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Encyclopedia > Japanese American
Japanese Americans
Eric Shinseki Norman Mineta
Total population

1,204,205
0.4% of the US population[1] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Ellison Onizuka portrait by NASA. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2358x3000, 2160 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hawaii Japanese American Eric Shinseki ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x2898, 343 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Norman Mineta ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Regions with significant populations
West Coast, Northeast, Hawaiʻi
Languages
American English, Japanese
Religions
Shinto, Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity

Japanese Americans (日系アメリカ人 Nikkei Amerikajin?) are Americans of Japanese descent who trace their ancestry to Japan or Okinawa and are residents and/or citizens of the United States. Japan is a western Pacific Ocean multi-archipelagic nation east of China in Asia. Japanese Americans are a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is further a subgroup of Asian Americans. Okinawa, a former independent nation, was annexed by Japan in the late nineteenth century. Japanese Americans have historically been among the three largest Asian American communities, but in recent decades have become the sixth largest (at roughly 1,204,205, including those of mixed-race or mixed-ethnicity). In the 2000 cenus, the largest Japanese American communities were in California with 394,896, Hawaiʻi with 296,674, Washington with 56,210, New York with 45,237, and Illinois with 27,702. Each year, about 7,000 new Japanese immigrants enter United States ports, comprising about 4% of immigration from Asia; net migration, however, is significantly lower because some older Japanese Americans have been moving to Japan. As defined by the Census Bureau, the western United States includes 13 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington lincoln, and Wyoming. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Languages Japanese Religions Shinto, Buddhism, large secular groups      The Japanese people ) is the ethnic group that identifies as Japanese by culture or ancestry, or both. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ...

Contents

Cultural Profile

Generations

Japanese Americans have special names for each of its generations in the United States. The first generation born in Japan or Okinawa, is called Issei (一世). The second generation is Nisei (二世), third is Sansei (三世), fourth is Yonsei (四世) and fifth is Gosei (五世). The term Nikkei (日系) was coined by Japanese American sociologists and encompasses the entire population across generations.


Languages

See also: Japanese language education in the United States

Issei and many Nisei speak Japanese or Okinawan in addition to English as a second language. In general, later generations of Japanese Americans speak English as their first language, though some do learn Japanese later as a second language. In Hawaii however, where Nisei are about one-fifth of the whole population, Japanese is a major language, spoken and studied by many of the state's residents across ethnicities. It is taught in private Japanese language schools as early as the second grade. As a courtesy to the large number of Japanese tourists (from Japan), Japanese subtexts are provided on place signs, public transportation, and civic facilities. The Hawaii media market has a few locally produced Japanese language newspapers and magazines, however these are on the verge of dying out, due to a lack of interest on the part of the local (Hawaii-born) Japanese population. Stores that cater to the tourist industry often have Japanese-speaking personnel. Japanese language education in the United States began in the late 19th century, aimed mainly at Japanese American children and conducted by parents and community institutions; over the course of the next century, it would slowly expand to include non-Japanese as well as native speakers (mainly children of Japanese... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Education

Japanese American culture places great value on education. Across generations, parents tend to instill their children with a deep value for higher education. As a result of such cultural ambition, math and reading scores on standardized tests often exceeds national averages.[citation needed] They fill gifted classrooms and have the largest showing of any ethnic group in nationwide Advanced Placement testing each year. [citation needed] Originally a standardized test was simply a standard test – of academic achievement or of knowledge in a specific academic or vocational domain. ... Advanced Placement (AP) is the term used to describe high school classes that are taught at a college level. ...


Most Japanese Americans obtain advanced college degrees. Japanese Americans once again face stereotyping as dominating the sciences in colleges and universities across the United States, while in reality, there is an equal distribution of Japanese Americans across academic disciplines in the arts and humanities in addition to the sciences. [citation needed]


Economics

Patsy T. Mink was the first non-white woman to serve in Congress. She is celebrated as one of the most important civil rights leaders, especially for writing the Title IX Amendment which today preserves the rights of both sexes in education.

As a result of Japanese American educational prowess, the Japanese American community generally tends to enjoy above average economic status. However, with the exception of Hawaii, Japanese Americans still face racial discrimination in non-government and non-medical industries. [citation needed] Congressional photograph of late Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Congressional photograph of late Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Patsy T. Mink was the first non-white woman to serve in Congress. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ...


Religion

Japanese Americans (commonly) practice a wide range of religions, including Mahayana Buddhism (Jodo Shinshu, Jodo Shu, Nichiren, and Zen forms being most prominent) which is the majority, Shinto, and Christianity. In many ways, due to the longstanding nature of Buddhist and Shinto practices in Japanese society, many of the cultural values and traditions commonly associated with Japanese tradition have been strongly influenced by these religious forms. Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


A large number of the Japanese American community continue to practice Buddhism in some form, and a number of community traditions and festivals continue to center around Buddhist institutions. For example, one of the most popular community festivals is the annual Obon Festival, which occurs in the summer, and provides an opportunity for young and old to reconnect with their customs and traditions. These kinds of festivals are most popular in communities with large populations of Japanese Americans, such as in southern California or Hawaiʻi. It should be noted however, that many Japanese people both in and out of Japan are secular as Shinto and Buddhism is most often practiced by rituals such as marriages or funerals, and not through faithful worship, as defines religion for many Americans. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Illuminated by the Albuquerque Bridge, Japanese volunteers place candle lit lanterns into the Sasebo River during the Obon festival. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


For Japanese American Christians, the church is one of the most important cultural foundations. In California, Hawaiʻi and Washington, congregations can be comprised entirely of Japanese Americans. In the rest of the country they tend to be accepted in predominately white churches. For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


Celebrations

Japanese American celebrations tend to be more sectarian in nature and focus on the community-sharing aspects. An important annual festival for Japanese Americans is the Obon Festival, which happens in July or August of each year. Across the country, Japanese Americans gather on fair grounds and large civic parking lots and commemorate the memory of their ancestors and their families through folk dances and food. Carnival booths are usually set up so Japanese American children have the opportunity to play together. Illuminated by the Albuquerque Bridge, Japanese volunteers place candle lit lanterns into the Sasebo River during the Obon festival. ...

Major Celebrations in the United States
Date Name Region
January 1 Shōgatsu New Year's Celebration nationwide
February Japanese Heritage Fair Honolulu, HI
February to March Cherry Blossom Festival Honolulu, HI
March 3 Hina Matsuri (Girls' Day) nationwide
March Honolulu Festival Honolulu, HI
March Hawaiʻi International Taiko Festival Honolulu, HI
March International Cherry Blossom Festival Macon, GA
March to April National Cherry Blossom Festival Washington, DC
April Northern California Cherry Blossom Festival San Francisco, CA
April Pasadena Cherry Blossom Festival Pasadena, CA
April Seattle Cherry Blossom Festival Seattle, WA
May 5 Tango no Sekku (Boys' Day) nationwide
May Shinnyo-En Toro-Nagashi (Memorial Day Floating Lantern Ceremony) Honolulu, HI
June Pan-Pacific Festival Matsuri in Hawaiʻi Honolulu, HI
July 7 Tanabata Festival nationwide
July-August Obon Festival nationwide
August Nihonmachi Street Fair San Francisco, CA
August Nisei Week / Tofu Festival Los Angeles, CA

The kadomatsu is a traditional decoration for the new year holiday. ... A king doll, with two handmaidens. ... It has been suggested that Japanese_Taiko_Drumming be merged into this article or section. ... Washington, D.C. Tidal Basin showing cherry trees in flower The National Cherry Blossom Festival is an annual celebration in Washington, D.C., commemorating the March 27, 1912, gift to the city of 3,000 Japanese cherry trees from Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo to enhance the growing friendship between... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Festál Breakdancing competition at Festival Sundiata Man dressed as Saint Patrick, Irish Week Festival. ... Tango No Sekku (May 5) May 5th is the Tango no Sekku (端午の節句), Boys Festival in Japan. ... Stalls selling food or toys are a familiar sight at festivals throughout Japan. ... People dressed in yukata at Tanabata Tanabata ), meaning Seven Evenings) is a Japanese star festival, derived from Obon traditions and the Chinese star festival, Qi Xi. ... YOSAKOI1(2004 August at Enomoto Primary School Osaka) Yosakoi2(2004 August at Enomoto Primary School Osaka) O-bon is a Japanese Buddhist holiday to honor the departed spirits of ones ancestors. ... Nisei Week is a annual festival celebrating Japanese American culture and history in Little Tokyo, Los Angeles. ... Tofu Festival is a weekend matsuri held in Little Tokyo, Los Angeles, every August. ...

History

The history of Japanese Americans begins in the mid nineteenth century. Japanese peoples migration to the Americas started with migration to Hawaii in the first year of the Meiji era in 1868. ...

  • 1841, June 27 Captain Whitfield, commanding a New England sailing vessel, rescues five shipwrecked Japanese sailors. Four disembark at Honolulu, however Manjiro Nakahama stays on board returning with Whitfield to Fairhaven, Massachusetts. After attending school in New England and adopting the name John Manjiro, he later became an interpreter for Commodore Matthew Perry.
  • 1850, seventeen survivors of a Japanese shipwreck were saved by the American freighter Auckland. They became the first Japanese people to reach California. In 1852, the group was sent to Macao to join Commodore Matthew Perry as a gesture to help open diplomatic relations with Japan. One of them, Joseph Heco (Hikozo Hamada) went on to become the first Japanese person to become a naturalized US citizen.
  • 1861 The utopian minister Thomas Lake Harris of the Brotherhood of the New Life visits England, where he meets Nagasawa Kanaye, who becomes a convert. Nagasawa returns to the US with Harris and follows him to Fountaingrove in Santa Rosa, California. When Harris leaves the Californian commune, Nagasawa became the leader and remained there until his death in 1932.
  • 1869, A group of Japanese people arrive at Gold Hills, California and build the Wakamatsu Tea and Silk Colony. Okei becomes the first recorded Japanese woman to die and be buried in the US.
  • 1890, First wave of Japanese immigrants to provide labor in Hawaiʻi sugarcane and pineapple plantations, California fruit and produce farms
  • 1893 The San Francisco Education Board attempts to introduce segregation for Japanese American children, but withdraws the measure following protests by the Japanese government.
  • 1900s, Japanese begin to lease land and sharecrop
  • 1902, Yone Noguchi publishes the The American Diary of a Japanese Girl, the first Japanese American novel
  • 1907, Gentlemen's Agreement between United States and Japan that Japan would stop issuing passports for new laborers
  • 1908, Japanese picture brides enter the United States
  • 1930s, Issei become economically stable for the first time in California and Hawaiʻi
  • 1944, Ben Kuroki became the only Japanese-American in the U.S. Army Air Force to serve in combat operations in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II.
  • 1945, 442nd Regimental Combat team awarded 18,143 decorations including 9,486 Purple Heart decorations becoming the highest decorated military unit in United States history
  • 1963, Daniel K. Inouye becomes the first Japanese American in the US Senate
  • 1965, Patsy T. Mink becomes the first woman of color in Congress
  • 1974, George R. Ariyoshi becomes the first Japanese American governor in the State of Hawaiʻi
  • 1980, Congress creates Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians to investigate World War II unjust policies against Japanese Americans
  • 1983, Commission reports Japanese American internment was not a national security necessity
  • 1988, U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs Civil Liberties Act of 1988 apologizing for Japanese American internment and provide reparations of $20,000 to each victim
  • 1994, Mazie K. Hirono becomes the first Japanese immigrant elected state lieutenant governor
  • 1999, Gen. Eric Shinseki becomes the first Asian American U.S. military chief of staff
  • 2000, Norman Y. Mineta becomes the first Asian American appointed to the U.S. Cabinet; worked as Commerce Secretary (2000-2001), Transportation Secretary (2001-2006)

is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Nakahama John Manjiro. ... Fairhaven is the name of various cities in the United States of America: Fairhaven, Alaska Fairhaven, California Fairhaven, Illinois Fairhaven, Massachusetts Fairhaven, Maryland Fairhaven, Minnesota Fairhaven, Mississippi Fairhaven, Ohio Fairhaven, Oregon Fairhaven, West Virginia Some places spell it Fair Haven instead: Fair Haven, Connecticut Fair Haven, Michigan Fair Haven, New... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ... Matthew Perry may be: Matthew Perry (1794-1858), American naval officer. ... Joseph Heco (born Hikozo Hamada, 浜田彦蔵 Hamada Hikozo) (1837-1897), the first Japanese American to be naturalized as a United States citizen and the first to publish a Japanese language newspaper. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Santa Rosa is the Spanish name for Saint Rose. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Yone Noguchi Yone Noguchi, born (and known in Japan as) Yonejiro Noguchi (野口米次郎 Noguchi Yonejirō, 1875 - 1947), was an influential writer of poetry, fiction, essays, and criticism in both English and Japanese. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ... California Alien Land Law of 1913 prohibits aliens ineligible for citizenship (i. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... United States Executive Order 9066 was a presidential executive order issued during World War II by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, using his authority as Commander-in-Chief to exercise war powers to send ethnic groups to internment camps. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... The 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry is the only infantry unit in the U.S. Army Reserve and combines the identities of two Second World War Japanese-American units, the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Ben Kuroki (b. ... The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, hiking up a muddy French road in the Chambois Sector, France, in late 1944. ... Daniel Ken Inouye (born September 7, 1924) is the senior United States Senator from Hawaii. ... Patsy T. Mink was the first non-white woman to serve in Congress. ... Norman Yoshio Mineta Norman Yoshio Mineta (born November 12, 1931) is an American politician and member of the Democratic party. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... George R. Ariyoshi of Hawaii became the first Asian American to be elected governor in the United States. ... Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (July 18, 1906-February 27, 1992) was an English professor and academic who served as a United States Senator from California from 1977 to 1983. ... Spark Matsunaga Spark Masayuki Matsunaga (Japanese: スパーク・松永) (October 8, 1916 - April 15, 1990) was a United States Senator from Hawaii. ... Ellison Shoji Onizuka (June 24, 1946 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut from Hawaii who died during the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger, where he was serving as mission specialist on mission STS-51-L. Onizuka received a Bachelors degree in aerospace engineering in June 1969, and... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Kristi Tsuya Yamaguchi (born July 12, 1971) is an American figure skater. ... A Congressional Gold Medal A gold medal generally represents the highest award for achievement in a non-military field, with no restriction on eligibility. ... Figure skating is an ice skating sporting event where individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on the ice, often to music. ... Mazie Keiko Hirono became the first Asian immigrant to be elected lieutenant governor of a state of the United States in 1994. ... Chris Tashima is an American actor and director. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Visas and Virtue is a narrative short film inspired by the true story of Holocaust rescuer Chiune Sempo Sugihara, who is known as The Japanese Schindler. ... Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) is a retired General in the United States Army and served as the 34th Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1999 - 2003). ... Norman Yoshio Mineta Norman Yoshio Mineta (born November 12, 1931) is an American politician and member of the Democratic party. ...

Immigration

People from Japan began migrating to the U.S. in significant numbers following the political, cultural, and social changes stemming from the 1868 Meiji Restoration. Particularly after the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, Japanese immigrants were sought by industrialists to replace the Chinese immigrants. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the U.S. ended immigration of Japanese workers (i.e., men), but permitted the immigration of spouses of Japanese immigrants already in the U.S. The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of all but a token few Japanese. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act may be: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 passed in the United States in 1882 banning Chinese from entering American soil. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ...


The ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Initially, there was an immigrant generation, the Issei, and their U.S.-born children, the Nisei. The Issei were exclusively those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were--by definition--born in the U.S. This generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age, citizenship, and English language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a third distinct generation of Japanese Americans, the Sansei. Significant Japanese immigration did not occur until the Immigration Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan and other countries. The Issei Japanese (一世 lit. ... The Nisei Japanese Americans (二世 pronounced , lit. ... The Sansei Japanese Americans (三世 lit. ... The Immigration Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. ...


The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized U.S. citizenship to "free white persons," which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote, and faced additional restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. The original United States naturalization law of March 26, 1790 (1 Stat. ...


Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States (1922) and Korematsu v. United States (1943). Korematsu is the origin of the "strict scrutiny" standard, which is applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. Takao Ozawa v. ... Holding The exclusion order leading to Japanese American Internment was constitutional Court membership Chief Justice: Harlan Fiske Stone Associate Justices: Owen Josephus Roberts, Hugo Black, Stanley Forman Reed, Felix Frankfurter, William O. Douglas, Frank Murphy, Robert H. Jackson, Wiley Blount Rutledge Case opinions Majority by: Black Joined by: Stone, Reed... Strict scrutiny is the highest standard of judicial review used by courts in the United States. ... Holding ... Court membership Case opinions Laws applied ... Adarand Constructors, Inc. ...


In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe: low and usually related to marriages between U.S. citizens and Japanese. The number is on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, and is similar to the amount of immigration to the U.S. from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the primary impetus for immigration. Japanese Americans also have the oldest demographic structure of any non-white ethnic group in the U.S.; in addition, in the younger generations, due to intermarriage with whites, non-whites, and other Asian groups, part-Japanese are more common than full Japanese, and it appears as if this physical assimilation will continue at a rapid rate. The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


Internment

One of the darkest parts of American history were the Japanese American internment camps; an estimated 120,000 Japanese were sent to eleven different camps across the US, mostly in the west. During World War II, Japanese Americans were interned in special camps. Americans of Japanese ancestry living in the western United States, including the Nisei, were forcibly interned with their parents and children (the Sansei Japanese Americans) during World War II. Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese people heading off to an internment camp. ... Truman Library via NARA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Truman Library via NARA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese people heading off to an internment camp. ... Japanese internment is a term generally used to refer to one or both of the following events: Japanese American internment – the internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II. Japanese Canadian internment – the internment of Japanese Canadians in Canada during World War II. Categories: | ... The Sansei Japanese Americans (三世 lit. ...


Many Japanese Americans served with great distinction during World War II in the American forces. The 442nd Regimental Combat Team/100th Infantry Battalion is one of the most highly decorated unit in U.S. military history. Composed of Japanese Americans, the 442nd/100th fought valiantly in the European Theater. The 100th was one of the first units to liberate the prisoners of the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau. Hawaiʻi Senator Daniel K. Inouye is a veteran of the 442nd. Additionally the Military Intelligence Service consisted of Japanese Americans who served in the Pacific Front. The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, hiking up a muddy French road in the Chambois Sector, France, in late 1944. ... The 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry is the only infantry unit in the U.S. Army Reserve and combines the identities of two Second World War Japanese-American units, the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. ...


For the most part, the internees remained in the camps until the end of the war, when they left the camps to rebuild their lives in the West Coast. Several Japanese Americans have started cases against the U.S. government regarding their wrongful internment, which dragged on for decades.


Redress

In the U.S., the right to redress is defined as a constitutional right, as it is decreed in the First Amendment to the Constitution. The following focuses on significant court cases that have shaped civil and human rights for Japanese Americans, as well as for other minorities. ...


Redress may be defined as follows:

  • 1. the setting right of what is wrong: redress of abuses.
  • 2. relief from wrong or injury.
  • 3. compensation or satisfaction from a wrong or injury.

Reparation is defined as:

  • 1. the making of amends for wrong or injury done: reparation for an injustice.
  • 2. Usually, reparations. compensation in money, material, labor, etc., payable by a defeated country to another country or to an individual for loss suffered during or as a result of war.
  • 3. restoration to good condition.
  • 4. repair. (“Legacies of Incarceration,” 2002)

The campaign for redress against internment was launched by Japanese Americans in 1978. The Japanese American Citizens’ League (JACL) asked for three measures to be taken as redress: $25,000 to be awarded to each person who was detained, an apology from Congress acknowledging publicly that the U.S. government had been wrong, and the release of funds to set up an educational foundation for the children of Japanese American families. Under the 2001 budget of the United States, it was also decreed that the ten sites on which the detainee camps were set up are to be preserved as historical landmarks: “places like Manzanar, Tule Lake, Heart Mountain, Topaz, Amache, Jerome, and Rohwer will forever stand as reminders that this nation failed in its most sacred duty to protect its citizens against prejudice, greed, and political expediency” (Tateishi and Yoshino 2000). Each of these concentration camps was surrounded by barbed wire and contained at least ten thousand forced detainees.


Life Under United States Policies Before & After World War II

Main article: Japanese American Life Pre-World War II
Main article: Japanese American Life Post-World War II

Like most of the American population, Japanese immigrants came to the U.S. in search of a better life. Some planned to stay and build families here in the states, while others wanted to save money from working stateside to better themselves in the country from which they had come. Before the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese residents experienced a moderate level of hardship that was pretty typical for any minority group at the time. // Like most of the American population, Japanese immigrants came to the U.S. in search of a better life. ... Japanese American Life Under U.S. Policies After World War II // Image:Camps. ...


Farming

Japanese Americans have made significant contributions to the agriculture of the western United States, particularly in California and Hawaiʻi. Nineteenth century Japanese immigrants introduced sophisticated irrigation methods that enabled the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and flowers on previously marginal lands. While the Issei (1st generation Japanese Americans) prospered in the early 20th century, most lost their farms during the internment. Although this was the case, Japanese Americans remain involved in these industries today, particularly in southern California.


Japanese American detainees irrigated and cultivated lands nearby the World War II internment camps, which were located in desolate spots such as Poston, in the Arizona desert, and Tule Lake, California, at a dry mountain lake bed. Due to their tenacious efforts, these farm lands remain productive today. Poston is a census-designated place (CDP) in La Paz County, Arizona in the United States of America. ... Tule Lake was an internment camp in northern California used in the Japanese-American internment during World War II. It was one of the largest and most notorious of the camps, and did not close until after the war, in 1946. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Politics

Japanese Americans have shown strong support for candidates in both political parties. Leading up to the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election, Japanese Americans narrowly favored Democrat John Kerry by a 42% to 38% margin over Republican George W. Bush. [1] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Neighborhoods and communities

Nickname: Location of Bakersfield, California Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Kern County Founded 1869 Government  - Mayor Harvey Hall Area  - City  131 sq mi (339. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State Colorado City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... Sakura Square is located in Denver, Colorado, and is one of Americas prominent :and afluent Japanese communities. ... “Fresno” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , State County Settled 1781 Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Japantown is a common name for Japanese-American or Japanese-Canadian communities in big cities. ... Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ... Salinas is a Portuguese and Spanish word meaning saltworks, salt mines or salt pans. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... “Sacramento” redirects here. ... “San Diego” redirects here. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Santa Cruz County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, just south of the San Francisco Bay Area, it forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay. ... “Seattle” redirects here. ... For the urban complex straddling the United States-Mexico border, see Bajalta California. ... Walnut Creek is a largely affluent suburb several miles east of Oakland in Contra Costa County, California, USA, in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Oakland is the name of several places in the United States of America: Oakland, Alabama Oakland, California (The best-known city with this name) Oakland, Florida Oakland, Maine Oakland, Maryland Oakland, Michigan Oakland, Missouri Oakland, Nebraska Oakland, New Jersey Oakland, Oklahoma Oakland, Oregon Oakland, Pennsylvania Oakland, Rhode Island Oakland, Tennessee...

Notable individuals

See also: List of Japanese Americans

After the Territory of Hawaiʻi's statehood in 1959, Japanese American political empowerment took a step forward with the election of Daniel K. Inouye to Congress. Inouye's success led to the gradual acceptance of Japanese American leadership on the national stage, culminating in the appointments of Eric Shinseki and Norman Y. Mineta, the first Japanese American military chief of staff and federal cabinet secretary, respectively. The following is a list of famous Japanese Americans who have made significant contributions to the United States, or have appeared in the news numerous times: // Keiko Agena, actress (Gilmore Girls TV series) Toshiko Akiyoshi, musician, jazz Devon Aoki, model and actress Tsuru Aoki (1892 - 1961), Issei, actress Gregg Araki... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Daniel Ken Inouye (born September 7, 1924) is the senior United States Senator from Hawaii. ... Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) is a retired General in the United States Army and served as the 34th Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1999 - 2003). ... Norman Yoshio Mineta Norman Yoshio Mineta (born November 12, 1931) is an American politician and member of the Democratic party. ... In the British Government, the Cabinet Secretary, or more formally Secretary of the Cabinet, is the senior civil servant in charge of the Cabinet Office, a department that provides administrative support to the Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and the government as a whole. ...


Many Japanese Americans have also gained prominence in the arts and sciences. These include Minoru Yamasaki, architect of the World Trade Center, and Ellison Onizuka, the first Asian American astronaut and the mission specialist aboard Challenger at the time of its explosion. Poet laureate of San Francisco Janice Mirikitani has published three volumes of poems. Artist Sueo Serisawa helped establish the California Impressionist style of painting. Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... Ellison Shoji Onizuka (June 24, 1946 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut from Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii who died during the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger, where he was serving as mission specialist on mission STS-51-L. // Early life Ellison Onizuka was the oldest son and second... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... SUEO SERISAWA (April 10, 1910-September 7, 2004) was a Japanese-American who became an important modernist of the Los Angeles school. ...


Japanese Americans first made an impact in Olympic sports in the late 1940s and in the 1950s. Harold Sakata won a weightlifting silver medal in the 1948 Olympics, while Japanese Americans Tommy Kono (weightlifting), Yoshinobu Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke), and Ford Konno (1500-meter freestyle) each won gold and set Olympic records in the 1952 Olympics. Konno won another gold and silver swimming medal at the same Olympics and added a silver medal in 1956, while Kono set another Olympic weightlifting record in 1956. Also at the 1952 Olympics, Evelyn Kawamoto won two bronze medals in swimming. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Harold Sakata playing Oddjob Toshiyuki Harold Sakata (July 1, 1920 – July 29, 1982) was a Japanese American film actor most famous for his role as the villain Oddjob in the James Bond film Goldfinger. ... Tommy Kono (born June 27, 1930) was a great U.S. weightlifter in the 1950s. ... Yoshinobu (Yoshi) Oyakawa (born August 9, 1933 on the Kona side of the Big Island of Hawaii) was a backstroke swimmer from the United States, who won the 100m Backstroke at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


More recently, Eric Sato won gold (1988) and bronze (1992) medals in volleyball, while his sister Liane Sato won bronze in the same sport in 1992. Hapa Bryan Clay won the silver medal in the 2004 decathlon and was the sport's 2005 world champion. Apolo Anton Ohno won five Olympic medals in short-track speed skating (two gold) in 2002 and 2006, as well as a world cup championship. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bryan Clay (born January 3, 1980 in Austin, Texas) is an American decathlete. ... Apolo Anton Ohno (born on May 22, 1982) is an American short track speed skating competitor and a two-time gold medalist in the Winter Olympics. ...


In figure skating, Kristi Yamaguchi won three national championships (one individual, two in pairs), two world titles, and the 1992 Olympic Gold medal. Rena Inoue took first place in the 2004 and 2006 U.S. Figure Skating Championships Pairs competition. Kristi Tsuya Yamaguchi (born July 12, 1971) is an American figure skater. ... Rena Inoue (born October 17, 1976 in Hyougo, Japan) is an American figure skater. ...


In distance running, Miki (Michiko) Gorman won the Boston and New York City marathons twice in the 1970s. A former American record holder at the distance, she is the only woman to win both races twice, and is the only woman to win both marathons in the same year. Miki (Michiko) Suwa Gorman (born 1935 in China) was one of Americas foremost womens marathoners during the mid 1970s. ... The 100th running of the Boston Marathon, 1996 The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon sporting event hosted by the city of Boston, Massachusetts, on Patriots Day, the third Monday of April. ... The New York City Marathon is an annual marathon foot-race run over a 42,195 m (26. ...


In professional sports, Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947-48 season, when he played for the New York Knicks. Misaka also played a key role in Utah's NCAA and NIT basketball championships in 1944 and 1947. Lindsey Yamasaki was the first Asian American to play in the WNBA and finished off her NCAA career with the third-highest career 3-pointers at Stanford University. Wataru Wat Misaka (Japanese 三阪亙; Misaka Wataru) (born December 21, 1923 in Ogden, Utah), was the first person of Asian descent to play in the American National Basketball Association. ... “NBA” redirects here. ... “Knicks” redirects here. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... // Final four redirects here. ... The National Invitation Tournament (NIT) is a mens college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. ... Lindsey Brooke Yamasaki is a Japanese American professional basketball player. ... WNBA may also refer to WNBA-AM, a radio station in Illinois. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ...


Hikaru Nakamura became the youngest American ever to earn the titles of National Master (age 10) and International Grandmaster (age 15) in chess. In 2004, at the age of 16, he won the U.S. Chess Championship. Hikaru Nakamura Hikaru Nakamura, (中村光 Nakamura Hikaru, born December 9, 1987 in Hirakata) is an American chess Grandmaster (GM). ... See also: U.S. Womens Chess Championship Winner list: 2005 Hikaru Nakamura 2004 Alexander Shabalov 2003 Alexander Shabalov 2002 Larry Christiansen 2000 Joel Benjamin / Alexander Shabalov / Yasser Seirawan 1999 Boris Gulko 1998 Nick de Firmian 1997 Joel Benjamin 1996 Alex Yermolinsky 1995 Nick de Firmian / Patrick Wolff / Alexander Ivanov...


George Takei (of Star Trek fame) and Pat Morita (Happy Days) helped pioneer acting roles for Asian Americans while playing secondary roles on the small screen during the 1960s and 1970s. Today, Masi Oka plays a prominent role in the NBC series Heroes. George Hosato Takei (IPA: ) (born April 20, 1937) is an American actor known for his role in the TV series Star Trek, in which he played the helmsman Hikaru Sulu on the USS Enterprise. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... Noriyuki Pat Morita (June 28, 1932 – November 24, 2005) was an American actor who is probably best known for playing the roles of Arnold on the TV show Happy Days and Mr. ... Happy Days is a popular American television sitcom that originally aired between 1974 and 1984 on the ABC television network. ... Masi Oka (マシ・オカ Masi Oka, real name: 岡 政偉 Masayori Oka, born December 27, 1974 in Tokyo, Japan) is a Golden-Globe and Emmy-nominated Japanese-American actor and digital effects artist. ... This article is about the television network. ... Heroes is an American science fiction drama television series, created by Tim Kring, which premiered on NBC on September 25, 2006. ...


Notable Japanese American musicians include singer, actress and Broadway star Pat Suzuki, rapper Mike Shinoda of Linkin Park, guitarist James Iha of Smashing Pumpkins fame, and singer, voice actress and Japanese expatriate Mari Iijima. Pat Suzuki is a Japanese- and Asian-American female singer most famous for her role and cast recording of the Broadway hit musical Flower Drum Song, especially I Enjoy Being A Girl (song) Pat Suzuki was born in Cressy, (Northern) California on September 23, in the early 1930s. ... Michael Kenji Shinoda (born February 11, 1977)[1][2] is an American musician, record producer, and artist from Agoura Hills, California. ... Linkin Park is a rock band from Agoura Hills, California. ... James Yoshinobu Iha (Japanese: 井葉吉伸, Iha Yoshinobu or ジェームス・イハ, Jēmusu Iha) born March 26, 1968 in Chicago, Illinois, USA) is an American rock musician. ... The Smashing Pumpkins (circa 1995) left to right: James Iha, DArcy, Billy Corgan and Jimmy Chamberlin. ... Mari Iijima ) (born 18 May 1963) is a Japanese singer and actress who has released various top 10 albums in Japan. ...


See also

An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... An Asian Canadian is a Canadian of Asian ancestry. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... A Japanese Canadian is a Canadian of Japanese ancestry. ... Languages Japanese Religions Shinto, Buddhism, large secular groups      The Japanese people ) is the ethnic group that identifies as Japanese by culture or ancestry, or both. ... The Nisei Baseball Research Project (NBRP) is a non-profit 501(c)3 organization documenting, preserving and exhibiting history of Japanese American baseball. ... The Pacific Movement of the Eastern World (PMEW) was a North American based pro-Japanese movement of African Americans which promoted the idea that Japan was the champion of all non white peoples. ...

Notes and references

  • Lai, Eric, and Dennis Arguelles, eds. "The New Face of Asian Pacific America: Numbers, Diversity, and Change in the 21st Century." San Francisco, CA: Asian Week, 2003.
  • Kikumura-Yano, Akemi, ed. "Encyclopedia of Japanese Descendants in the Americas." Walnut Creek, CA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Japanese American National Museum
  • Embassy of Japan in Washington, DC
  • Japanese American Citizens League
  • Japanese Cultural & Community Center of Northern California
  • Japanese American Community and Cultural Center of Southern California
  • Japanese American Historical Society
  • Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project
  • Japanese American Museum of San Jose, California
  • Japanese American Network
  • Japanese-American's own companies in USA
  • Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives
  • Photo Exhibit of Japanese American community in Florida
  • The Asians in America Project - Japanese American Organizations Directory
  • Nikkei Federation
  • Discover Nikkei
  • Summary of a panel discussion on changing Japanese American identities
  • Interment and American samurai

  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese American - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2337 words)
The largest Japanese American communities are in California with roughly 395,000, Hawai'i with roughly 297,000, Washington with 56,000, and New York with 45,000, according to the 2000 Census.
Japanese Americans also have the oldest demographic structure of any ethnic group in the U.S.; in addition, in the younger generations, due to intermarriage with whites and other Asians, part-Japanese are more common than full Japanese, and it appears as if this physical assimilation will continue at a rapid rate.
Americans of Japanese ancestry living in the western United States, including the Nisei, were forcibly interned with their parents and children (the Sansei Japanese Americans) during WWII.
Japanese American internment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5791 words)
The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the West Coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed housing facilities called War Relocation Camps in remote portions of the nation's interior.
Japanese Americans in Hawaii were not subject to the strict internment policy, despite the fact that they were closer to essential military facilities than most of the Japanese Americans in the western states.
Beginning around the 1960s, a younger generation of Japanese Americans who felt energized by the Civil Rights movement began what is known as the "Redress Movement", an effort to obtain an official apology and reparations from the federal government for interning their parents and grandparents during the war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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