the former Dutch territory of Western New Guinea, to determine whether the territory would become part of Indonesia or maintain independence. ... The Reformation (in bahasa Indonesia Reformasi) is the name commonly used for the present era in the history of Indonesia. ... The Indonesian 1998 Revolution is the term given to a series of protests and political manoeuverings that brought about the end of the rule of the three-decade long New Order government of the autocratic President Suharto of Indonesia. ... Indonesia was seriously affected by the earthquake and tsunami created by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on 26 December 2004, swamping the northern and western coastal areas of Sumatra, and the smaller outlying islands off Sumatra. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Anthem: Kimi Ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military Imperial Japan at its fullest extent during World War II Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Korean (in the Korean Peninsula) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1912 Meiji Emperor HIM Mutsuhito  - 1912-1926 Taisho Emperor HIM...

Contents

Background

Until 1942, Indonesia was ruled by the Netherlands and was known as the Netherlands East Indies. On the night of January 10-11, 1942, the Japanese attacked Menado in Celebes. At about the same moment they attacked Tarakan, a major oil extraction centre and port in the north east of Borneo. The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Map of Sulawesi pictures by Julianto Halim Sulawesi (or Celebes) is a large Indonesian island. ... The Battle of Tarakan took place in January 1942 and was the first stage in the Japanese conquest of the Netherlands East Indies. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ...


In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDCOM) was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia. On February 27, the Allied fleet was defeated in the Battle of the Java Sea. From February 28 to March 1, 1942, Japanse troops landed on four places along the northern coast of Java almost undisturbed. In Magelang the local population welcomed them enthusiastically, and in Aceh the local population rebelled against the Dutch colonial authorities, even before the arrival of the Japanese. On March 8, the Allied forces in Indonesia surrendered. Dutch civilians who were still in the country, were put away in internment camps. ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Combatants United States Netherlands United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Karel Doorman† Takeo Takagi Strength 5 cruisers 12 destroyers 4 cruisers 14 destroyers 10 transports Casualties 5 cruisers sunk 5 destroyers sunk 2,300 sailors killed 4 loaded troop transports sunk The Battle of the Java Sea was a major naval... Magelang is the largest town in the Kedu Plain between Mount Merbabu and Mount Sumbing in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... This is a list of Internment and Concentration camps, organised by country. ...


The occupation

During the Japanese occupation, the Indonesian nationalistist movement increased in popularity. In July 1942, Leading nationalists like Sukarno accepted Japan's offer to rally the public in support of the Japanese war effort. Both Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta were decorated by the Emperor of Japan in 1943. Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Mohammad Hatta Mohammad Hatta (born August 12, 1902, Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia); died March 14, 1980, Jakarta) was Indonesias first vice president, after being the countrys Prime Minister. ...


Experience of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia varied considerably, depending upon where one lived and one's social position. Many who lived in areas considered important to the war effort experienced torture, sex slavery, arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes. Many thousands of people were taken away from Indonesia as unfree labour (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam Railway, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. People of Dutch and mixed Dutch-Indonesian descent were particular targets of the Japanese occupation. The word torture is commonly used to mean the infliction of pain to break the will of the victim(s). ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution (which can include religious prostitution) single-owner sexual slavery slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is de facto available... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... Romushas were Indonesian forced laborers during the Japanese occupation in World War II. The word is Japanese and (reportedly) translates to wood log, indicating the disposable nature of the Indonesian labor force. ... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support...


John W. Dower cites a United Nations report stating that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labor during the Japanese occupation, including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths (Dower, 1986, War Without Mercy). John W . ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ...


Materially, whole railway lines, railway rolling stock, and industrial plant in Java were lifted and shipped back to Japan and Manchuria. British intelligence reports during the occupation noted significant removals of any materials that could be used in the war effort.


End of the occupation

General MacArthur had wanted to fight his way with Allied troops to liberate Java in 1944-45 but was ordered not to by the joint chiefs and President Roosevelt. The Japanese occupation thus officially ended with Japanese surrender in the Pacific and two days later Sukarno declared Indonesian Independence but Indonesia would have to spend the next four years fighting the Dutch for its independence. American restraint from fighting their way into Java certainly saved many Japanese, Javanese and American lives. On the other hand, Indonesian independence would have likely been achieved more swiftly and smoothly had MacArthur had his way and American troops occupied Java.[1] MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... FDR redirects here. ... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially read at exactly 10. ... This is the current Indonesian Collaboration of the fortnight. ...


Reference/Further reading

  • Anderson, Ben (1972). Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944-1946. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0687-0.
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